Monthly Archives: March 2020

Krachie to Krupka

Pavel Krachie (Павел Крачий*; Paul; Pawel; Krechin; Kreczin; Krachin)

Born 1891, Saratov, Russia. Served in Russian Army in the Caucuses. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Wife in Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers circa 1915. Employee of Firestone Tire and Rubber Company in Akron, Ohio Arrested December, 1917 for attempting to organize a strike of rubber workers; released on bail. Deported January 22, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54235/158

Tikon Krasnov (Тихон Краснов; Tehon Krassnoff; Klassnoff; Rasnoff)

Born 1888, Kiev, Russia. Carpenter; miner. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and three children in Russia. Joined the Philadelphia branch of the Union of Russian Workers, then in November 1919 organized an eight-member branch of the URW in Barracksville, West Virginia, at Jamieson Coal and Coke Company mine no. 7. Arrested December 2, 1919 “in possession of a considerable amount of anarchistic literature.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/625; FBI file OG 389365

Natale Krilete (aka Boso)

Deported June 29, 1920 to Austria. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Alexander Krishtal (Алексей Кришталь; Aleksey Krischtall)

Born 1893, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1907. Anarchist. Deported to Russia February 26, 1921, but refused entry on the basis of his anarchism at Libau, along with several other deportees. Coauthored “An Open Letter to the Russian Premier Lenin” in response. Returned to US; resided in anarchist colony in Mohegan, New York, at least into the 1940s. Died 1961 in Lindenhurst, New York.

INS file not identified

See also: Free Society (New York), October-November 1921; https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&dbid=1002&h=16771122&tid=&pid=&usePUB=true&_phsrc=SAX481&_phstart=successSource; https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&dbid=61668&h=464921&tid=&pid=&usePUB=true&_phsrc=SAX481&_phstart=successSource

Felip Krishtopowich

Deported to Russia October 16, 1920. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Teodor Krishtop (Теодор Криштоп; Theodore; Krishtiop)

Born 1885, Chernihiv, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Miner. Migrated to US 1914. Wife and two children in Russia. Employee of the Jamieson Coal and Coke Company mine no. 9 in Farmington, West Virginia. Member of the Union of Russian Workers and of the United Mine Workers. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Described as being “of a surly, non-communicative disposition.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/598

Maxim Kruk (Максим Крук; Max)

Member of Ukrainian Branch No. 22 of the Communist Party of America in Detroit. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. “Voluntary departure” to Russia (via Canada) October 14, 1920. No further information found.

INS file not identified; FBI file BS 202600-714-1

Pavel Krupka (Павел Крупка; Paul; Krupkie; Krupkic)

Born 1893, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1914. Employee at Republic Rubber Company. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Youngstown, Ohio, 1919. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/195

Kubinskis to K_____

Stanislovas Kubinskis (Станисловас Кубинскис; Kubinskas; aka Stanley Kubinsky)

Born 1897, Kovno, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Carpenter; miner; laborer. In Russia, belonged to the Russian Social Democratic Party. Migrated to US 1914. Worked as a coal miner; former member of the United Mine Workers. In Detroit, worked for Ford Motor Company and in 1915 joined the Lithuanian Branch of the Socialist Party of America, which was transferred into the Communist Party of America in 1919. Arrested April 22, 1919, “while distributing radical literature on a Michigan Avenue street car.” Declared his belief in “the soviet form of government.” Deported February 1, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/165

Michael Kucher

Recording secretary of the Jersey City branch of the Communist Party of America. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported to “Galicia” (Poland?) March 30, 1920. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G; FBI file OG 380877

Efrem Kucher (Ефрем Кучер; Evsey; Evesey)

Arrested in Brooklyn during the second Palmer Raids, January 1919. Deported to Russia December 23, 1920. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

See also: The Standard Union (Brooklyn), December 23, 1920

Mikal Kudreyko (Микал Кудрейко; aka Peter Kravchuk, Петр Кравчук; aka Michael Kravchuk; Krawchuk)

Born 1883, Pruzhany, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and child in Russia. Became secretary of a Detroit branch of the URW. Arrested July 1918 at a radical picnic; admitted he was “an anarchist, and proud of it.” Moved to New York; became secretary of the Housewreckers’ Union and coeditor of URW paper Khlieb i Volia. August 1919 arrested with editorial team and indicted for “criminal anarchy.” Falsely claimed that he had left the URW in 1918 “Because I thought this organization is not radical enough.” Deported on the Buford. Reportedly died soon thereafter.

INS file 54554/23

See also: Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America

Simon Kuish (Sam)

Born 1895, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Rubber worker. Migrated to the US in 1912. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Youngstown, Ohio, 1919. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/193

Ivan Kulak (Иван Кулак; John)

Deported to Russia November 27, 1920. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Mark Kulish (Марк Кулиш; Kulesch; Kulesh)

Born 1890, Vilna, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Laborer; factory inspector. Migrated to the US 1913. Wife and child in Russia. During the First World War, a factory worker and then a US arms factory inspector for the Russian Commission. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Hartford, Connecticut circa 1916; became secretary of the URW branch in South Manchester, Connecticut 1919. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919; falsely suspected of being a “bomb-maker.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/256

See also: Hartford Courant, December 22, 1919; https://connecticuthistory.org/the-red-scare-in-connecticut/

Nikolai Kuropato (Николай Куропато; Koroptko)

Born 1890, Rokitnica, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Longshoreman. Migrated to US 1910. Joined the Newark branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1919. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/345

Tony Kurson (Kirsion; Kirson)

Born 1884, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer. Migrated to the US 1909. Joined the Luch Society in Ansonia, Connecticut, circa 1917, which federal authorities maintained was a branch of the Union of Russian Workers (though Kurson denied this). Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/326; FBI file OG 382937

Michael Kusbit

Deported to Austria, May 8, 1920. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in 54325/36G

Fedor Kushnarev (Федор Кушнарев; Theodore Kushnareff; Kushnirov; Kushneroff; aka Theodore Casher; aka Alexander Dalny or Dalney; aka Gregory Melnikoff)

Born 1898, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Jewish. Student; laborer. Migrated with parents and five younger siblings in 1913; father died less than a year later. Graduated high school in New Haven, Connecticut; became student at New York University. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in 1917 or 1918. Organized a URW branch in New Haven; in 1919, he was financial secretary of the URW branch in South Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Arrested there March 1919 (under his pen name Alexander Dalney), but case against him dismissed. In New York, a coeditor of Khlieb i Volia. Arrested several more times (under different names), for the last time during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Asked for permission to have his “wife” (his companion, the anarchist and labor organizer Rose Pesotta) accompany him if deported. Deported on the Buford. 1920 arrested in Crimea and sentenced to five years in a prison camp “for propaganda of libertarian ideas” and allegedly taking up arms against the Soviet government. Later released after authorities deemed his incarceration an “error.” In 1920 and again 1924 hoped to leave Russia and go to US or Cuba. Although he did not join the Communist Party or call himself a Communist, he no longer considered himself an anarchist and concluded that “to support the Revolution means to support Lenin and Trotsky.” Briefly attended the Moscow Institute of Journalism. Worked with the American Relief Administration as interpreter and secretary for US Colonel Walter Bell in Ufa during the famine; contracted typhus. Some sources claim he died in 1925, but in 1934 his mother petitioned the US government to allow him and his family to enter the country.

INS file 54709/522 

See also: Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America; Elaine J. Leeder, The Gentle General: Rose Pesotta, Anarchist and Labor Organizer; Groupe des anarchistes russes exilés en Allemagne, Répression de l’anarchisme en Russie Soviétique; Rose Pesotta Papers, New York Public Library

Steve K______ (last name illegible)

His partially illegible name as it appears in the records

Deported to Yugoslavia, September 1, 1920. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in 54325/36G

Lachowsky to Lazarevich

Hyman Lachowsky (Chaim)

Born 1894, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Jewish. Bookbinder. Migrated to US 1907. 1917 a member of New York’s militant Jewish anarchist Shturem Group, which in 1918 became the Frayhayt Group. Arrested, with Molly Steimer, while distributing radical leaflets protesting US intervention in the Russian Civil War on August 23, 1918. Beaten while interrogated and convicted, with other members of the group, for violation of the Espionage Act; sentenced to 20 years in prison and a $1,000 fine. October 1919 told immigration agents: “I am an alien and an anarchist…I am opposed to all organized government. Not only the Government of the United States but any government…I’m an anarchist and proud of it.” By 1921, however, he had become disillusioned in prison and no longer believed in anarchism. Deported November 23, 1921 after losing landmark Supreme Court free-speech case Abrams v. United States. Returned to Minsk, where he started a family and stayed out of politics. Reportedly died of natural causes.

INS file 54517/74

See also: Richard Polenberg, Fighting Faiths: The Abrams Case, the Supreme Court, and Free Speech; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America

Charles Lindsay Lambert

Born 1881, Arbroath, Scotland. Baker; oil worker. Migrated to US 1901 or 1902. Joined the IWW in 1911; secretary of Local No. 453 of the Oil Workers’ Industrial Union in Taft, California, 1913, then of IWW mixed locals in Sacramento, 1914-1917. Secretary-Treasurer of the Wheatland Defense Committee 1914-1915, in which role he advocated sabotage; elected to IWW’s General Executive Board 1916. Defendant at federal IWW trial 1917-1918; sentenced to 20 years imprisonment. 1922 sentence commuted in exchange for “voluntary departure” to Scotland; sailed March 31, 1923. Upon arrival he began “attending meetings of various trade unions…persuading them to send protests to President Harding, the Ambassador and the Consul General against the imprisonment of the I.W.W.’s in the United States.” May have traveled to Tampico, Mexico to work in the oil fields in the 1920s; appears to have illegally returned to the US undetected, then returned to Scotland via New York in 1926. 1930s employed as oil worker in the Caribbean; returned to UK 1933. Appears to have dropped out of radical politics; later a diamond prospector in British Guiana and then worked as a runner for a bookmaker in London, where he died circa 1961.

INS file 54616/59; FBI file OG 8000-160053

See also: Industrial Workers of the World Collection, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University; Richard Brazier, “The Mass I.W.W. Trial of 1918: A Retrospect,” Labor History 7, no. 2 (1966); Eric Thomas Chester, The Wobblies in Their Heyday: The Rise and Destruction of the Industrial Workers of the World during the World War I Era; Eric Thomas Chester, Yours for Industrial Freedom: The Industrial Workers of the World from the Inside; https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&dbid=1518&h=13557765&tid=&pid=&usePUB=true&_phsrc=SAX498&_phstart=successSource

Manya Lansky

Born 1898, Pieski, Russia (present-day Belarus). Jewish. Garment worker. Orthodox Jewish parents. Migrated to US 1915 for work. Became an anarchist in New York shortly thereafter. A distributor of the Union of Russian Workers’ paper Golos Truda. Arrested July 4, 1920 en route to a radical picnic in Cleveland. According to the Immigration Inspector in Charge in Cleveland, “she is the most typical of the usual conception of the anarchistic type that one may have occasion to observe.” Regarding Russia, she declared, “I am not in sympathy with the leaders of the Soviets, but am in sympathy with the Russian people.” Deported to Russia February 1, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54885/2

Ivan Laposanko (aka John Lapko)

Deported to Russia on January 22, 1921.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

James Larkin (Jim; “Big Jim”)

Born 1876, Liverpool, England. Irish. Laborer; union organizer. Grew up in poverty in Ireland. 1893 joined the Independent Labour Party; 1905 began working as a labor organizer full time for the National Union of Dock Labourers, but expelled 1908; founded Irish Transport and General Workers’ Union, influenced by the American IWW; 1912 cofounded the Irish Labour Party and elected to the Dublin city government (but removed after one month). 1913 co-led the dockers’ strike that resulted in the Dublin Lockout with James Connolly, and cofounded the paramilitary Irish Citizen Army. Migrated to US 1914. Joined the Socialist Party of America and associated closely with (but did not join) the IWW; lectured across the country and arrested repeatedly. He played a leading role in the SPA’s pro-Bolshevik Left Wing; 1919 expelled from the SPA and joined the new Communist Labor Party. Wished to return to the United Kingdom in 1919, but the British consulate denied his requests for a passport eleven times. Arrested and sentenced to five to ten years under New York’s “criminal anarchy” law; pardoned by Governor Al Smith in 1923; deported April 1923. In Ireland, he formed the Irish Worker League (a Communist Party officially recognized by the Comintern) and became head of the Communist-aligned Worker’s Union of Ireland, a breakaway from the ITGWU. In 1924 he attended Fifth Congress of the Communist International, where he was elected to its executive committee. Soon, however, Larkin and the Soviets fell out with each other. 1927 he was elected to the Irish parliament (Dáil Éireann), but unable to take his seat; 1936 again elected to the Dublin city government; 1937 elected to the Dáil Éireann, but lost reelection the following year. 1941 rejoined the Irish Labour Party; served in the Dáil Éireann 1943-1944. Died 1947.

INS file not identified

See also: Emmet O’Connor, “James Larkin in the United States, 1914-23,” Journal of Contemporary History 37, no. 2 (April 2002); Emmet O’Connor, Big Jim Larkin: Hero or Wrecker?

Ludwig Lau

Deported to Poland September 1, 1920. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Stefan Lavrichuk (Стефан Лавричук; Lawrichuk; aka Steve Liunsky)

Deported to Russia, October 20, 1920. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Mikal Lavrinuk (Микал Лавринюк; Michael Lawrinuk; Michail)

Born 1891, Russia. Hotel worker. Migrated to US 1914. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in New York circa 1918; also joined IWW 1919. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/489

Giacamo Lavrio (James; Laverio; Lavero)

Born 1884, Turin, Italy. Miner. Migrated to US 1901 (returned to Italy 1905-1907). Worked in mines throughout the country. Became anarchist in US; supported Cronaca Sovversiva and carried out extensive correspondence with several fellow Italian American anarchists. Arrested in St. Charles, Michigan, May 1919, while on strike. Married widow Maria Perocchetti while on bail; promised to give up his radicalism for her. Deported December 20, 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/206

William Lawna (Launa; Lauwa; Lauva; aka Alfred Schmidt)

Born 1886, Libau, Russia (present-day Latvia). Locksmith. Migrated to US 1906. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in 1919; allegedly became secretary of its Elizabeth, New Jersey branch and hosted Leon Trotsky in his home during Trotsky’s time in the US, but denied this. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Wife in the US. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/103

Andrey Lazarevich (Андрей Лазаревич; Andrew Lazarewich; Lazarowitz)

Born 1895, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1913. Alleged member of the Union of Russian Workers in Newark, although the only evidence against him was a membership card for the Executive Committee of the Second Russian All-Colonial Convention of the United States and Canada (a meeting of various leftwing groups held in New York in January 1919). Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Wife in US. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/347

Legeze to Levchuk

Mike Legeze (Legea)

Legeze’s URW membership book

Born 1890, Ułęż, Russia (present-day Poland). Laborer. Migrated to the US 1916. Joined the Hartford, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/384

Terentius Leonov (Теренций Леонов; Terentias; Thomas; Leonoff; Leonof)

Born 1885, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Shoemaker. Migrated to US 1912. Wife and child in Russia. Joined the Socialist Party of America in 1918; then joined the Bridgeport, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers in August 1919. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/377

Arthur Lesiga (Артур Лесига; Lessiga)

Born 1889, Petrograd, Russia. Sailor. Migrated to US 1913. Member of the International Seamen’s Union (AFL). Joined the Union of Russian Workers in New York in 1918. According to the Deptment of Justice agent, he was the treasurer of URW paper Rabochii i Krest’ianin. Common-law marriage to widow Jennie Garnitz, “a Russian Pole” with a nine-year-old son (in 1919). Arrested Pittsburgh, July 1919, as a “notorious anarchist”; released on bail. Arrested December 3, 1919. Deported on the Buford. 1920 joined Union of Russian Anarchist Workers Repatriated from America, formed by Hyman Perkus, which critically supported the Bolshevik dictatorship as a temporary necessity. At some point arrested. No further information found.

INS file 54709/118; FBI file OG 371524

See also: Victor Serge, Anarchists Never Surrender: Essays, Polemics, and Correspondence on Anarchism, 1908–1938; https://ru.openlist.wiki/%D0%9B%D0%B5%D1%81%D0%B8%D0%B3%D0%B0_%D0%90%D1%80%D1%82%D1%83%D1%80_%D0%90%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B5%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87_(1889)

Karl Lesse (Carl; Charles)

Born 1894, Hamburg, Germany. Sailor. Left Germany at age fourteen. Migrated to US 1914. Joined the Sailor’s Union of the Pacific. Joined the IWW in San Francisco, 1916; became IWW delegate. Arrested in San Francisco, February, 1919, and initially held as “likely to become a public charge,” but released on bail; arrested again in Arcata, California, November 1919 for violation of state “criminal syndicalism” law. Sentenced to 1-14 years for “criminal syndicalism”; imprisoned at San Quentin January 1920 to May 1922. Deported 1922. Subsequent activities unknown (possibly he is the same Karl Lesse who organized on behalf of the International Seaman’s Union and the Comintern in Europe in the 1930s and 1940s).

INS file 54616/17

See also: Stephen M. Kohn, American Political Prisoners: Prosecutions under the Espionage and Sedition Acts

Mikal Leshchuk (Микал Лещук; Michael Lestchuk; Listchuk)

Born 1891, Russia. Migrated to US 1912. Joined the Union of Russian Workers Branch No. 1 in Philadelphia early 1919; became its secretary. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/210; FBI file OG 380953

Daniil Levchuk (Даниил Левчук; Daniel Levozuk)

Born 1874, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Polish. Migrated to Canada 1913; then to US 1915. Wife and seven children in Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Buffalo in 1918; sent as delegate to URW conference in New York, January 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/21

Libed to Lishkevich

Arkhip Libed (Архип Либед; Arhip; Lebed)

Born 1881, Volyn, Russia (present-day Ukraine).Ukrainian. Miner. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and five children in Russia. Union of Russian Workers. Fairmont, West Virginia. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/603; FBI file OG 380968

Mike Libeszky

Deported to Austria May 8, 1920. No further information found.

INS file not identified. Including on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Tito Ligi (aka Augusto Vitaletti)

Born 1894, Sassoferrato, Italy. Miner. Migrated to US 1912. Already an anarchist, along with his brother Adolfo, before both migrated; in the US associated with Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva. November 1920 arrested in Scranton, Pennsylvania, for evading the draft (having taken out a declaration of intent to naturalize, he was eligible for service). After his arrest he briefly became the lead suspect (almost certainly falsely) in the Wall Street bombing of 1920. Deported August 1922. Moved to Rome 1925 with wife Bianchi Angela, where they opened a small shop. Under government surveillance until 1940; although he maintained his anarchist ideas, officials recorded no political activity of note. Meanwhile his brother Angelo, living in Jessup, Pennsylvania, adopted Tito’s name (causing some confusion) and married fellow anarchist Maria Giaconi, who fought in the Spanish Civil War.

INS file not identified; FBI file BS 25-63-12-1; CPC busta 2786

See also: The Nation, May 18, 1921; Beverly Gage, The Day Wall Street Exploded: A Story of America in Its First Age of Terror; Charles H. McCormick, Hopeless Cases: The Hunt for the Red Scare Terrorist Bombers

Amedeo Lilli (Lillie)

Born 1894, Acqualagna, Italy. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Anarchist; member, Circolo Studi Sociali of Milwaukee and subscriber to Cronaca Sovversiva. Arrested September 1917 after Italian anarchist “riot,” during which he was shot in the shoulder by an undercover policeman. Sentenced to 25 years for assault in Wisconsin State Prison; pardoned in 1922 on condition of deportation. Deported February 16, 1922. After return to Italy he became a tailor and, according to government surveillance that lasted into 1932, took no part in radical activities.

INS file 54235/67; CPC busta 2787

See also: Robert Tanzilo, The Milwaukee Police Station Bomb of 1917; Dean A. Strang, Worse than the Devil: Anarchists, Clarence Darrow, and Justice in a Time of Terror

Dora Lipkin (Дора Липкин)

Born 1894, Russia. Jewish. Migrated to US 1910. Anarchist and member of the Union of Russian Workers; common-law wife of URW leader Hyman Perkus. Lived in New York with family of Boris Shatz, another URW member and fellow deportee. Arrested October 1919 for “disturbing the peace”; arrested again during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Refused to answer questions while detained. Helped lead hunger strike on Ellis Island to protest conditions. Deported, along with Perkus, on the Buford. 1925 estranged from Perkus and described by Fedor Kushnarev as “a poor broken-hearted woman” who was hoping to leave Russia for Mexico. No further information found.

INS file 54709/275

See also: New York Tribune, November 30, 1919; Rose Pesotta Papers, New York Public Library

Samuel Lipman (Самуил Липман; Lippman; aka Schaie Lipzcuk)

Born 1888, Pinsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Furrier. Jewish. Migrated to US 1913. Belonged to New York’s Frayhayt Group, but considered himself a socialist rather than an anarchist; a pacifist and vegetarian strongly influenced by Leo Tolstoy. Common-law husband of anarchist Ethel Bernstein (who was deported on the Buford). Arrested with other group members in 1918 for writing and distributing fliers opposing US intervention in Russian Civil War. Sentenced to 20 years under the Espionage Act. In prison, became disillusioned with Tolstoy, but (falsely) claimed to have become an anarchist (so that he could be deported). Deported November 23, 1921 after losing landmark Supreme Court free-speech case Abrams v. United States. In Russia, reunited with and married Ethel Bernstein and studied agronomy and became chairman of the Department of Economic Geography at a university in Moscow. “After a period of doubts, struggle with my own self & debating,” applied to join the Communist Party in 1928. In the 1930s, however, he was executed in Stalin’s purges.

INS file 54517/72

See also: Richard Polenberg, Fighting Faiths: The Abrams Case, the Supreme Court, and Free Speech; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America; Senya Fléchine Papers, International Institute for Social History, The Netherlands

Anton Lipsky (Антон Липский)

Born 1895, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Presser. Migrated to the US 1913. “I came to the United States to learn some profession.” Joined the Union of Russian Workers in 1919. New York. Arrested in the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/456

Dionisy Liskov (Дионисий Лисков; Liskow)

Deported on the Buford. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on the passenger manifest of the USAT Buford

Anton Lishkevich (Антон Личкевич; Lichkevitch; aka Anto Cotie)

Born 1887, Kamieniec, Russia (present-day Poland). Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1912; migrated to the US February 1919. “I have been an Anarchist since 1905.” Arrested January 1920 in Detroit. Deported to Russia February 26, 1921, but refused entry on the basis of his anarchism at Libau, along with several other deportees. Coauthored “An Open Letter to the Russian Premier Lenin” in response. Returned to US. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file not identified; FBI file OG 367316

See also: Free Society (New York), October-November 1921

López García to Lukashuk

Francisco López García (aka Frank R. Lopez; José Marinero; Jesus Lejendario; Albert Martin; Alberto Martín)

López García in the 1950s

Born 1885, A Coruña, Spain. Galician. Sailor; carpenter. Migrated to US 1904. Became one of the most prominent Spanish-speaking anarchists in the US and contributed to Spanish-language newspapers in several countries; collaborated on New York’s Cultura Obrera (1911-1925) and helped launch its successor, Cultura Proletaria (1927-1953). When he was arrested in 1918, federal agents confiscated a photograph “of Lopez and several other persons with all sorts of implements, entitled ‘The Social Revolution of 1911,'” suggesting that he may have participated in the Mexican Revolution with the forces of the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano. 1912 married Italian widow Rosa [Rose] De Matteis. In Boston, a member of the Grupo Rebelion circa 1914 and a founder and secretary of the Grupo Fraternidad, which was in communication with anarchist groups in Spain, Chile, Argentina, Mexico, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. 1917-1918 became close to Luigi Galleani and Cronaca Sovversiva, but rejected their promotion of violence. Arrested February 1918 during federal raid on Grupo Fraternidad’s headquarters. Described by federal agents as “practically the only real Spanish anarchist leader in the eastern part of the United States,” who “is a man of considerable intelligence and is and has been active in anarchistic circles and in spreading the propaganda of malcontents and disbelievers in government, law and order, of his stamp. It seems to be highly desirable to rid the country of his presence at the earliest time possible.” Ordered deported November, 1918, but released on bond while his case was appealed on the grounds that he was a “philosophical anarchist” who did not advocate violence. Active in Boston’s new International Revolutionary Group, which published the Spanish-language single-issue anarchist magazines El Azote (1921) and America (1922). In 1920 he also became the secretary of the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee, “and has been responsible for voluminous propaganda sent throughout the world by that organization, devoting his time entirely to that work and to other subversive propaganda.” He appears to have separated from his wife during this time. His case was appealed all the way to the Supreme Court, which ruled against him in 1924 and he was deported May 25, 1925. However, reportedly with the aid of Galician anarchist sailors, he either jumped ship and swam ashore, or returned to North America from Spain, possibly living in Canada for a number of years with his new companion, Mary Berkowitz, until her death. At some point he returned to New York under the name Alberto Martín. 1953 married Russian-Jewish anarchist union organizer Rose Pesotta (as “Albert Martin”), divorced after two years. Collaborated on book Breve historia del movimiento anarquista en Estados Unidos de América del Norte with exiled Spanish anarchists Vladimiro Muñoz and Federica Montseny. Died 1967; left $500 to the Mexican anarchist newspaper Tierra y Libertad in his will.

INS file 54379/511

See also: Miguel Íñiguez, Esbozo de una Enciclopedia Histórica del Anarquismo Español; Bieito Alonso, Anarquistas Galegos en América; Francis Russell, Tragedy in Dedham: The Story of the Sacco-Vanzetti Case; Elaine J. Leeder, The Gentle General: Rose Pesotta, Anarchist and Labor Organizer; Alberto Martin, Vladimiro Muñoz, and Federica Montseny, Breve historia del movimiento anarquista en Estados Unidos de América del Norte; Tierra y Libertad (Mexico City), June 1967

Andrew Lopitsky (Андрей Лопицкий)

Born 1894, Mogilev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Miner. Migrated to US 1913. “We were oppressed in Russia and we heard of good wages and freedom in America. That is the reason I came here.” Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Downs, West Virginia. Arrested December 2, 1919, in connection with a URW-organized miners’ strike at the Consumers Fuel Company mine. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/591; FBI file OG 380920

See also: Charles H. McCormick, Seeing Reds: Federal Surveillance of Radicals in the Pittsburgh Mill District

Adolfo Lorenzini (aka John)

Born 1887, Modena, Italy. Miner. Anarchist in Spring Valley, Illinois. Deported March 1, 1921. Kept under government surveillance upon his return until 1941.

INS file 54885/16; CPC busta 2839

Ivan Loshakov (Иван Лошаков; Loshakoff; John)

Born Russia. Lumber worker. Member of the Union of Russian Workers in Granite Falls, Washington. Deported January 22, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54860/398; FBI file OG 387801

Prokopy Losiov (Прокопий Лосиов; Losioff; Lasioff)

Born 1891, Chernigov, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer; miner. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and child in Russia. 1917 confined for nine months to the Woodville Asylum in Allegheny County after collapsing at work in a steel mill “overcome by the heat.” Afterward moved to Fairmont, West Virginia, where he joined the United Mine Workers and the Union of Russian Workers. Participated in 1919 miners’ strike. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/600

Anthony Lovenetsky (H. Levinensky)

Born 1894, Mogilev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Polish. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the IWW; early 1919 joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Monessen, Pennsylvania; served as its secretary and chaired meetings. According the immigration offiicals, “the alien is far above the average in intelligence.” Arrested May 1919 in Pittsburgh and held for four days, but released; arrested again in Greensburg, Pennsylvania during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919, while on strike at Page Wire Works. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/474

See also: One Big Union Monthly, May 1920

Vasily Lukashuk (aka Lukov; Василий Лукашук aka Луков; William Lukow; Vasil)

Born 1896, Brest-Litovsk, Russia (present-day Belerus). Migrated to US 1913. Laborer. Lost three fingers and the use of his left arm due to an accident at the Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company. 1915 joined the Socialist Party of America “for a month or two”; 1916 joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Youngstown, Ohio, 1918. On strike when arrested in November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/539; FBI file OG 375161a

MacDonald to Makarevich

John Alex MacDonald (J. A. MacDonald; McDonald)

IWW, J. A. MacDonald, 13133 Leavenworth, Sept 7 or 8, 1918

Editor of the IWW’s newspaper The Industrial Worker in Seattle from June 1916 to July 1918; active in defense of IWW members on trial following the Everett Massacre. Defendant at federal IWW trial 1917-1918; sentenced to ten years. His wife Kate edited the Industrial Worker, for which she had been the bookkeeper, during the trial. 1923 his sentence commuted on the condition of his deportation to Canada. In Canada, continued organizing for the IWW and writing for American IWW publications until at least 1926; led 1925 effort to organize Canadian agricultural workers, along with fellow deported IWW member Sam Scarlett. He should not be confused with the Communist Party of Canada organizer of the same name; MacDonald believed “a political revolution had occurred in Russia, but that any industrial revolution other than from feudalism to capitalism was unthinkable…[I]ndustrial communism must not come from the top but from the bottom, changing the foundations of society and consequently its superstructure, and destroying the state, of necessity an instrument of class rule.” Or, as he put it elsewhere, “a proletarian revolution is possible in a nation of smokestacks but it can not occur in a nation of haystacks” (see Industrial Pioneer, May 1925 and May 1926).

INS file not identified; FBI file OG 8000-41990

See also: Industrial Workers of the World Collection, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University; Stephen M. Kohn, American Political Prisoners: Prosecutions under the Espionage and Sedition Acts; Heather Mayer, Beyond the Rebel Girl: Women and the Industrial Workers of the World in the Pacific Northwest, 1905-1924; James Sullivan, “Reviewing the 1925 Harvest Drive,” Industrial Pioneer November 1925; J. A. McDonald [sic], “Training for Freedom,” Industrial Pioneer, March 1926; J. A. MacDonald, “The Reforging of Russia,” Industrial Pioneer, May 1925.

Samuel Mackway

Deported to Russia, January 22, 1921. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Victor Macur

Born Vilna, Russia, 1887 (present-day Lithuania). Polish. Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. 1919 joined Russian Branch No. 3 of the Socialist Party of America in August 1919, which subsequently transferred into the Communist Party of America. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. “Voluntarily departed” to Poland via Canada, October 16, 1920.

INS file 54859/984; FBI file OG 387500

Nils Madsen (Nels; Madison)

Born 1886, Drammen, Norway. Laborer; union organizer. Migrated to US 1904. 1912 joined IWW; became General Organizer for the Lumber Workers’ Industrial Union No. 500 circa 1916; arrested multiple times in connection with IWW organizing. Arrested March 26, 1918, in St. Maries, Idaho under state “criminal syndicalism” law. Deported November 4, 1918. 1918-1919 lectured throughout Norway on conditions in the US and cofounded the “Norwegian-American Defense Committee” to raise money for imprisoned IWW members. May be the same Nels Madsen who, by 1922, had become an organizer for the Norske Arbeiderpartiet (Norwegian Labour Party) and led its Norges Røde Speiderforbund (Norwegian Red Scout Federation, NRS), an attempt to create a radical alternative to the international Scout movement, but in the Labour Party’s 1925 split sided with the expelled pro-Communist faction connected to the publication Mot Dag and most of the NRS organizations followed him, only to collapse in 1926.

INS file 54379/199

See also: “Norwegian Workers Come to the Aid of the I. W. W.,” One Big Union Monthly, March 1, 1919; Terje Halvorsen, Partiets salt : AUFs historie; Sondre Ljoså, “‘Etter beste evne at alltid være en god kamerat’: Speiderarbeid i arbeiderbevegelsen på 1920-tallet,” Arbeiderhistorie (2007)

Piotr Mager (Петр Магер; Peter Magyar)

Born 1891, Russia. Metalworker. Migrated to US 1913. Wife in Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Youngstown, Ohio circa 1915. Arrested August 1919, then again during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/498

Ivan Maiboroda (Иван Майборода; John)

Deported to Russia January 22, 1921. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Vinko Majetic

Deported to Croatia, September 1, 1920. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Lavrenti Makarevich (Лаврентий Макаревич; Lawrence Makarvitch)

Born 1894, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). 1914 migrated to Canada; 1915 migrated from there to US. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Bridgeport, Connecticut. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. According to INS file, he was deported January 22, 1921; however, a Department of Justice agent reported that Makarevich attended a June 4, 1922 conference of the URW in New Haven as a delegate of that city’s Russian Progressive Organization. His wife, Sophie Babitz, was living with her parents in Connecticut “and does not desire to have anything more to do with him.” Unclear if he was deported and returned, was never deported, or was deported and the DoJ report was in error.

INS file 54709/399

Mansevich to Martinovsky

Nikolai Mansevich (Николай Мансевич)

Political cartoon about Mansevich’s case, 1926

Born 1886, Biaroza, Russia (present-day Belarus). Autoworker. Migrated to US circa 1911. An employee of the Ford Motor Company, with a wife and four American-born daughters in Hamtramck, Michigan. A member of Branch 3 of Union of Russian Workers in Detroit; distributor of URW newspaper Volna. Arrested September, 1921. Despite large-scale defense campaign and national press coverage of his case, deported June 7, 1924 to Poland. Letters to his wife in 1926 “tell of intense suffering…Last winter his feet were frozen in a lumber camp where he found work.” His wife meanwhile was in ill health and dependent on the Department of Welfare. He migrated to Canada circa 1940 and worked as a farmer. Died Windsor, Ontario, 1960.

INS file 55119/18

Agnes Inglis Papers, Joseph A. Labadie Collection, University of Michigan; The New Republic, September 17, 1924; The Windsor Star, March 10, 1960

Philip Marchuk

Deported to Russia February 2, 1921. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Vito Mariani (Mariano)

Born 1882, Morra Irpina (present-day Marra de Sanctis), Italy. Migrated to US as a young man. Became prominent anarchist in Lynn, Massachusetts, and then Bridgeport, Connecticut, closely associated with Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva. May 30, 1914 arrested for giving a radical speech in El Paso, Texas during a lecture tour and held for deportation, but then released. Circa 1917-1919 moved to New York, where he became editor of Il Refrattario and coeditor of Il Diritto (along with Raffaele Schiavina), both short-lived successors to Cronaca Sovversiva. Arrested February 1920 under New York’s “criminal anarchy” law. Deported June 29, 1920. In Italy in 1921, sentenced to two years in prison for resisting the draft. Subsequent government reports recorded “good conduct” and no political activity, and he was removed from the list of “subversives” in 1932; however, locally in Morra Irpina he was remembered as an unwavering antifascist and militant who patiently lectured peasants as they exited church and “is now unanimously considered the civil and moral point of reference for an entire generation.” In the first free municipal elections after the fascist period, in 1946, Mariani was elected to the town government and spearheaded the effort to open its first middle school. He died in 1964.

INS file not identified; FBI file OG 8000-385978; CPC busta 3061

See also: Un trentennio di attività anarchica (1915-1945); Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University; Francesco de Rogatis, Rocco di Santo, and Francesco Grippo, eds., Morra de Sanctis: Tra cronaca e storia ad un anno del terremoto

Vakula Markovets

“Voluntary departure” to Russia, September 26, 1920. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Sam Markowich

Deported to Russia January 22, 1921. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Ludwig C.A.K. Martens (Людвиг Карлович Мартенс)

Born 1875, Bachmut, Russia (present-day Ukriane). Engineer; diplomat. German factory owner father. Became friends with Vladimir Lenin and Julius Martov at university and joined their League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class. Arrested 1896 and deported 1899 to Germany, where joined the Social Democratic Party of Germany. 1906 migrated to England; 1916 migrated to the US. Vice-president of an engineering firm in New York. 1917 returned to Russia after February Revolution with Leon Trotsky and others, joined Russian Communist Party. March 1919 returned to US as official representative of the Soviet government, which the US government refused to recognize. Established Russian Soviet Government Bureau in New York (funded in part by diamonds smuggled by Communist curriers), published the magazine Soviet Russia and other radical literature, recruited skilled Russian immigrants to return to Russia, and attempted to negotiate contracts with American businesses. 1920 ordered deported; “voluntary departure” January 22, 1921. In the Soviet Union, became member of the Supreme Soviet of the National Economy, then a head of research and development for diesel engines. Retired in 1941 and died in 1948.

INS file 55079/76 (file missing); FBI file OG 8000-377098

See also: Frederick C. Giffin, “The Martens Mission,” International Social Science Review 73, no. 3/4 (1998); Todd J. Pfannestiel, Rethinking the Red Scare: The Lusk Committee and New York’s Crusade Against Radicalism, 1919-1923; New York Times, October 22, 1948; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_Martens

John Martin

Born 1885, Hørsholm, Denmark. Laborer; union organizer. Migrated to US 1910. Joined the IWW in 1916 in Seattle; became branch secretary in Raymond, Washington, then elected district secretary for IWW’s Lumber Workers’ Industrial Union No. 500; helped lead 1917 general lumber strike in the Northwest. Defendant at federal IWW trial 1917-1918; sentenced to ten years and $30,000 fine. Sentence commuted on condition of deportation; deported December 7, 1922. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/57

See also: Industrial Workers of the World Collection, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University; Stephen M. Kohn, American Political Prisoners: Prosecutions under the Espionage and Sedition Acts

Tomás Martínez (Thomas Martinez)

Martínez, shortly before his death

Born 1893, Mexico. Miner. 1905, a founding member of La Unión Liberal Humanidad in Cananea, which was affiliated with the new Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM) and helped lead the 1906 Cananea miners’ strike. Member of several more PLM-affiliated groups. Migrated to the US circa 1907; active in Morenci, Arizona; helped plan and joined the PLM’s cross-border invasion of Baja California in 1910. Taken prisoner by Carranza’s forces and ordered executed, but escaped. 1914 organizing miners in Cananea; denounced and expelled as a “Huerta supporter,” leading to a strike of 2,500-3,000 miners until he was allowed to return. 1915-1918 active in IWW and PLM activities in Arizona and Los Angeles. Wrote numerous articles for the IWW’s paper El Rebelde (1915-1917). Arrested Miami, Arizona, March 1918; convicted to two years in Leavenworth Penitentiary and a $500 fine for violation of the Espionage Act. Contracted tuberculosis while in prison, and a botched operation resulted in septicemia. Upon his release, detained for deportation but he petitioned to be allowed to leave what he called “the Jail of Free America” to another country at his own expense for fear that he would be executed for his past revolutionary activities if returned to Mexico; his petition was denied and he was deported in 1921; according to one report, “When he was finally shipped across the border he was more dead than alive.” Furthermore, he wrote to a friend in the US, “When I arrived at the border, they left me naked, they burned my clothes and shoes.” He never recovered, and died in Guadalajara, October 23, 1921. Comrades buried him with a headstone reading: ¡Nunca olvidamos! (We Never Forget!).

INS file 54412/47 (file missing)

See also: Florencio Barrera Fuentes, Historia de la Revolución Mexicana: la etapa precursora; http://archivomagon.net/diccionario/m/; Tucson Citizen, April 15, 1914; Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University; Elizabeth Gurley Flynn Papers, Wisconsin Historical Society; Erie Labor Press, December 3, 1921; America: Numero Unico (Boston), January 1922

Ivan Martinovsky (Иван Мартиновский; John Martinowski)

Born 1887, Cherga, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1909. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Rockville, Connecticut, September 1919 and became its secretary. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/260; FBI file OG 253632

Martzin to McPherson

Vincent Martzin

Born 1893, Russia. Migrated to US 1914. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in 1916. New York. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Pregnant common-law wife and infant child left behind in US. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/276; FBI file OG 378318

See also: Constantine M. Panunzio, The Deportation Cases of 1919-1920

Pietro Marucco (Peter; Marrucho)

Born Maggiora, Italy, circa 1885. Miner. Migrated to US circa 1900. Joined the anarchist “Demolizione” Group in Latrobe, Pennsylvania; a supporter of Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva. Arrested May 20, 1918. Deported February 22, 1919. Although reported to be in perfect health at the time of his deportation, he died at sea March 8, 1919. Officially the cause of death was “pneumonia following influenza” and he was buried at sea, but his comrades suspected that he was thrown overboard.

INS file 54379/378

See also: Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background

Kazis Maskalunas (Казис Маскалунас; Kasimir Maskaljunas; Kaziz Maskilunas; Maskalunae)

Born 1894, Kovno, Russia (present-day Kaunas, Lithuania). Lithuanian. Lumber worker. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers 1916; joined IWW 1917. Arrested January 1918 in Seattle when inquiring at US Immigration office after a friend who had been detained; held without hearing for three months and then transferred to jail in Ellensburg, Washington, where finally examined. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54379/101

Bartolomeo Massullo (Massulo)

Born 1881, Bagnoli, Italy. Laborer. Already an anarchist in Italy. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and three children in Italy. Member of Seattle’s Circolo di Studi Sociali; distributed Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva and corresponded extensively with its leading figures. Arrested November 1917. Under interrogation, provided names and addresses of members of the Circolo. Deported July 10, 1919. Italian government surveillance reported no radical activities. 1923 emigrated to Canada, from there illegally reentered the US. 1932 he was living in San Francisco, but still not active in politics; removed from Italian list of “subversives” 1934.

INS file 54616/19

See also: Gianfranco Cresciani, “Exploitation, Emigration and Anarchism: the Case of Isidoro Alessandro Bertazzon,” Altreitalie no. 46 (January-June 2013)

William Matera

Deported to Russia February 2, 1921. No further information found.

INS file not found; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

James Maundeloe

Born 1895, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. 1919 joined the Greensburg, Pennsylvania branch of the Union of Russian Workers, but claimed he was expelled when he briefly became owner of a butcher shop. Participated in 1919 strike at American Sheet and Tinplate Company. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/431

Donald McPherson (aka Edgar Dunn)

Born 1898, Leeds, England. Scottish. Sailor. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the IWW circa 1915. Arrested September 9, 1918 in Seattle. When asked about his thoughts on the Soviet government, replied: “It is all right.” At his second immigration hearing, he refused to answer any questions. Deported July 12, 1919. Subsequent activities unknown. (Note: Not to be confused with the Donald McPherson of the Sydney Twelve trial of IWW members in Australia.)

INS file 54517/54

Michkov to Meskov

Frederik Michkov (Фредерик Мичков; Fred Mechcoff; Michcov; Mihaitch)

Deported to Russia January 22, 1921. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Trofin Mechuk (Трофин Мечук; Trohwin; Trofwin Nacsuk)

Member of Russian Branch No. 3 of the Communist Party of America in Detroit. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. “Voluntary departure” (via Canada) October 16, 1920. No further information found.

INS file not identified; FBI file BS 202600-1378-1

Peter Melcishik

Deported to Russia January 22, 1921. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Nikolai Melikov (Николая Меликова; Nick Melincoff; Melikoff)

Member of the Union of Russian Workers in New York. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported January 22, 1921. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

See also: National Popular Government League, To the American People: Report Upon the Illegal Practices of the United States Department of Justice

Pavel Melnikov (Павел Мельников; Paul Melnicoff; Pawel Melnik; Mcinicoff)

Born 1886, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Slovenian. Laborer. Attended gymnasium in Russia until age 18; worked as a clerk in Russia. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers circa 1918; became national URW organizer and lecturer; based in Seattle and San Francisco; taught English in URW’s school in San Francisco. Accused, based on no evidence, of involvement in various bomb and assassination plots. Arrested April 23, 1917 in Trenton, New Jersey for “uttering seditious remarks”; arrested March 1919 in San Francisco for “vagrancy.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/123

See also: Lazar Lipotkin, The Russian Anarchist Movement in North America

Peter Williamson Merta (Melta; Murti; aka Peter Williamson)

Finnish. Secretary and treasurer of the IWW’s Lumber Workers’ Union No. 500 in Raymond, Washington. Arrested February 1917 while posting IWW stickers; sentenced to fifteen days prison. Detained for deportation upon his release in March 1918, but released on bail. Relocated to Duluth, Minnesota, where he became an editor of the Finnish-language IWW newspaper Industrialisti. Detained again December 1918. Attorney Charles Recht successfully argued for Merta and his wife, Else, to be deported to Sweden rather than Finland (where the conservative Whites had just won a civil war against the socialist Reds). Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 8000-382409

See also: Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, House of Representatives, Communist and Anarchist Deportation Cases; Frances H. Early, A World Without War: How U.S. Feminists and Pacifists Resisted World War I

Else Williamson Merta

Finnish. IWW member in Raymond, Washington, then Duluth, Minnesota. Arrested December 1918. Attorney Charles Recht successfully argued for Merta and her husband, Peter, to be deported to Sweden rather than Finland (where the conservative Whites had just won a civil war against the socialist Reds). Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 8000-382409

See also: Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, House of Representatives, Communist and Anarchist Deportation Cases; Frances H. Early, A World Without War: How U.S. Feminists and Pacifists Resisted World War I

Sam Meskov (Самуэль Месков; Serpion; Meshkov; Miskoff; Meshoff; Moshoff)

Born 1889, Saratov, Russia. Miner. Migrated to US 1912. Wife and child in Russia. Joined the IWW in March 1919; distributed IWW literature. Arrested in Van Voorhis, Pennsylvania. Commissioner-General of Immigration A. Caminetti opined that he “is apparently an ignorant harmless fellow, [but] the Bureau [of Immigration] is of the opinion that this type of man is often dangerous because of his ignorance and the fact that he can be easily imposed upon by the shrewder type of radical.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/34; FBI file OG 284810