Monthly Archives: April 2020

Orlov to Pankov

Mikhail Orlov (Михаил Орлов; Mike; Orloff)

Born 1889, Mogilev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Miner. Migrated to US 1909. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Homestead, Pennsylvania in 1915. Also a member of the United Mine Workers. “It is suspected…that alien is one of the moving spirits of the branch of the Union of Russian Workers which is thought to exist in the Bertha mines” in Morgantown, West Virginia. Received anarchist and IWW literature from Max Maisel’s anarchist bookstore in New York. Arrested December 1, 1919 (during miners’ strike). Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/608

Samuel Orlov (Самуил Орлов; Sam; Orloff)

Born 1889, Mogliev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Miner. Migrated to US 1912. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Mosessen, Pennsylvania, circa 1915. Also a member of the United Mine Workers. Arrested December 1, 1919 (during miners’ strike). Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/609; FBI file OG 8000-248688

Albert Osborn

Born 1898, Førde, Norway. Sailor; laborer. Migrated to US 1909 with step-mother to rejoin father. 1915 went to England as a sailor; returned 1916 (without inspection). Joined the IWW in Devil’s Lake, North Dakota in 1915, but during his inspection claimed “I don’t care much about them…I had to join, because it was a matter of joining them or getting beaten up in going around the country in the harvest fields…they throw you from trains going sixty miles an hour.” 1917 arrested in Everett, Washington for no registering for the draft; served 13 days in jail. Arrested May 23, 1918 in Seattle as an IWW member. Diagnosed as “insane” June 6, 1918 due to “dementia praecox” resulting from a head injury as a child.Deported September 20, 1919 (as “likely to become a public charge,” entering without inspection, and suffering from “insanity”). According to Commissioner General of Immigration A. Caminetti, “the charge against him does not arise, even remotely, from his connection with the I.W.W.” Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54414/81

Yakov Ozols (Яков Озолс; Jacob; Ozal; Ozols)

Member of the Russian Branch of the Communist Party of America in Philadelphia. Deported February 1, 1921. No further information found.

FBI file OG 8000-276616

Peter Paich (Paick)

Born 1897, Požega, Austria-Hungary (present-day Croatia). Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Socialist Party of American in Detroit and 1915, and the Workers’ International Industrial Union in 1918 in Lorain, Ohio. Arrested August 1917 in Lorain for distributing socialist literature and spent four days in jail; arrested April, 1918, for distributing socialist and anti-conscription literature; then interned at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, as an “enemy alien”; detained for deportation upon his release in September 1919; Deported May 8, 1920 (on the charge of being “likely to become a public charge,” as SP and WIIU membership did not meet the legal definition of a deportable “anarchist”). Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/474; FBI file OG 8000-203962

Alexandr Palukevich (Александр Палукевич; Alexander; Palukovich; Pavlukoich)

Communist Party of America member in Bayonne, New Jersey; deported to Russia December 23, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Pavel Panasuk (Павел Панасук; Paul; Panosik)

Member of the Communist Party of America in Chicago. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 2, 1920. “Voluntarily departed” to Russia October 10, 1920. No further information found.

FBI file BS 202600-149-1

Joseph T. Pandack

Deported to Yugoslavia August 1, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Dimitri Panko (Дмитрий Панко; Panco)

Born 1890, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Mechanic. Migrated to US 1914. Joined Branch No. 2 of the Union of Russian Workers in Newark, for which he distributed literature. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/112

Pavel Pankov (Павел Панков; Pual Panko)

Moulder. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Parenti to Penske

Luigi Parenti (Louis)

Born 1887, Calcinaia, Italy. Laborer; union organizer. In Italy he was a Christian democrat and completed two years of seminary school in Lucca, then abandoned religious studies, married, and aided a Lucca streetcar drivers’ strike. Migrated to US 1910, with his wife. Soon became an anarchist, and joined the IWW in San Francisco in 1911. Became a lecturer and organizer for the IWW, and was arrested several times for leading strikes and demonstrations. Italian authorities considered him “one of the most dangerous propagandists in the anarchist movement across the United States,” and described him as “taciturn in character, educated, intelligent, [and] cultured.” Defendant at the mass IWW trail 1917-1918; sentenced to five years and a $30,000 fine; from September 1917 to June 1919 he was refused permission to communicate with his wife and three daughters, one of whom was born while he was in prison. Released on bail during appeal; worked as organizer for an independent Italian fisherman’s union in San Francisco, then as a correspondent for the newspaper La Voce del Popolo. May 1921 appeal lost and he reentered prison, but in 1922 his sentence was commuted on condition of deportation in August 1922. “Voluntarily departed” with his family October 26, 1922. In Italy, settled in Lucca and joined the syndicalist Unione Sindacale Italiana (USI), and attended its illegal 1926 convention. Then withdrew from radical activities; worked for a state-created union and as a reporter. 1929 Italian government reported that he “demonstrates obedience to the directives of the Regime,” but 1930 authorities discovered he was secretly receiving copies of radical publications from the US. 1932 he again reportedly displayed “good moral and political conduct” and “ideas in full agreement with the directives of the Regime.” Died 1961. (Note: An obituary in L’Adunata dei Refrattari, September 1942 for an anarchist named Luigi Parenti, who died in Paterson, New Jersey, refers to a different individual.)

INS file 54235/61; CPC busta 3732

See also: Industrial Workers of the World Collection, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University; Kenyon Zimmer, Immigrants Against the State: Yiddish and Italian Anarchism in America

Lev Paskovich (Лев Паскович; Levi Paskevick)

Arrested during the second Palmer Raids in Philadelphia in January 1920; deported to Russia February 1, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

See also: Philadelphia Enquirer, February 1, 1921

John Paskvalick (Pashvalisk)

Deported to Austria June 19, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

George Pasukow

Deported to Russia October 17, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Peter Pavlas (Петр Павлас; Pete Pawlas; Pawalas; Pavlus)

Born 1885 in Warsaw, Russia (present-day Poland). Czech (“Bohemian”) parents. Machinist; laborer. 1894 migrated to Bohemia; 1909 migrated to Argentina; 1915 migrated to Mexico; migrated from there to US 1917 (without inspection). Brought to US by a labor agent to work in a sugar factory near San Francisco. Described by an immigration agent as “a peculiar character, being somewhat of a ‘globe trotter’, and a student of Esperanto…He is believed to be more intelligent than he would represent.” Appears to have been a member of the Socialist Party of America. Arrested January 31, 1919 in Cleveland while distributing SP literature. In ill health at Ellis Island. Because SP membership was not a deportable offense, the Bureau of Immigration was “unable to find that the anarchistic charges in the warrant are substantiated by the evidence,” but deported him on the grounds of having entered without inspection and being “likely to become a public charge.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/16

Artemy Pavluk (Артемий Павлук; Pauluk; Paulik)

Born 1885, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Miner. Served four years in the Russian Army. Migrated to US 1913. Drafted into US Army and served for six months at Camp Lee and Camp Shelby, then discharged. Secretary of the Union of Russian Workers branch at the Dakota Mine in Fairmont, West Virginia. Arrested December 2, 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/605

Josef Penske (Йозеф Пенске; Joseph Penski)

Deported to Russia October 16, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Perkus to Petruccioli

Hyman Perkus (Хайман Перкус; Nikofor)

Born 1888, Riga, Russia (present-day Latvia). Jewish. Carpenter. Had been a social democrat in Russia. 1912 migrated to Paris; from there migrated to US 1915. Became an anarchist in the US and joined the Union of Russian Workers in Cleveland in 1916, then a member of the URW’s First Branch in New York. Member Anarchist Red Cross. Partner of fellow URW member Dora Lipkin. Became national Secretary of the URW; succeeded Peter Bianki as editor of URW paper Khleb i Volia. During examination answered: “Why did I become an anarchist? I have suffered from injustices and oppression and have seen that the people in general also suffer from injustices and oppression.” Also stated, “I think the only way is to use the same methods that the United States people used against England in 1776 when the United States people got their freedom…You know what they did.” Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. January 1921 he founded the Union of Russian Anarchist Workers Repatriated from America, which critically supported the Bolshevik dictatorship as a temporary necessity, and he accepted the concept of the “dictatorship of the proletariat.” February 1921 he spoke at Peter Kropotkin’s funeral, reading a paper that criticized Kropotkin’s support of the Allies in the First World War and which, according to Alexander Berkman, “outraged everyone at the grave.” March 1921 joined Berkman and Emma Goldman in unsuccessfully attempting to negotiate peace between the Red Army and the Kronstadt sailors. Arrested multiple times in the aftermath of the Kronstadt uprising. Later attended the Moscow Institute of Journalism. He may have eventually joined the Communist Party. Reportedly killed during Stalin’s purges.

INS file 54709/116

See also: Victor Serge, Anarchists Never Surrender: Essays, Polemics, and Correspondence on Anarchism, 1908–1938; Alexander Berkman Papers, International Institute for Social History, Amsterdam; The J. Abrams Book: The Life and Work of an Exceptional Personality, trans. Ruth Murphy, ed. Brian Moen; Rose Pesotta Papers, New York Public Library; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America

Filippo Perrone (Philip; Felipe; aka Vincenzo Lentini)

Born 1881, Agrigento (Sicily), Italy. Laborer. Migrated to US 1901. Lived in Tampa, New York, Chicago, and Milwaukee. Anarchist, closely associated with Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva. 1911 joined group of Italian anarchists who joined the forces of the Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM) in Tijuana, Mexico, in opening phase of the Mexican Revolution; quickly disillusioned with the the PLM and soon returned to US, where an outspoken critic of the PLM and Mexican Revolution. September 25, 1911 arrested in San Francisco after he “spoke disparagingly about the American flag, condemned law and order, denounced all forms of government and ended with a tirade against the Pope”; this sparked a successful “free speech fight” involving anarchists and IWW members, and the charges against him were dropped. Arrested circa 1922 in Seattle. Deported August 8, 1922. 1923 arrested in Ventimiglia while attempting to clandestinely emigrate. 1924 illegally emigrated to France and then US, using the name “Vincenzo Lentini.” Remained active in Italian American anarchist movement. Deported again after World War II. Died in Sicily shortly thereafter.

CPC busta 3875

See also: Michele Presutto, La rivoluzione dietro l’angolo gli anarchici italiani e la rivoluzione messicana, 1910-1914; Kenyon Zimmer, Immigrants Against the State: Yiddish and Italian Anarchism in America; Un trentennio di attività anarchica (1915-1945)

Pietro Giovanni Perruchon (Peter; aka Ursus)

Born 1885, Arnaz (Aosta), Italy. Miner. Migrated to US 1907 but returned in Italy 1910; 1911 returned to US. Wife (Maria Rosa Joly) followed in 1912; daughter Lotta (“Struggle”) born in 1914. Worked as miner in Colorado and then Arizona. Became an anarchist sometime before his return to the US. Acted as literature and correspondence distributor for Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva. 1915 published a militant anti-war article for La Questione Sociale. 1917 involved in miners’ strike in Globe and Miami, Arizona. Arrested March 26, 1918 in Globe for distributing radical and antiwar literature. Convicted of violating the Espionage Act at trail in Tucson in May 1918; jury deliberated for only one minute and thirty seconds; sentenced to two years in Leavenworth. Upon release, detained for deportation. Denied permission to visit his wife (Rosa) and daughter (Lotta) in Miami, Arizona before his deportation. Authorities noted, “it is understood that his deportation will not seriously interfere with their maintenance or welfare since the wife is operating an apparently prosperous boarding house.” Deported March 27, 1920. In Arnaz, founded Gruppo di emancipazione anarchica in 1920. April 1921 arrested on suspicion of connection to the bombing La Diana theater, but acquitted. 1923 migrated to France; returned to Italy 1924. 1925 returned to France; worked as chauffeur in Paris; his daughter Lotta joined him in France. 1937 returned to Italy to claim an inheritance; arrested and claimed to have abandoned his radicalism; freed and returned to France. Remained in correspondence with Italian anarchists in the US up until his death in France in 1967.

INS file 54379/192; CPC busta 3877

See also: Cronaca Sovversiva, passim; Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University; http://www.bfscollezionidigitali.org/entita/14402-perruchon-giovanni-pietro/; Il Fondo L’Adunata Collection, Boston Public Library; L’Adunata dei Refrattari, October 14, 1967

Paraliett Kutzman Petcoff (Kuzman; Huzman)

Born 1887, Bulgaria. Laborer. 1910 migrated to Canada. Lost the sight in one eye due to workplace accident. Migrated to US 1917. Joined the IWW’s Metal Mine Workers Industrial Union no. 800 in March 1919. Arrested June 11, 1919 in Cleveland. Claimed to be from a wealthy family in Bulgaria, but immigration authorities concluded, “While the Bureau is unable to find that any of the anarchistic charges contained in the warrant are substantiated, it is of the opinion that the alien was a person likely to become a public charge at the time of entry.” Deported January 22, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/220

Jose Petit y Fernandez (Jose Petit Fernandez; Jose Petit; aka Casimiro Petit Fernandez; Jesus Sanchez)

Born 1879, Oviedo, Spain. Cigar worker. Anarchist. Migrated to US circa 1914. Married Maria Alvarez in Tampa, January 1914. Returned alone to Spain circa 1917; again migrated to the US to rejoin his wife and three children November 19, 1918. Arrested February 1919 for having fraudulently used his deceased brother’s passport to enter the US (and avoid military service during his time in Spain). Bureau of Investigation agent opined “that this man is too ignorant to take any initiative in anarchistic and Bolsheviki propaganda or plots but he is a dangerous man to be at large to be used as a tool for those who have the initiative.” Deported to Cuba, June 22, 1919, accompanied by his family. Subsequent activities unknown, but he was still living in Cuba in 1946.

FBI file OG 335078

See also: Tampa Times, April 24 and June 20, 1919; Tampa Tribune, February 1, 1914 and February 5 and June 24, 1919 and May 21, 1946

Konstantin Petrashka (Константин Петрашка; Kontatin Petrosham; Kostativ Petroshak)

Born 1898, Stanki, Russia (present-day Poland). Millworker. Migrated to US 1914. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in New London, Connecticut, July 1919; became its secretary. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/528; FBI file OG 8000-382590

Settimio Petruccioli (Settime; Settimo; Petrucioli)

Born 1888, Bevagna, Italy. Laborer; barber. Migrated to US 1913. Anarchist. Member of the Circolo di Studi Sociali in Kensington, Illinois; supporter of Luigi Galleai’s Cronaca Sovversiva. Arrested June 1919. Deported December 20, 1919. February 1920 emigrated to Canada. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/215; CPC busta busta 3912

Pivarsky to Potenkin

Steve Pivarsky

Born 1892, Veliki Bečkerek (present-day Zrenjanin), Austria-Hungary (present-day Serbia). Autoworker. Migrated to US 1912. Employee of the Fisher Body Corporation in Detroit. 1913 joined Branch No. 61 (later Branch No. 17) of the South Slavic Federation of the Socialist Party of America; 1919 transferred into the Communist Party of America. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported to Yugoslavia, April 14, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54860/374; FBI file OG 388055

Jacob Plajek

Deported to Poland, August 1, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Mike Podalak

Deported to Austria, June 19, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Mathew Podlipsky (Матвей Подлипский)

Podlipsky’s URW membership card

Born 1887, Rakitnitsa, Russia (present-day Belarus). Polish-Belarusian. Laborer. Migrated to US 1909. A member of the Union of Russian Workers branch in Newark. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/356; FBI file OG 381187

Marko Podner

Born 1892, Okrug, Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, Austria-Hungary (present-day Croatia). Croatian. Laborer; miner. Migrated to US 1913. Wife in Croatia-Slavonia. June 1919 joined Branch No. 62 of Communist Party of America in West Winfield, Pennsylvania; became its secretary. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported to Yugoslavia, June 19, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 8000-382563

Wolf Pohl (aka Pawlowicz; Pavlovich)

Housepainter. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

George Polevoy (Полевой)

Born 1883, Chernihiv, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Miner. Migrated to US 1907. Joined the IWW circa 1914 in Moundsville, West Virginia; also a member of the United Mine Workers (UMW). Participated in a miners’ strike protesting the conviction of Tom Mooney, and another in protest of the imprisonment of Eugene V. Debs. Arrested June 1918 for disturbing the peace during a dispute with UMW leaders; sentenced to $50 fine and ten days in jail (UMW member William Bursey later testified against Polevoy as a leader “of the foreign element [in the union]…they have made all kinds of trouble.” Arrested August, 1919. Described by immigration agent as “exceptionally shrewd and astute.” Deported February 1, 1921. Wife and child in US. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/49

Josef Polulech (Йозеф Полулех; Joseph; aka Joseph Balluch)

Born 1892, Grodno region, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Arrested during raid on the Union of Russian Workers’ “Russian People’s House” in New York during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Denied membership in the URW (and no evidence of membership was produced); claimed he was only there to attend arithmetic and Russian classes. He had, however, been an active member of New York Methodist Episcopal Church of All Nations since 1913, and several church leaders attempted to intervene on his behalf. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/449; FBI file OG 8000-382493

See also: The Churchman, January 24 and February 21, 1920; Constantine M. Panunzio, The Deportation Cases of 1919-1920

Jacob Popich

Born 1892, Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, Austria-Hungary (present-day Croatia). Laborer. Member of the South Slavic Branch of the Communist Party of America in Omaha. Arrested in St. Paul, Nebraska, January 8, 1920. Deported to Yugoslavia, July 15, 1920.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

See also: Omaha Daily Bee, January 9, 1920

Andrew Postaruk (Pestaruk?)

Deported to Russia, February 1, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Efrim Potenkin (Ефрим Потемкин; Efrem; Efreem; Potemkin)

Born 1897, Gomel, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1913. Steelworker. Attended meetings of the Union of Russian Workers in Monessen, Pennsylvania, but denied being a member and no evidence of membership produced. Arrested in Greensburg, Pennsylvania during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Immigration Inspector in Charge recommended cancelation of the deportation warrant for lack of evidence, but overruled by Commissioner General A. Caminetti. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/519

See also: Kate Holladay Claghorn, The Immigrant’s Day in Court

Povff to Prokuda

Sam Povff (Pavff; aka Henry Lang; Sam Brokr; Otto Schwarz; Harry Wulf)

Born 1878, Poltava, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Sailor; thief. Anarchist since age 17. Arrested 1899 for revolutionary activities but released; later (says 1901) participated in a mutiny at Kronstadt naval base and sentenced to 13 years internal exile in Siberia. Escaped and emigrated to US 1910 (jumped ship). Briefly belonged to “an anarchistic organization in New York.” Moved to the West Coast, where he used a dozen aliases and made his living through apparently politically-motivated theft. 1911 arrested in Huntington, Oregon, for larceny; sentenced to two years in prison. Circa 1912 arrested in Stockton, California for burglary; sentenced to two years in San Quentin. 1914 arrested in Los Angeles for “highway robbery”; sentenced to six years in San Quentin; served four years and two months. 1919 arrested in Portland, Oregon for attempted robbery of individuals selling “moonshine,” explaining, “They had no right to poison the working class people. I think I had a right to rob them.” Turned over to immigration authorities, who described him as “a most reprehensible and undesirable character.” He also stated, “Of course if I am deported I would maybe be better off, because I have had so much trouble in this country…I don’t see any difference between this country and the country where I came from. I see there are thousands and millions of poor people today, without work, without anything. At the same time it seems to me that there are banks and stores and things, and working people haven’t got any chance to use that.” Deported December 17, 1922.

INS file 54859/184

Ivan Povlycic

Deported to Yugoslavia, May 8, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Pearl Powell (Perl; Powel; Podell; aka Polia Pawlockaya)

Born 1894, Russia. Migrated to US 1910. Member of the Communist Party of America in Brooklyn, New York. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920; released on bail. Married David Sova, a fellow Brooklyn Communist who had also been arrested in January 1920, in Philadelphia. Sova returned to Russia shortly thereafter. She “voluntarily departed” December 23, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file BS 40-2476-1

See also: Minneapolis Star, December 27, 1920

Andrei Pranka (Андрей Пранка; Andy; Prauka)

Born 1890, Chernihiv, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Miner. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and child in Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Monessen, Pennsylvania. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919, while participating in a miners’ strike. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/475

Ivan Pravoslavnov (Иван Православнов; John Pravosleavanv)

Born 1898, Saratov, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1914. Employee of Singer Sewing Machine Company. Radicalized in the US and joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Elizabethport, New Jersey (present-day Elizabeth) circa 1917. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported January 22, 1921.

FBI file OG 8000-382507

Frank Prego

Born Galicia, Spain. Sailor. Brother of CNT leader and Solidaridad editor José Prego (José Prego Veira). IWW member. 1913 involved in maritime strike in New Orleans; arrested for allegedly “shooting to kill” a policeman; sentenced to twelve years in prison. Deported 1918. Subsequent activities unknown.

See: The Voice of the People, July 31, 1913; Bieito Alonso, “Spanish Anarchists and Maritime Workers in the IWW,” in Wobblies of the World: A Global History of the IWW

Grigori Prigozy (Григорий Пригози; Gregory; George)

Born 1884, Vilna, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. 1919 joined Russian Branch No. 5 of the Communist Party of America in Detroit. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. “Voluntarily departed” October 14, 1920 (via Canada). Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54860/30; FBI file OG 388025

Stepan Prokopovich (Степан Прокопович; Steve Prokopowich; Prakspoduch)

Born 1884, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and two children in Russia. Worked at a wire mill in Ansonia, Connecticut. Attended the Union of Russian Workers’ automobile school in Bridgeport, Connecticut, but denied URW membership and no evidence of it produced. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/371; FBI file OG 213357

Platon Prokuda (Платон Прокуда; Plaron; A. Proncudo)

Laborer. Anarchist. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921, but refused entry on the basis of his anarchism at Libau, along with several other deportees. Coauthored “An Open Letter to the Russian Premier Lenin” in response. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

See also: Free Society, October-November 1921

Proshkovich to Ravavio

Fedor Proshkovich (Федор Прошкович; Theodor)

Proshkovich’s URW membership card

Born 1896, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Machine operator. Migrated to US 1912. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in New York circa 1919. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/364

Tomas Prosk (Томас Проск; Thomas; Drosk; Rosk)

Born 1893, Kaluga, Russia. Metalworker. Migrated to US 1912. Joined the New Haven branch of Union of Russian Workers circa 1918. Employed at Winchester Repeating Arms Company in New Haven, Connecticut, but fired for organizing for IWW; he denied being an IWW member, but evidence showed he paid IWW dues and received IWW literature. At work, when given instructions for paying his income tax, he also remarked, “F— the Government.” Arrested April 1919 after his employer reported him to the authorities. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/156

Anton Prushchuk (Антон Прущук; Anthony Pruschuk; Tony)

Born 1898, Brest-Litovsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913 (to avoid military service). Worked in Detroit and probably a member of the Union of Russian Workers there, although he denied it. Avowed pacifist. Arrested 1918 for not registering for the draft, and illegally inducted in the US Army. June 1918 court-martialed for refusing orders; sentenced to five years in military prison; imprisoned at the Fort Leavenworth Disciplinary Barracks and then Fort Douglas, Utah, until August 1919, when he was dishonorably discharged from the Army. Arrested again during the second Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported to Poland, January 22, 1921. May be the anarchist “Prushtshuk” who participated in an hunger strike in Petrograd’s House of Preliminary Detention (“Splareka”) in November 1922.

INS file 54709/510; FBI file OG 363519

See also: International Committee for Political Prisoners, Letters from Russian Prisons

Demian Pruss (Демиан Прусс; Bruss)

Agricultural worker. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Osip Ptrosttzek

Polish; “voluntarily departed” to Russia, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Louis Purtikowsky (Purtik; Pyrtek)

Born Biata, Russia (present-day Poland). Barber; laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Reported to authorities by three US Army recruiters in Indianapolis who claimed he had stated his opposition to the US government and the war, his support revolution and the red flag, and “said he would throw bombs before he would assist this Government.” Arrested September 1919; denied all charges but wished to return to Poland. Explained his desire to return by saying, “Here was colored people and I don’t want to mix people. They don’t speak good government. They don’t speak Black man fighting with white man.” Deported to Poland, May 14, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/55

Kazimir Radkovits (Казимир Радковиц; Kazimer Radkowicz)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Pavel Rak (Павел Рак; Paul; Rakand)

Born 1889, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Longshoreman. Migrated to US 1914. July, 1918 illegally drafted into US Army; sentenced to 18 months imprisonment at Fort Douglas, Utah, as a conscientious objector. After his release, joined the Communist Party of America in Detroit. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. “Voluntarily departed” sometime before February 1921.

FBI file OG 379972; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Michael Ransc

Deported to Yugoslavia, June 19, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Yakim Ravavio (Ravavoi)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Reid to Rivera

Patrick Reid (aka Larry; Jimmy; Billy; Matt)

Born 1871, Dreary, Ireland. Protestant parents. Laborer. Migrated to US circa 1890s. Itinerant laborer throughout US, Canada, and Mexico. Arrested in Centralia, Washington, November 1919. He was “ashamed to say” that, due to lack of funds, he was not dues paying IWW member, but he believed in its ideology, and stated the only government he supported was that of Soviet Russia. Deported April 2, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/581; FBI file OG 378240

Manuel Rey y García (Manuel Rey; aka Louis G. Raymond)

Born 1888, Castrofoya, Spain. Galician. Sailor; union organizer; house painter. Father killed in the Cuban War of Independence. 1905 migrated to Cuba; 1909 to 1914 worked as sailor throughout Atlantic Ocean; 1914 migrated to US (without inspection; jumped ship). Anarchist. Joined the IWW circa 1914 and became secretary of the IWW’s Marine Transport Workers Industrial Union in Philadelphia; April 1917 moved to Niagara Falls, New York, and elected secretary of the local IWW organization. Arrested three times over the next six months for failure to register for the draft and for speaking against the war. Defendant at mass IWW trial 1917-18; sentenced to twenty years and a $20,000 fine. During his incarceration corresponded with Jewish anarchist Lilly Sarnoff, who became his lifelong companion. Sentence commuted December 1922 on condition of deportation; deported March 22, 1923. Illegally returned; again deported 1926. Returned again under the name “Louis G. Raymond.” Continued to be active in the anarchist movement; lived in the anarchist community of Stelton, New Jersey; coedited the newspaper Freedom (1933-34). Died in New York in 1990 at age 101.

INS file 54297/18; FBI file OG 8000-160053

See also: Industrial Workers of the World Collection, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University; Peter Cole, Wobblies on the Waterfront: Interracial Unionism in Progressive-Era Philadelphia; Bieito Alonso, “Spanish Anarchists and Maritime Workers in the IWW,” in Wobblies of the World: A Global History of the IWW; Bieito Alonso, Anarquistas galegos en América; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America

Federico Ricci (aka D. Federico Ricci)

Born 1887, Cesenatico, Italy. Shoemaker. In Italy was a socialist. Migrated to US 1905; became anarchist circa 1910; returned to Italy 1911; migrated to US agains 1913. Arrested in Haverhill, Massachusetts in January, 1918, for failure to register for the draft; sentenced to a year in prison. Stated, “I do not believe in any form of government, because the people have no liberty.” Deported May 22, 1919. 1920 arrested in Naples for desertion; released on probation. Moved back to Cesenatico, “where he lives a solitary life.” 1925 emigrated to France; returned to Italy 1929. Under surveillance until 1941, but no radical activity noted.

INS files 54379/2 and 54379/3; CPC busta 4302

Daniel Rice (Reisch; Risch)

Born 1885, Tolkova (Grodno), Russia (present-day Belarus?). Laborer. Migrated to US 1909. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in 1919 in Newark. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Stated, “I was so much dissatisfied with the Russian Government as I knew it, that I am since that time reluctant to believe that any government is good…I am not satisfied with the United Sates Gov’t and do not believe it is acting as a free government.” Deported on the Buford. Wife and child in Newark. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/340

Augusto Rigoni (August)

Born 1893, Afiago (Vicenza), Italy. Laborer. Not radical in Italy. Year of migration unknown. In Kensington, Illinois joined the anarchist Circolo Studi Sociali; supported Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva. Deported December 20, 1919. After his return, according to Italian authorities, he “demonstrated sympathy with socialism” but withdrew from political activity and “was not considered a politically dangerous element.” Married, had children, and “devoted himself exclusively to the work of the fields of his property together with his brothers.” 1932 developed “symptoms of mental alienation” and confined to provincial psychiatric hospital in Vicenza, where he died that same year.

CPC busta 4329

See also: Cronaca Sovversiva, July 15, 1916

Thomas Rimmer

Born 1886, England. Sailor; miner. Migrated to Canada 1912; from there migrated to US 1914 (without inspection). Radicalized in US; joined the Socialist Party of America and the Western Federation of Miners; then joined the IWW circa 1914. One of the organizers of the 1917 miners’ strike in Butte, Montana; elected to the strikers’ publicity Committee; spoke at funeral of IWW organizer Frank Little. 1918 became IWW delegate. Arrested May 6, 1918, on police raid of IWW hall in Seattle. While detained in Seattle, befriended fellow deportee Moses Baritz, beginning a lifelong “political and personal friendship.” Deported March 9, 1919, as “likely to become a public charge” at the time of his entry because “a man of the character and disposition he clearly was [sic] would almost certain sometime to come into conflict with the laws of any country like the United States and get into jail.” In Liverpool, joined the Merseyside IWW branch. 1921 joined the small, breakaway Socialist Party of Great Britain, of which Baritz was already a member. That same year he was “believed to be traveling frequently between England and Canada.” After a period of lapsed membership, rejoined the SPGB in 1933. Died 1952.

INS file 54379/417; FBI file

See also: The Butte Miner, July 11 and July 29, 1917; San Francisco Examiner, August 6, 1917; Socialist Review (London), February 1, 1959; http://socialiststandardmyspace.blogspot.com/2014/09/death-of-moses-baritz.html

Louis Ristick (Luis)

Born 1896, Volynia, Russia. Machinist. Migrated to US 1913. Employed at the Singer Sewing Machine Company in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Joined the Union of Russian Workers 1919. Arrested in New York during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/457

Librado Rivera

Born 1864, Rayón, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Teacher; laborer; journalist. 1888 became teacher in Mexico. 1900 cofounded a “liberal” group in San Luis Potosí to combat Catholic influence on government. Arrested 1902 for political activities and imprisoned for a year. 1903 collaborated with Enrique and Ricardo Flores Magón on the paper El hijo del Ahuizote and arrested for “ridiculing public officials.” Migrated to US 1905. That same year cofounded the Partido Liberal Mexicano; around this time became an anarchist. 1906 arrested in St. Louis and US government attempted to illegally extradite him to Mexico, but eventually released. 1907 moved to Los Angeles, where arrested without warrant, along with other PLM leaders, by agents of the Furlong Detective Agency on behalf of the Mexican government; convicted of violating US neutrality laws but then released. 1910 a founding editor of the PLM newspaper Regeneración. 1911 arrested with other PLM leaders, again charged and convicted for violating neutrality laws for organizing and supplying PLM fighters in the Mexican Revolution. 1914 released from McNeil Island Prison. 1918 arrested and convicted for violating the Espionage Act with material published in Regeneración; sentenced to 15 years. 1920 transferred from McNeil Island to Leavenworth Penitentiary. 1923 his sentence was commuted on condition of deportation to Mexico. Offered positions in the government of San Luis Potosí, which he declined. Founded and edited a succession of anarchist newspapers. 1927 arrested and sentenced to 6 months for “insulting the president” and “inciting the public to anarchy.” 1932 died after being hit by a car in Mexico City.

See: Alicia Perez Salazar, Librado Rivera, un soñador en llamas; Ricardo Flores Magón, Dreams of Freedom: A Ricardo Flores Magón Reader; Donald C. Hodges, Mexican Anarchism after the Revolution; Aurora Mónica Alcayaga Sasso, “Librado Rivera y los hermanos rojos en el movimiento social y cultural anarquista en Villa Cecilia y Tampico, Tamaulipas, 1915-1931” (PhD diss., Universidad Iberoamericano); http://www.libradorivera.com/; http://www.antorcha.net/biblioteca_virtual/politica/viva_tierra/libradoindice.html

Roberts to Roy

Vasily Roberts (Wasily; Robertz; Robetz)

Member of the Communist Party of America in Philadelphia. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported to Russia February 1, 1921. No further information found.

FBI file OG 382735

Jack Robey

IWW member arrested in Sand Point, Idaho, 1918; released then rearrested; deported October 28, 1919. No further information found.

See: One Big Union Monthly, March 1920

Alfred Robinson

Born 1893, Chislehurst, England. Laborer. Migrated to US 1905. Worked throughout the US and Canada. Joined the IWW’s Metal and Machinery Workers’ Industrial Union No. 300 in July 1919. Arrested in Detroit during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported March 27, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/578; FBI file OG 8000-385119

Konstantin Romanchuk (Константин Романчук; Konstan; Konstanti)

Born 1895, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1915. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Bridgeport, Connecticut, circa July 1919; became its secretary. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/396; FBI file OG 376791

Gavril Romanovich (Гавриил Романович; Gabriel)

Born 1896, Vilna Governorate, Russia (present-day Lithuania?). Laborer. Migrated to US 1915. Joined the Russian Federation of the Socialist Party of America; 1919 transferred into of the Russian Branch of the Communist Party of America; became secretary of its branch in Waterbury, Connecticut. Arrested March, 1920 during raid on branch headquarters. Deported February 1, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/462; FBI file OG 379909

Jesus Romo

Born in Mexico. Laborer. Year of migration to US unknown. Joined the IWW in Los Angeles February 1919 and immediately became a delegate for its General Recruiting Union, but was probably previously a member in Morenci, Arizona, where his father Cleofas and brother Guadalupe were also IWW activists. Arrested June 9, 1919, after distributing IWW literature outside of an employment agency. Stated that he “was born an anarchist.” Deported August 18, 1919. After his deportation, continued his IWW membership and organizing in Guadalajara, Mexico.

FBI file OG 363737

Angel Roncal

Born 1896, Spain. Reportedly “spent some time in South America.” Migrated to US 1916. Member of the Niagara Falls, New York branch of the IWW. Arrested September 1918 for failing to register for the draft; IWW literature discovered in his possession. February 1919 released from jail after five months without trial; immediately detained by immigration authorities for deportation. Deported circa July 1, 1920. No further information found.

See: Buffalo Commercial, February 1, 1919; Buffalo Times, February 20, 1919; Cattaraucus Republican, March 27, 1919; Buffalo Express, April 30, 1919; Illustrated Buffalo Express, June 22, 1919

Maxim Rosak (Максим Росак; Max; Roosak)

Born Russia. Former member of the Russian Federation of the Socialist Party of America in Philadelphia; 1919 transferred into the Communist Party of America. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported February 1, 1921.

FBI file OG 379897

Savely Roshkov (Савелий Рошков; aka Charles Roshko)

Born 1893, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Machinist. Migrated to US 1912. Employed by Singer Manufacturing Company in Bridgeport, Connecticut; member of International Association of Machinists, Local No. 30; participated in 1919 wildcat strike. Member of the Union of Russian Workers branch in Bridgeport. Deported January 22, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/143; FBI file OG 382709

Mikail Rosnak (Микаил Роснак; Michael Rosnack; Bosnack)

Born 1897, Bukovina, Austria-Hungary (present-day Romania). Ukrainian. Blacksmith’s helper. Migrated to Canada 1913; expelled as an “enemy alien” and migrated to US 1917. 1919 joined Branch No. 6 of the Union of Russian Workers in Detroit. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Testified that the detective who arrested him said he should be sent back to Russia, called him “worse than a nigger,” and gave him “a smash in the face.” Deported to Romania, March 17, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54739/469

Janet Johnstone Roy (Jeanette; Janet Johnstone MacKay)

Born 1895, Milmathort, Scotland. Supporter of the Independent Labour Party before emigration. Laborer. Migrated to US 1916 with her sister, Margaret. Worked in Lawrence, Massachusetts, where joined the Socialist Party of America and then, in July 1917, Textile Workers Industrial Union No. 1000 of the IWW. Moved to Chicago where worked for the IWW’s bindery, then October 1918 moved to Seattle, where arrested with sister in police raid on IWW two days later. Married a Scottish-born Ian V. MacKay on January 21, 1919 to attempt to claim US citizenship and avoid deportation, but deported with her sister regardless on July 23, 1919. Migrated to British Columbia, Canada, where reunited with husband. Ian died 1941; she died in British Columbia in 1972.

INS files 54379/532 and 54379/532A

See also: Frances H. Early, A World Without War: How U.S. Feminists and Pacifists Resisted World War I; Heather Mayer, Beyond the Rebel Girl: Women and the Industrial Workers of the World in the Pacific Northwest, 1905-1924; Ancestry.com

Margaret Roy (Margaret Ray)

Born 1893, Milmathort, Scotland. Laborer. Migrated to Canada (via US) 1913; 1916 returned to Scotland to collect her sister Janet; 1916 migrated to US. Worked in Lawrence, Massachusetts, where joined the Socialist Party of America and then, in July 1917, Textile Workers Industrial Union No. 1000 of the IWW. Moved to Chicago where worked for the IWW’s bindery, then October 1918 moved to Seattle, where arrested with sister in police raid on IWW two days later. Married and US citizen named Alonzo Ray on January 21, 1919 to attempt to claim US citizenship and avoid deportation, but deported with her sister regardless on July 23, 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS files 54379/532 and 54379/532A

See also: Frances H. Early, A World Without War: How U.S. Feminists and Pacifists Resisted World War I; Heather Mayer, Beyond the Rebel Girl: Women and the Industrial Workers of the World in the Pacific Northwest, 1905-1924

Roznuk to Saccaro

Demian Roznuk (Demin; Rozenok; Demetri Rosicok; Demyan Rogeanok)

Born 1887, Chernihiv Oblast, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Steelworker. Migrated to US 1913. Wife in Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Youngstown, Ohio, circa 1919. Employed at Republic Iron and Steel; on strike at time of arrest. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/186

Axel Rudolph

IWW member. Deported October 31, 1919. No further information found.

See: One Big Union Monthly, March 1920

John C. Ruggieri (aka John C. Rogers)

Born 1892, Rosario, Argentina. Italian parents. Bootblack; laborer. Migrated to US 1906 (age 14). 1915 visited Canada for two weeks and reentered the US without inspection. Arrested in raid on San Francisco IWW hall; denied membership but admitted agreeing the the IWW’s “philosophy”; denied being an anarchist. Allowed to “reship foreign” as a sailor to Chile, August 21, 1918. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54235/58

Boris Trofinov Rusak (Борис Трофинов Русак; Russak; aka John Rusak; Boris Tropinav)

Born Kryvičy, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Married wife Efrosnia in 1914; daughter Nadia born 1917. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Norwich, Connecticut February 1919. Arrested February, 1920. Deported January 22, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/278

Rustemann, _________

IWW member; interned as an “enemy alien” at Fort Douglas in Utah and then “voluntarily departed” to Germany. No further information found.

See: One Big Union Monthly, March 1920

Ryoukov/Ryzhukov, _________

Russian-born anarchist. 1912 married fellow anarchist Anastasia Ryzhukova (maiden name unknown) in Newark. Deported to Russia. 1920 joined Union of Russian Anarchist Workers Repatriated from America, formed by Hyman Perkus, which critically supported the Bolshevik dictatorship as a temporary necessity. Back in the US Anastasia became severely ill and died in 1924. No further information found.

See: Amerikanskiye Izvestiya, August 6, 1924 (thanks to Malcolm Archibald); Victor Serge, Anarchists Never Surrender: Essays, Polemics, and Correspondence on Anarchism, 1908–1938

Ivan Sabshuk (Иван Сабшук)

Deported to Russia, February 1, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Cesare Saccaro (Caesar; aka Frank Saccaro)

Born 1885, Arsiè, Italy. Miner. In Italy displayed “good moral conduct,” and from ages 11-18 enrolled in “a school in Verona to prepare for a monastic life.” Migrated to US 1903. Joined his father, Antonio, in Spring Valley, Illinois to work in the mines. Became anarchist circa 1910; sent money to anarchist newspapers in Italy. Returned to Italy 1913 to marry Giovanna (Jennie/Jeanne) Faoro. Had threes sons and one daughter. Deported March 1, 1921. September 1923 migrated to Windsor, Canada, where joined by family. Repeatedly crossed US border into Canada without difficulty. 1933 helped organize antifascist Circolo Operaio di Cultura in Windsor. May 24, 1936 published an antifascist article in the Windsor Daily Star; wrote for the Toronto antifascist paper Il Lavoratore. 1945 still described by Italian authorities as engaging in antifascist and radical propaganda in Windsor. Later resettled in the US; died Dearborn, Michigan, May 27, 1979.

FBI file OG 379633; CPC busta 4513

See also: Ancestry.com

Sachar to Sánchez

Andrey Sachar (Андрей Сачар; Andrej; Andrew; aka Henry Sugar)

Born 1898, Minsk oblast, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1913. Employed by the Ford Motor Company in Detroit. 1918 became secretary of the Russian National Home/Russian People’s Home, “an alleged Bolshevik organization” that hosted talks by members of the Union of Russian Workers and the Communist Party of America, and admitted support for the Bolshevik government and for a revolution in the US (but subsequently claimed his testimony had not been accurately translated). Arrested April, 1919, after three members of Russian community swore out affidavits that he had advocated the overthrow of the US government. The accusations may have been related to a dispute within Detroit’s Russian Orthodox All Saints Church, of which Sachar was reportedly a member. “Voluntarily departed” September 25, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/557; FBI file BS 202600-353-1

Nikita Safroniev (Никита Сафроньев; Necita; Zafronia; Safronieff)

Born 1883, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1914. Wife in Russia. Member of the Maspeth, Queens branch of the Union of Russian Workers in New York. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 9, 1919. Testified: “I lived long enough in Russia under the Czar. I have seen enough brutality committed there, but I have never seen the brutality that was committed upon the Russian people here in my case…When I was arrested…I was travelling in the automobile, they were beating me in the sides with their handcuffs; and this continued all the way until they brought me to the Park Row Building in New York.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/284; FBI file OG 379106

See also: Constantine M. Panunzio, The Deportation Cases of 1919-1920

Orteof Sahtabnog (Ortiof; Ortiob Shtabnoy)

Born 1891, Russia. Miner. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch at the Jamieson No. 9 mine in Farmington, West Virginia, September 1919; became branch secretary. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/586

Nikofor Salabay (Никофор Салабай)

Deported to Russia February 1, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Marcelo Salinas y López (Marcelino; Marcelo Salinas; Marcelo Salinas Lopez; aka Marcelino Menendez; Jorge Gallart; George Gallart; Pedro Martín; Pedro Martín Sánchez; Palomero)

Born 1889, Batabanó, Cuba. Cigarworker; writer. Became anarchist circa 1908, in Cuba. Migrated to US 1911. Active in anarchist groups in Ybor City, Florida, where also joined and organized for the IWW. Wrote for Spanish-language anarchist newspapers published throughout the world. A strong supporter of the Partido Liberal Mexicano in the Mexican Revolution. Was briefly the roommate of anarchist Manuel Pardiñas, who in 1912 returned to Spain and assassinated Spanish Prime Minister José Canalejas; therefore wrongly suspected of involvement in the assassination; January 1913 the Mexican government warned the US (falsely) that Salinas was part of plot to kill Mexican President Madero. Arrested and deported to Cuba February 7, 1913. He illegally returned to the US in June of that year under the name “Marcelino Menendez” and participated in IWW maritime strike in New Orleans; then in New York under the name “Jorge (Georgie) Gallart,” where he frequented the Francisco Ferrer Center and collaborated on the newspaper Cultura Obrera; participated in protests at the home John D. Rockefeller, Jr. in response to the 1914 Ludlow Massacre. That same year migrated to Spain as “Jorge Gallart,” where he was part of an influential group of “americanos” (Spanish-speaking anarchists who had lived in the US) and collaborated on anarchist newspapers and joined and organized on behalf of the anarcho-syndicalist Confederación Nacional del Trabajo; imprisoned numerous times for these activities. 1916 migrated to either Mexico or the US; by 1918 was again in New York where, under the name “Pedro Martín,” he was a member of the Los Corsarios Group and became editor the newspaper El Corsario. One of 14 group members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped, but several members, including Salinas, held for deportation as anarchists. He claimed to have been born in Cartagena, Spain, and was deported to Spain May 4, 1919 as “Pedro Martín.” Arrested during a propaganda tour in Andalusia (for possession false identity documents under the name Pedro Martín); sentenced to two months in prison in Cádiz and then deported to Cuba August 1, 1919. In Cuba took active part in 1919 general strikes; arrested and sentenced to death along with several other leading anarchists, but released 1921. While in prison, sent a letter to the Comintern to apply for the creation of a Cuban Communist Party, but soon disillusioned with Soviet Communism. 1921 cofounded newspaper Los Tiempos Nuevos; 1923-1924 collaborated on ¡Tierra!. 1920-1940s became nationally recognized as radical poet, novelist, and playwright. 1944 helped found the Asociacíon Libertaria de Cuba (ALC); 1948 appointed its Secretary of Culture. Edited a succession of Cuban anarchist newspapers. 1956 coauthored pamphlet Proyecciones libertarias, which denounced Fulgencio Batista but also questioned rebel Fidel Castro’s views. 1956-1959 a member of the secretariat of the Confederacíon de Trabajadores de Cuba. Refused to support Castro’s seizure of power. 1960 appointed to the national committee of the embattled ALC, which resolved its support for the Cuban Revolution but called for “total opposition to all the imperialisms, totalitarianisms and dictatorships of the world.” 1961 refused to sign a declaration condemning anarchists who did not support the Castro regime. 1967 migrated to US; legally allowed to enter as an anti-Castro refugee. Lived in Miami, Florida, where he continued to be an active member of the Movimiento Libertario Cubano en el Exilio and to write for anarchist publications. Died 1976.

INS file 53572/12 (1913 deportation); 54616/79 (1919 deportation [under name “Pedro Martin aka Pedro Martin Sanchez”])

See also: Marcelo Salinas: Un ideal sublime y elevado; Kirwin R. Shaffer, Anarchists of the Caribbean: Countercultural Politics and Transnational Networks in the Age of US Expansion; Frank Fernández, Cuban Anarchism: The History of a Movement; Manuel Buenacas, El movimiento obrero español, 1886-1926; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America

Nikolai Salov (Николай Салов; Nick Saloff)

Born 1891, Alagir, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1914; from there migrated to US 1915. Joined the Communist Party of America in Seattle. Deported January 22, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/31

Nikolai Saluk (Николай Салюк; Nikolaj; Celiuk)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Roland S. Samuleson (aka Roy Samuelson)

Born 1884, Stockholm, Sweden. Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Joined IWW Mixed Local No. 382 in Seattle in April 1917; became IWW delegate. Arrested January 1920 in Everett, Washington, for “criminal syndicalism” after the Great Northern Railway fired him for organizing his fellow workers and reported him to the police. Deported August 13, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/371; FBI file OG 386735

Ivan Samuylov (Иван Самуйлов; John; Samuyloff; Somaurloff; Samuyilof)

Member of the Communist Party of America in New York. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1919. Deported to Russia December 23, 1920. No further information found.

Included on lists of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G and FBI file BS 202600-33

See also: Minneapolis Star, December 27, 1920

Vladimir Samuylov (Владимир Самуйлов; Samuyloff; Samoileff; aka Pavel Wolkoff)

Member of the Communist Party of America in New York. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1919. Deported to Russia December 23, 1920; accompanied by teenage son and daughter. No further information found.

Included on lists of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G and FBI file BS 202600-33

See also: Minneapolis Star, December 27, 1920; New-York Tribune, December 19, 1920

Ramón Sánchez

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Members of Spanish-speaking Los Corsarios Group, including Sánchez, 1919

Born 1886, Santa Cruz, Canary Islands, Spain. Cigarmaker. Migrated with family to Cuba 1898; Migrated to Mexico 1916; from there migrated to US 1916. Anarchist; member of Los Corsarios Group which published anarchist paper El Corsario. One of 14 members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped, but several members, including Sánchez, held for deportation as anarchists. Deported to Spain May 4, 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/79

Ramón L. Sánchez (aka R.J. Sánchez)

Arrested June 21, 1921 in Sacramento for “criminal syndicalism” after handing out IWW literature. Sentenced to 1 to 14 years in San Quentin Penitentiary. Contracted tuberculosis in prison. Sentence commuted 1924 on condition of deportation to Spain. No further information found.

See: Sacramento Star, June 22, October 21, 1921; Daily Worker, February 29 and June 2, 1924; Stephen M. Kohn, American Political Prisoners: Prosecutions under the Espionage and Sedition Acts