Tag Archives: CLP

Faces of the First Red Scare

As part of my ongoing research for a book on the global history of immigrant radicals who were deported during America’s First Red Scare, I am regularly posting brief profiles of the more than 700 individual deportees I have identified. New entries are being added regularly.

Who is included:

This list includes radicals and suspected radicals who were deported between 1917 (following America’s entrance into the First World War) and 1925, when the last of the foreign-born radicals arrested between 1917 and 1920 were expelled, some after serving prison sentences. It includes both those who were deported at government expense and those who were ordered deported but “voluntarily departed” at their own expense with the government’s consent (both categories were included together in US government deportation statistics). It does not include those who fled the country to avoid arrest or deportation. It includes both individuals deported for belonging to legally-defined “anarchistic classes,” and others who were suspected of radicalism but deported on other grounds (most commonly for entering the country without inspection or being retroactively deemed “likely to become a public charge” at the time of their entry).

This is not a complete list. In the fiscal years (June-July) 1917-1926, the United States deported 991 aliens as “anarchists,” and an unknown number of additional radical immigrants under other statutes. The largest single group of deportees, composed of 242 alleged radicals (as well as seven unrelated deportees) departed on the USAT Buford on December 21, 1919. However, it appears that no complete list of Red Scare deportees was produced by either the Bureau of Immigration or the Bureau of Investigation. I have instead had to rely on partial lists and mentions of individual cases included in these organizations’ files, congressional testimony, radical publications, newspaper reports, and other sources.

How to use this site:

I am posting entries of several profiles at a time. Profiles are posted in alphabetical order by last name, followed by alternate spellings and pseudonyms in parentheses. (The Cyrillic spellings of Russian names are generally my best guess; American sources from the era were wildly inconsistent in their spellings of such names. The same is true of the transliteration of Chinese names in the Roman alphabet.)

Birth years are often approximate, usually having been calculated from an individual’s age at the time of their examination by immigration authorities, and some may therefore be off by a year.

You can search by individuals’ nationalities (country of birth and, in some cases, ethnicity [i.e. Jewish, Lithuanian, etc.]) by using the tags above.

Occupations describe the individuals’ employment in the US, not necessarily the work they engaged in before arrival or after their deportation.

Political affiliations represented include the syndicalist Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), the anarcho-syndicalist Union of Russian Workers of the United States and Canada (URW); the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM); anarchists unaffiliated with larger organizations; the Communist Party of America (CP); the Communist Labor Party (CLP); the Socialist Party of America (SP); the Socialist Labor Party (SLP); and unaffiliated socialists. You can search by political affiliation by using the tags above.

You may also use the “Search” box at the top of the page to look for individual names, locations, etc.

The main sources used for compiling these profiles are case files from the Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), Record Group 85, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC; the Old German Files (OG) and Bureau Section Files (BS) of the Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Record Group 65, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD (as digitized at fold3.com); and (for Italians) the Casellario Politico Centrale (CPC), Archivio Centrale dello Stato, Rome, Italy.

A special thanks to Molly Thacker, who photographed dozens of INS files for me; Malcolm Archibald, who has translated a number of Russian-language sources; and the dozens of other archivists, translators, activists, and colleagues who have helped me locate, acquire, and read material from across the globe while undertaking this research.

Finally, if you have additional information about any of the deportees, or spot an error, please contact me!

Bahruk to Baldenkov

Dimitry Bahruk

Born Russia, 1897. Migrated at unknown date to Detroit. Deported to Russia January 22, 1921. No further information found.

INS file not located; name included on list of radical deportees in INS file 54325/36G

Andrei Balash (Андрей Балаш, Andrew Balucz)

Born Russia, 1886. Migrated to US 1913. Joined URW in New Haven, CT, 1919. Arrested Ansonia, CT November 1919; trove of Russian-language anarchist literature found in his room. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/320

Giovanni Baldazzi (John Baldazzi; Baldazza)

Born 1883, Imola, Italy. Printer, electrician, labor organizer. Anarchist by 1903; wrote for several anarchist newspapers; proponent of general strike; arrested multiple times in Italy for strike activity. 1906 disillusioned with labor movement and turned to individualist anarchism. 1907-1910 migrated between England, France, and Italy as a sale representative. 1912 expelled from France to Italy, where again involved in labor and strike activity. 1914 collaborated on Utopia, a pro-war, syndicalist-leaning paper edited by Benito Mussolini. Migrated to US late 1914. Joined IWW upon arrival; organizer and lecturer for IWW’s Bakers’ Union (New York), editor and contributor to IWW paper Il Proletario. Arrested Old Forge, PA July 1917 for “pernicious activities” as labor organizer and opposing conscription; defendant at IWW federal trial, sentenced to ten years and $30,000 fine. Sentence commuted on condition of deportation; deported 1922. In Rome quickly gravitated toward Fascism; worked for Fascist Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro and newspaper La Stirpe, founded by fellow Wobbly-turned-Fascist Edmondo Rossoni. 1931-1936 employed as translator for Italian National Olympic Committee. 1935, however, placed under government surveillance and reported to privately be “intimately hostile to Fascism.” Died 1940.

INS file 54235/39; CPC busta 268

See also http://www.bfscollezionidigitali.org/entita/12935-baldazzi-giovanni/

Ivan G. Baldenkov (Baldenkoff)

Born 1895, Zvenyhorodka, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Bookkeeper, salesman, journalist. Migrated to US 1912. Joined URW in Newark, 1915; joined IWW 1919; also joined Syracuse, NY branch of Communist Labor Party. Organizer for IWW and literary agent for URW. Arrested 1920; led hunger strike of nine other detained Russian radicals in Cortland County jail demanding expedited deportation. Deported February 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/325

Korotkov to Kovalenko

Vasily Korotkov (Василий Коротков; Vasely Krotokoff; Koratkoff; Keratkoff)

Member of the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested Seattle, December 1919. Deported February 1, 1921. No further information found.

INS file not identified; FBI file OG 389407

Gregory Koroviansky (aka George Karoff)

Born 1891, Russia. Laborer. 1912 migrated to Argentina; 1914 migrated to US. Wife and child in Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Buffalo in 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November, 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/145

Anton Korshikov (Антон Коршиков; Tony Korscheikoff; Korschikoff)

Born 1895, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1914. Described himself as “a fugitive from Czarism.” Arrested and beaten while attending arithmetic class at the Union of Russian Workers’ People’s House in New York during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/455

Wacław Kosiorek

Born 1894, Russia. Polish. Laborer. “Voluntary departure” to Russia via Canada and England, 1920. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Mike Koslick

Deported to Russia on February 1, 1921. No further information found.

INS file no identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Logvin Kostevich (Логвин Костевич; Lenohon; aka Louis Kostevich)

Born 1894, Povusk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Ukrainian. Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Joined the “Russian Workmen’s Organization” in Baltimore, 1917; 1919 transferred into Branch No. 2 if the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/420

Gabriel Kosticovitch (Kosticowitsc)

Born 1882, Russia. Migrated to US 1916. Member of Russian Branch No. 3, Communist Party of America, in Detroit. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. “Voluntary departure” via Canada, October 16, 1920. No further information found.

INS file not identified; FBI file 202600-1380-1

Anton Kotiak (Антон Котяк)

Kotiak’s URW membership card

Born 1895, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Drafted into US Army November 1918 but honorably discharged March 1919 at his request as an unnaturalized alien. Joined the Bridgeport, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers circa September 1919. Arrested Hartford, Connecticut during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/386; FBI file OG 389393

Maxwell Kotik (Максвелл Котик; Kotick; Kutick)

Member of the Communist Labor Party in Philadelphia (not a deportable offense in itself). Deported to Russia February 1, 1921. No further information found.

INS file not identified; FBI file OG 389320

Dionisiy Ivanovich Koval (Дионисий Иванович Коваль; Daniel Kowal; Danny Cowas)

Born 1884, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1913; migrated to US 1914. Wife and two children in Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in New York in 1919; escaped arrest during Palmer Raids on Russian People’s House in November 1919; relocated to Waterbury, Connecticut, where he joined the Union of Russian Citizens (an umbrella organization for Russian progressives). Arrested March 1920. Deported January 22, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file not identified; FBI file OG 384417

Evgraf Kovalenko (Евграф Коваленко; Efgram; Kovaleko; aka E. Koval)

Born 1885, Russia. Migrated to England 1906, then Germany; 1912 migrated to Canada; from there migrated to US 1917. Wife and two children in Russia. Member of the Union of Russian Workers in Pittsburgh, where he was “known by the police department and officers of the Bureau of Investigation as one of the worst radicals in the city.” Arrested May, 1919. Deported on the Buford. At unknown date, sentenced to internal exile (with wife and children) in Omsk region of Siberia.

INS file 54616/176; FBI file OG 8000-360780

See also: https://ru.openlist.wiki/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BA%D0%BE_%D0%95%D0%B2%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%84_%D0%92%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%B8%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87

Feodosiy Kovalenko (Феодосий Коваленко; Fedisiw Kovalenko; Feodosew; Feodosy; aka Fred Konert)

Born 1892, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1911; then to US 1915. Joined the Union of Russian Workers Branch No. 2 in Detroit in February 1918; distributor of Russian anarchist and IWW publications. Arrested May 1919. Deported January 22, 1921. Appears to have illegally returned to the US, as he was an active member of Detroit’s Dielo Truda Group in 1939, and at that time was considered a “comrade…capable of doing great work of the organizational-educational type in the movement.”

INS file not identified; FBI file OG 369234

See also: Lazar Lipotkin, The Russian Anarchist Movement in North America

Lachowsky to Lazarevich

Hyman Lachowsky (Chaim)

Born 1894, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Jewish. Bookbinder. Migrated to US 1907. 1917 a member of New York’s militant Jewish anarchist Shturem Group, which in 1918 became the Frayhayt Group. Arrested, with Molly Steimer, while distributing radical leaflets protesting US intervention in the Russian Civil War on August 23, 1918. Beaten while interrogated and convicted, with other members of the group, for violation of the Espionage Act; sentenced to 20 years in prison and a $1,000 fine. October 1919 told immigration agents: “I am an alien and an anarchist…I am opposed to all organized government. Not only the Government of the United States but any government…I’m an anarchist and proud of it.” By 1921, however, he had become disillusioned in prison and no longer believed in anarchism. Deported November 23, 1921 after losing landmark Supreme Court free-speech case Abrams v. United States. Returned to Minsk, where he started a family and stayed out of politics. Reportedly died of natural causes.

INS file 54517/74

See also: Richard Polenberg, Fighting Faiths: The Abrams Case, the Supreme Court, and Free Speech; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America

Charles Lindsay Lambert

Born 1881, Arbroath, Scotland. Baker; oil worker. Migrated to US 1901 or 1902. Joined the IWW in 1911; secretary of Local No. 453 of the Oil Workers’ Industrial Union in Taft, California, 1913, then of IWW mixed locals in Sacramento, 1914-1917. Secretary-Treasurer of the Wheatland Defense Committee 1914-1915, in which role he advocated sabotage; elected to IWW’s General Executive Board 1916. Defendant at federal IWW trial 1917-1918; sentenced to 20 years imprisonment. 1922 sentence commuted in exchange for “voluntary departure” to Scotland; sailed March 31, 1923. Upon arrival he began “attending meetings of various trade unions…persuading them to send protests to President Harding, the Ambassador and the Consul General against the imprisonment of the I.W.W.’s in the United States.” May have traveled to Tampico, Mexico to work in the oil fields in the 1920s; appears to have illegally returned to the US undetected, then returned to Scotland via New York in 1926. 1930s employed as oil worker in the Caribbean; returned to UK 1933. Appears to have dropped out of radical politics; later a diamond prospector in British Guiana and then worked as a runner for a bookmaker in London, where he died circa 1961.

INS file 54616/59; FBI file OG 8000-160053

See also: Industrial Workers of the World Collection, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University; Richard Brazier, “The Mass I.W.W. Trial of 1918: A Retrospect,” Labor History 7, no. 2 (1966); Eric Thomas Chester, The Wobblies in Their Heyday: The Rise and Destruction of the Industrial Workers of the World during the World War I Era; Eric Thomas Chester, Yours for Industrial Freedom: The Industrial Workers of the World from the Inside; https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&dbid=1518&h=13557765&tid=&pid=&usePUB=true&_phsrc=SAX498&_phstart=successSource

Manya Lansky

Born 1898, Pieski, Russia (present-day Belarus). Jewish. Garment worker. Orthodox Jewish parents. Migrated to US 1915 for work. Became an anarchist in New York shortly thereafter. A distributor of the Union of Russian Workers’ paper Golos Truda. Arrested July 4, 1920 en route to a radical picnic in Cleveland. According to the Immigration Inspector in Charge in Cleveland, “she is the most typical of the usual conception of the anarchistic type that one may have occasion to observe.” Regarding Russia, she declared, “I am not in sympathy with the leaders of the Soviets, but am in sympathy with the Russian people.” Deported to Russia February 1, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54885/2

Ivan Laposanko (aka John Lapko)

Deported to Russia on January 22, 1921.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

James Larkin (Jim; “Big Jim”)

Born 1876, Liverpool, England. Irish. Laborer; union organizer. Grew up in poverty in Ireland. 1893 joined the Independent Labour Party; 1905 began working as a labor organizer full time for the National Union of Dock Labourers, but expelled 1908; founded Irish Transport and General Workers’ Union, influenced by the American IWW; 1912 cofounded the Irish Labour Party and elected to the Dublin city government (but removed after one month). 1913 co-led the dockers’ strike that resulted in the Dublin Lockout with James Connolly, and cofounded the paramilitary Irish Citizen Army. Migrated to US 1914. Joined the Socialist Party of America and associated closely with (but did not join) the IWW; lectured across the country and arrested repeatedly. He played a leading role in the SPA’s pro-Bolshevik Left Wing; 1919 expelled from the SPA and joined the new Communist Labor Party. Wished to return to the United Kingdom in 1919, but the British consulate denied his requests for a passport eleven times. Arrested and sentenced to five to ten years under New York’s “criminal anarchy” law; pardoned by Governor Al Smith in 1923; deported April 1923. In Ireland, he formed the Irish Worker League (a Communist Party officially recognized by the Comintern) and became head of the Communist-aligned Worker’s Union of Ireland, a breakaway from the ITGWU. In 1924 he attended Fifth Congress of the Communist International, where he was elected to its executive committee. Soon, however, Larkin and the Soviets fell out with each other. 1927 he was elected to the Irish parliament (Dáil Éireann), but unable to take his seat; 1936 again elected to the Dublin city government; 1937 elected to the Dáil Éireann, but lost reelection the following year. 1941 rejoined the Irish Labour Party; served in the Dáil Éireann 1943-1944. Died 1947.

INS file not identified

See also: Emmet O’Connor, “James Larkin in the United States, 1914-23,” Journal of Contemporary History 37, no. 2 (April 2002); Emmet O’Connor, Big Jim Larkin: Hero or Wrecker?

Ludwig Lau

Deported to Poland September 1, 1920. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Stefan Lavrichuk (Стефан Лавричук; Lawrichuk; aka Steve Liunsky)

Deported to Russia, October 20, 1920. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Mikal Lavrinuk (Микал Лавринюк; Michael Lawrinuk; Michail)

Born 1891, Russia. Hotel worker. Migrated to US 1914. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in New York circa 1918; also joined IWW 1919. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/489

Giacamo Lavrio (James; Laverio; Lavero)

Born 1884, Turin, Italy. Miner. Migrated to US 1901 (returned to Italy 1905-1907). Worked in mines throughout the country. Became anarchist in US; supported Cronaca Sovversiva and carried out extensive correspondence with several fellow Italian American anarchists. Arrested in St. Charles, Michigan, May 1919, while on strike. Married widow Maria Perocchetti while on bail; promised to give up his radicalism for her. Deported December 20, 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/206

William Lawna (Launa; Lauwa; Lauva; aka Alfred Schmidt)

Born 1886, Libau, Russia (present-day Latvia). Locksmith. Migrated to US 1906. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in 1919; allegedly became secretary of its Elizabeth, New Jersey branch and hosted Leon Trotsky in his home during Trotsky’s time in the US, but denied this. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Wife in the US. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/103

Andrey Lazarevich (Андрей Лазаревич; Andrew Lazarewich; Lazarowitz)

Born 1895, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1913. Alleged member of the Union of Russian Workers in Newark, although the only evidence against him was a membership card for the Executive Committee of the Second Russian All-Colonial Convention of the United States and Canada (a meeting of various leftwing groups held in New York in January 1919). Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Wife in US. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/347

Metcalfe to Miller

Sidney Metcalfe (Sydney)

Born 1893, Leeds, England. Laborer. Migrated to US 1906 (age 13) with family. Became a “hobo” laborer; “I had a thousand different jobs” in the US and Canada. Joined the IWW in 1916 in Salina, Kansas. Served one year in Pierce County (Washington) Jail for refusing to register for the draft–“In my estimation it was just an employers’ edict to go and fight for them.” Arrested in Tacoma, Washington, February 1919 while posting IWW stickers along waterfront. Deported June 21, 1919. Upon arrival asked if he intended “to carry on I.W.W. propaganda in England;” replied: “Yes, if conditions are no better than they were in America,” but later noted, “the real wobblies I have been deported with, seem to find no outlet for I.W.W. activities [in England].” Became admirer of socialist George Lansbury, and worked as a docker in Liverpool.

INS file 54517/88; FBI file OG 8000-382412

Grigory Mikhalevich (Григорий Михалевич; Gregory Michaelevitcz; Nicholavitch; Michailevich; Michalkovich)

Born 1886, Russia. Migrated to US 1910. Joined Russian Branch No. 6 of the Communist Party of America in New York. Deported December 23, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54859/199

Nicholas Michels

Member of the Communist Labor Party. Deported to Hungary 1921. No further information found.

FBI file OG 381688

Gavril Mikhnevich (Гаврил Михневич; Hawril Michnewitz; Michniewich; Gavrilo)

Mikhnevich’s URW membership card

Born 1886, Kremno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Wife in Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Hartford, Connecticut in August 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/421

Kalenik Migura (Kalymnyk)

Born 1885, Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Northampton Heights (present-day Bethlehem), Pennsylvania, and became its secretary. Arrested February 1920. Deported January 22, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file not identified; FBI file OG 381865

Anton Mikelaychuk

Deported to Russia February 1, 1921. No further information found.

INS file not identified; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Nikolai Mikhaelov (Николай Михайлов; Nicholas Mihaeloff; Mikeloff; Michaelov; aka Peter Lund; Fritiak)

Born 1893, Petrograd, Russia. Sailor; machinist. 1914 enlisted in British Army; fought in France, where injured and discharged; returned to Russia 1915 and drafted into Russian Army; deserted 1916 and migrated to England, the US, Cuba, and then, in 1917, the US again. (According to another source, however, leader of an anarchist gang that took part in “expropriations” in Petrograd in 1916 and fled to US after two members killed and he was injured in the hand.) Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Newark; 1919 also joined the IWW. Arrested March 1919; released on bail; expelled from the URW after his common-law wife, Celia Fisher, “had made overtures to the Police of Newark to furnish information.” Nevertheless, he remained “anxious to return to Russia to take part in the over-throw of Lenine [sic] and putting in effect pure anarchy.” Deported on the Buford. Wife and seven-week-old child remained in US and requested to be allowed to leave for Russia.

INS file 54616/106

Samuel Miller (Sholem Melamed; Schulim)

Born 1897, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Jewish. Laborer. Migrated to US 1914. IWW; anarchist. Employee of Sears, Roebuck and Company. in Chicago. Arrested July 1917. When asked his nationality, replied: “Well, I am international. I don’t belong in any nationality. I am born of Jewish parentage in Russia.” Clarence Darrow acted as his attorney, and unsuccessfully argued that a “philosophical anarchist” and pacifist like Miller did not properly fall under anarchist exclusion laws. Deported December 23, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54235/36-A