Tag Archives: Spanish

Roberts to Roy

Vasily Roberts (Wasily; Robertz; Robetz)

Member of the Communist Party of America in Philadelphia. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported to Russia February 1, 1921. No further information found.

FBI file OG 382735

Jack Robey

IWW member arrested in Sand Point, Idaho, 1918; released then rearrested; deported October 28, 1919. No further information found.

See: One Big Union Monthly, March 1920

Alfred Robinson

Born 1893, Chislehurst, England. Laborer. Migrated to US 1905. Worked throughout the US and Canada. Joined the IWW’s Metal and Machinery Workers’ Industrial Union No. 300 in July 1919. Arrested in Detroit during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported March 27, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/578; FBI file OG 8000-385119

Abraham Rodríguez (Abram Rodríguez)

Sketch by Ralph Chaplin. Source: Labadie Collection

Born in Mexico. Miner, labor organizer, and poet. 1911 formed PLM group in Del Valle, Texas, and reportedly served as “a colonel in the rebel army that overthrew the dictatorship in Mexico” before returning to work as a miner in Miami, Arizona, where he belonged to IWW Local 800 and was chairman of its grievance committee. Indicted in the federal IWW trial in 1917 and arrested in Valedon, New Mexico, following an armed standoff with authorities. The charges against him were dropped in exchange for his deportation to Mexico. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file Misc 18346

Konstantin Romanchuk (Константин Романчук; Konstan; Konstanti)

Born 1895, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1915. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Bridgeport, Connecticut, circa July 1919; became its secretary. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/396; FBI file OG 376791

Gavril Romanovich (Гавриил Романович; Gabriel)

Born 1896, Vilna Governorate, Russia (present-day Lithuania?). Laborer. Migrated to US 1915. Joined the Russian Federation of the Socialist Party of America; 1919 transferred into of the Russian Branch of the Communist Party of America; became secretary of its branch in Waterbury, Connecticut. Arrested March, 1920 during raid on branch headquarters. Deported February 1, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/462; FBI file OG 379909

Jesus Romo

Born in Mexico. Laborer. Year of migration to US unknown. Joined the IWW in Los Angeles February 1919 and immediately became a delegate for its General Recruiting Union, but was probably previously a member in Morenci, Arizona, where his father Cleofas and brother Guadalupe were also IWW activists. Arrested June 9, 1919, after distributing IWW literature outside of an employment agency. Stated that he “was born an anarchist.” Deported August 18, 1919. After his deportation, continued his IWW membership and organizing in Guadalajara, Mexico.

FBI file OG 363737

Angel Roncal

Born 1896, Spain. Reportedly “spent some time in South America.” Migrated to US 1916. Member of the Niagara Falls, New York branch of the IWW. Arrested September 1918 for failing to register for the draft; IWW literature discovered in his possession. February 1919 released from jail after five months without trial; immediately detained by immigration authorities for deportation. Deported circa July 1, 1920. No further information found.

See: Buffalo Commercial, February 1, 1919; Buffalo Times, February 20, 1919; Cattaraucus Republican, March 27, 1919; Buffalo Express, April 30, 1919; Illustrated Buffalo Express, June 22, 1919

Maxim Rosak (Максим Росак; Max; Roosak)

Born Russia. Former member of the Russian Federation of the Socialist Party of America in Philadelphia; 1919 transferred into the Communist Party of America. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported February 1, 1921.

FBI file OG 379897

Savely Roshkov (Савелий Рошков; aka Charles Roshko)

Born 1893, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Machinist. Migrated to US 1912. Employed by Singer Manufacturing Company in Bridgeport, Connecticut; member of International Association of Machinists, Local No. 30; participated in 1919 wildcat strike. Member of the Union of Russian Workers branch in Bridgeport. Deported January 22, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/143; FBI file OG 382709

Mikail Rosnak (Микаил Роснак; Michael Rosnack; Bosnack)

Born 1897, Bukovina, Austria-Hungary (present-day Romania). Ukrainian. Blacksmith’s helper. Migrated to Canada 1913; expelled as an “enemy alien” and migrated to US 1917. 1919 joined Branch No. 6 of the Union of Russian Workers in Detroit. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Testified that the detective who arrested him said he should be sent back to Russia, called him “worse than a nigger,” and gave him “a smash in the face.” Deported to Romania, March 17, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54739/469

Janet Johnstone Roy (Jeanette; Janet Johnstone MacKay)

Born 1895, Milmathort, Scotland. Supporter of the Independent Labour Party before emigration. Laborer. Migrated to US 1916 with her sister, Margaret. Worked in Lawrence, Massachusetts, where joined the Socialist Party of America and then, in July 1917, Textile Workers Industrial Union No. 1000 of the IWW. Moved to Chicago where worked for the IWW’s bindery, then October 1918 moved to Seattle, where arrested with sister in police raid on IWW two days later. Married a Scottish-born Ian V. MacKay on January 21, 1919 to attempt to claim US citizenship and avoid deportation, but deported with her sister regardless on July 23, 1919. Migrated to British Columbia, Canada, where reunited with husband. Ian died 1941; she died in British Columbia in 1972.

INS files 54379/532 and 54379/532A

See also: Frances H. Early, A World Without War: How U.S. Feminists and Pacifists Resisted World War I; Heather Mayer, Beyond the Rebel Girl: Women and the Industrial Workers of the World in the Pacific Northwest, 1905-1924; Ancestry.com

Margaret Roy (Margaret Ray)

Born 1893, Milmathort, Scotland. Laborer. Migrated to Canada (via US) 1913; 1916 returned to Scotland to collect her sister Janet; 1916 migrated to US. Worked in Lawrence, Massachusetts, where joined the Socialist Party of America and then, in July 1917, Textile Workers Industrial Union No. 1000 of the IWW. Moved to Chicago where worked for the IWW’s bindery, then October 1918 moved to Seattle, where arrested with sister in police raid on IWW two days later. Married and US citizen named Alonzo Ray on January 21, 1919 to attempt to claim US citizenship and avoid deportation, but deported with her sister regardless on July 23, 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS files 54379/532 and 54379/532A

See also: Frances H. Early, A World Without War: How U.S. Feminists and Pacifists Resisted World War I; Heather Mayer, Beyond the Rebel Girl: Women and the Industrial Workers of the World in the Pacific Northwest, 1905-1924

Sachar to Sánchez

Andrey Sachar (Андрей Сачар; Andrej; Andrew; aka Henry Sugar)

Born 1898, Minsk oblast, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1913. Employed by the Ford Motor Company in Detroit. 1918 became secretary of the Russian National Home/Russian People’s Home, “an alleged Bolshevik organization” that hosted talks by members of the Union of Russian Workers and the Communist Party of America, and admitted support for the Bolshevik government and for a revolution in the US (but subsequently claimed his testimony had not been accurately translated). Arrested April, 1919, after three members of Russian community swore out affidavits that he had advocated the overthrow of the US government. The accusations may have been related to a dispute within Detroit’s Russian Orthodox All Saints Church, of which Sachar was reportedly a member. “Voluntarily departed” September 25, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/557; FBI file BS 202600-353-1

Nikita Safroniev (Никита Сафроньев; Necita; Zafronia; Safronieff)

Born 1883, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1914. Wife in Russia. Member of the Maspeth, Queens branch of the Union of Russian Workers in New York. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 9, 1919. Testified: “I lived long enough in Russia under the Czar. I have seen enough brutality committed there, but I have never seen the brutality that was committed upon the Russian people here in my case…When I was arrested…I was travelling in the automobile, they were beating me in the sides with their handcuffs; and this continued all the way until they brought me to the Park Row Building in New York.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/284; FBI file OG 379106

See also: Constantine M. Panunzio, The Deportation Cases of 1919-1920

Orteof Sahtabnog (Ortiof; Ortiob Shtabnoy)

Born 1891, Russia. Miner. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch at the Jamieson No. 9 mine in Farmington, West Virginia, September 1919; became branch secretary. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/586

Nikofor Salabay (Никофор Салабай)

Deported to Russia February 1, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Marcelo Salinas y López (Marcelino; Marcelo Salinas; Marcelo Salinas Lopez; aka Marcelino Menendez; Jorge Gallart; George Gallart; Pedro Martín; Pedro Martín Sánchez; Palomero)

Born 1889, Batabanó, Cuba. Cigarworker; writer. Became anarchist circa 1908, in Cuba. Migrated to US 1911. Active in anarchist groups in Ybor City, Florida, where also joined and organized for the IWW. Wrote for Spanish-language anarchist newspapers published throughout the world. A strong supporter of the Partido Liberal Mexicano in the Mexican Revolution. Was briefly the roommate of anarchist Manuel Pardiñas, who in 1912 returned to Spain and assassinated Spanish Prime Minister José Canalejas; therefore wrongly suspected of involvement in the assassination; January 1913 the Mexican government warned the US (falsely) that Salinas was part of plot to kill Mexican President Madero. Arrested and deported to Cuba February 7, 1913. He illegally returned to the US in June of that year under the name “Marcelino Menendez” and participated in IWW maritime strike in New Orleans; then in New York under the name “Jorge (Georgie) Gallart,” where he frequented the Francisco Ferrer Center and collaborated on the newspaper Cultura Obrera; participated in protests at the home John D. Rockefeller, Jr. in response to the 1914 Ludlow Massacre. That same year migrated to Spain as “Jorge Gallart,” where he was part of an influential group of “americanos” (Spanish-speaking anarchists who had lived in the US) and collaborated on anarchist newspapers and joined and organized on behalf of the anarcho-syndicalist Confederación Nacional del Trabajo; imprisoned numerous times for these activities. 1916 migrated to either Mexico or the US; by 1918 was again in New York where, under the name “Pedro Martín,” he was a member of the Los Corsarios Group and became editor the newspaper El Corsario. One of 14 group members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped, but several members, including Salinas, held for deportation as anarchists. He claimed to have been born in Cartagena, Spain, and was deported to Spain May 4, 1919 as “Pedro Martín.” Arrested during a propaganda tour in Andalusia (for possession false identity documents under the name Pedro Martín); sentenced to two months in prison in Cádiz and then deported to Cuba August 1, 1919. In Cuba took active part in 1919 general strikes; arrested and sentenced to death along with several other leading anarchists, but released 1921. While in prison, sent a letter to the Comintern to apply for the creation of a Cuban Communist Party, but soon disillusioned with Soviet Communism. 1921 cofounded newspaper Los Tiempos Nuevos; 1923-1924 collaborated on ¡Tierra!. 1920-1940s became nationally recognized as radical poet, novelist, and playwright. 1944 helped found the Asociacíon Libertaria de Cuba (ALC); 1948 appointed its Secretary of Culture. Edited a succession of Cuban anarchist newspapers. 1956 coauthored pamphlet Proyecciones libertarias, which denounced Fulgencio Batista but also questioned rebel Fidel Castro’s views. 1956-1959 a member of the secretariat of the Confederacíon de Trabajadores de Cuba. Refused to support Castro’s seizure of power. 1960 appointed to the national committee of the embattled ALC, which resolved its support for the Cuban Revolution but called for “total opposition to all the imperialisms, totalitarianisms and dictatorships of the world.” 1961 refused to sign a declaration condemning anarchists who did not support the Castro regime. 1967 migrated to US; legally allowed to enter as an anti-Castro refugee. Lived in Miami, Florida, where he continued to be an active member of the Movimiento Libertario Cubano en el Exilio and to write for anarchist publications. Died 1976.

INS file 53572/12 (1913 deportation); 54616/79 (1919 deportation [under name “Pedro Martin aka Pedro Martin Sanchez”])

See also: Marcelo Salinas: Un ideal sublime y elevado; Kirwin R. Shaffer, Anarchists of the Caribbean: Countercultural Politics and Transnational Networks in the Age of US Expansion; Frank Fernández, Cuban Anarchism: The History of a Movement; Manuel Buenacas, El movimiento obrero español, 1886-1926; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America

Nikolai Salov (Николай Салов; Nick Saloff)

Born 1891, Alagir, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1914; from there migrated to US 1915. Joined the Communist Party of America in Seattle. Deported January 22, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/31

Nikolai Saluk (Николай Салюк; Nikolaj; Celiuk)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Roland S. Samuleson (aka Roy Samuelson)

Born 1884, Stockholm, Sweden. Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Joined IWW Mixed Local No. 382 in Seattle in April 1917; became IWW delegate. Arrested January 1920 in Everett, Washington, for “criminal syndicalism” after the Great Northern Railway fired him for organizing his fellow workers and reported him to the police. Deported August 13, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/371; FBI file OG 386735

Ivan Samuylov (Иван Самуйлов; John; Samuyloff; Somaurloff; Samuyilof)

Member of the Communist Party of America in New York. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1919. Deported to Russia December 23, 1920. No further information found.

Included on lists of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G and FBI file BS 202600-33

See also: Minneapolis Star, December 27, 1920

Vladimir Samuylov (Владимир Самуйлов; Samuyloff; Samoileff; aka Pavel Wolkoff)

Member of the Communist Party of America in New York. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1919. Deported to Russia December 23, 1920; accompanied by teenage son and daughter. No further information found.

Included on lists of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G and FBI file BS 202600-33

See also: Minneapolis Star, December 27, 1920; New-York Tribune, December 19, 1920

Ramón Sánchez

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Members of Spanish-speaking Los Corsarios Group, including Sánchez, 1919

Born 1886, Santa Cruz, Canary Islands, Spain. Cigarmaker. Migrated with family to Cuba 1898; Migrated to Mexico 1916; from there migrated to US 1916. Anarchist; member of Los Corsarios Group which published anarchist paper El Corsario. One of 14 members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped, but several members, including Sánchez, held for deportation as anarchists. Deported to Spain May 4, 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/79

Ramón L. Sánchez (aka R.J. Sánchez)

Ramón L. Sánchez’s mugshot, 1921

Arrested June 21, 1921 in Sacramento for “criminal syndicalism” after handing out IWW literature. Sentenced to 1 to 14 years in San Quentin Penitentiary. Contracted tuberculosis in prison. Sentence commuted 1924 on condition of deportation to Spain. No further information found.

See: Sacramento Star, June 22, October 21, 1921; Daily Worker, February 29 and June 2, 1924; Stephen M. Kohn, American Political Prisoners: Prosecutions under the Espionage and Sedition Acts

Sanchini to Sarvas

Giobbe Sanchini

Born 1887, Sant’Angelo in Lizzola, Italy. Mason. Became an anarchist at a young age. 1902 migrated to Switzerland; returned to Italy 1906. Migrated to US 1911. Settled in New Britain, Connecticut. Became close associate of Luigi Galleani and distributor of Cronaca Sovversiva. 1913 married fellow anarchist Irma Cassolino. Arrested September 8, 1917, after starting defense fund for Galleani; warrant canceled; arrested again May 16, 1918. When asked why he should not be deported, he replied: “My reasons are as follows: That every person has the right to live wherever he desires without being molested in a state that is called [a] democracy and, when a state ceases to be democratic it then embodies the term ‘tyranny’ and in that case we no longer enjoy liberty.” Deported June 24, 1919, with pregnant wife and American-born son and daughter. In Italy, immediately imprisoned for evading military service; 1922 charges dropped. Joined “Novatore” anarchist group in Pesaro; published anarchist newspaper La Frusta in Pesaro and then Fano from 1919 to 1922. 1925 Irma died in childbirth. 1926 Giobbe sent American-born children, Inga and Emo, to live with Irma’s father in the US, but was unable to ever rejoin them. Giobbe kept under surveillance until 1942. 1930s supervised a pasta factory, then worked as a bricklayer and then a public works supervisor; 1933 remarried. No radical activity noted by Fascist authorities, who claimed that he had “a favorable attitude towards the regime.” However, according to other government reports as well as his family members, Sanchini “always believed in anarchism,” and after the fall of Fascism he tried to revive La Frusta in 1946. He also remained in contact with Italian anarchists in the US up until his death. Died in Pesaro, December 1951.

INS file 54235/52; CPC busta 4562

See also: Maurizio Antonioli et al., Dizionario biografico degli anarchici italiani; Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America; Richard Lenzi, Facing Toward the Dawn: The Italian Anarchists of New London; Edoardo Puglielli, Il movimento anarchico abruzzese 1907-1957; Il Fondo L’Adunata Collection, Boston Public Library; Ugo Fedeli Papers, International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam

Irma Sanchini (née Cassolino)

Born 1895, Tonco, Piedmont, Italy. Housewife. Migrated to US 1907 with father. Settled in New Britain, Connecticut. Became close associate of Luigi Galleani and distributor of Cronaca Sovversiva. 1913 married fellow anarchist Giobbe Sanchini. Arrested September 8, 1917, after starting defense fund for Galleani; warrant canceled; arrested again May 16, 1918. Dubbed “Queen of the Anarchist” by some newspapers; the District Attorney hyperbolically claimed that she “accomplished untold mischief in the period that she has resided in Connecticut. She is highly intelligent, very resourceful, and is considered to be much more dangerous than her husband.” When asked by immigration agent, “What’s your idea of an anarchist?” she replied, “Well, my idea; a good man.” Deported June 24, 1919, with Giobbe and American-born son and daughter. Died 1925 in childbirth.

INS file 54235/52

See also: Boston Globe, June 20, 1919; Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America; Richard Lenzi, Facing Toward the Dawn: The Italian Anarchists of New London

Ivan Sanko (Иван Санько; Iwan; Evan; Sinko; Sankio)

Born 1896, Minsk region, Russia (present-day Belarus?). Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Youngstown, Ohio in January 1918; became its secretary. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Explained, “I read a great many Anarchistic books which put me in the notion of joining this Union,” and that he did “not care fro the Bolsheviks.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/184

Plácido Santamaría (Placidio; Santa Maria)

Members of Spanish-speaking Los Corsarios Group, including Placido, 1919

Born 1890, Burgos, Spain. Gunsmith; laborer. “Foundling” who was raised in an orphanage; 1912 cofounded Los Desamparados, “a group of young anarchists, lovers and enthusiasts of the emancipatory ideal” in Eibar. 1914 migrated to Scotland and Wales; from there migrated to US 1916. Member of Los Corsarios Group which published anarchist paper El Corsario. One of 14 members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped, but several members, including Santamaria, held for deportation as anarchists. Deported to England (the country from which he had sailed to US) July 5, 1919. Subsequent activities unknown, but in 1931 he donated money to Librado Rivera’s Mexican anarchist paper ¡Paso!

INS file 54616/79

See also: Tierra y Libertad (Barcelona), December 11, 1912; ¡Paso! (Mexico City), July 1, 1931

Turibbio Santarelli (Tribio; aka Giuseppe or Joseph Santarelli; Joseph Galligari)

Born 1899, Fano, Italy. Mechanic; laborer. Migrated to US 1911 with parents. 1916 joined the Socialist Party of America in Buffalo. That same year two American coworkers began insulting him in the washroom, saying,“To hell with the Socialists,” and calling him a “guinea” and “wop.” They then mentioned President Wilson, and Santarelli allegedly replied that Wilson “should be shot,” or “Somebody ought to kill him.” Arrested (only sixteen years old at the time) and interrogated by the Secret Service, but released on bail. Admitted to saying “I would rather serve four years in jail than two days in the army.” Subsequently (and implausibly) accused by confidential informants for the authorities of simultaneously 1) being secretary of an anarchist group called the Roma Club (which appears to have been simply an ethnic leisure association), 2) declaring himself to be “a Kaiser man” and stating “the Kaiser was the best man in the world,” 3) being offered money by a German agent to either kill government officials or blow up a bridge, 4) either being given or making a bomb for such a purpose, and 5) also being connected to the “Black Hand.” Rearrested 1919 for “advocating or teaching the assassination of public officials”; deported December 14, 1919. 1920 migrated to Canada; for several years he and his parents in the US petitioned the US government to allow his return, but denied. His mother died in New York in 1925; in 1926 he married Constance Yuraities in York, Ontario. In the 1930s subscribed to the US anarchist newspaper L’Adunata dei Refrattari.

INS file 54235/91; CPC busta 4582

Alex Sarchkoff

“Voluntarily departed” to Russia between December 1919 and February 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Ivan Sarvas (Иван Сарвас; John)

Deported to Russia November 17, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Sastre to Scali

Manuel Sastre (Sustre; aka Manuel Sastre Garcia)

Born Pozaldez, Spain. Laborer; union organizer. Migrated to Panama Canal Zone 1908; migrated to US 1910. Joined the IWW in California 1911; organized Spanish-speaking workers in Southern California; led major citrus workers’ strike in Covina, January-February 1919; arrested and sentenced to 30 days in jail for assault. Arrested February 1919 for violating Espionage Act, but never brought to trial; deported later that year. 1932 living in in Málaga and subscribing to the anarchist magazine Estudios (Valencia). No further information found.

FBI file OG 8000-96994

See also: Nelson Van Valen, “The Bolsheviki and the Orange Growers,” Pacific Historical Review 22, no. 1 (1953); David M. Struthers, The World in a City: Multiethnic Radicalism in Early Twentieth-Century Los Angeles; Estudios: Generación Consciente, October 1932

Prokofen Savach

Deported to Russia, January 22, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals included in INS file 54325/36G

Sergei Savchuk (Сергей Савчук; Savshuk)

Born 1894, Russia. Longshoreman. Migrated to US 1912. Joined Branch No. 1 of the Union of Russian Workers in Baltimore in 1918. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/583; FBI file OG 376569

Mieczyslaw Savitsky (Мечислав Савицкий; Michael; Mike; Savitzki; Savitzky; Savitskey; Sevitsky; Sawicki)

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Savitsky’s URW membership card

Born 1887, Lesnoy, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Polish. Machinist. Likely involved in anarchist movement in Russia before emigrating. Migrated to US 1911. Employed by Gould & Eberhardt in Irvington, New Jersey. A member of the organizing committee of the Newark branch of the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Participated in hunger strike on Ellis Island to protest installation of wire screen separating detainees from visitors. Deported on the Buford. In Petrograd, arrested June 1923 in raids on anarchists; imprisoned for seven weeks and participated with 14 other anarchists (including several other deportees) in a hunger strike; sentenced to two years internal exile in Pyatigorsk.

INS file 54709/348; FBI file OG 378917

See also: Behind the Bars (New York), January 1924; International Committee for Political Prisoners, Letters from Russian Prisons; G.P. Maximoff, The Guillotine at Work: Twenty Years of Terror in Russia (Data and Documents)

Petr Stepanovich Savko (Петр Степанович Савко; Peter; Sawka)

Deported to Russia, January 22, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Andrey Savruk (Андрей Саврук; Andrew Sawruk)

Born 1892, Austria-Hungary (somewhere in present-day Ukraine). Ukrainian. Typesetter. Migrated to US 1910. Joined the Socialist Party of America circa 1917; transferred into the Communist Party of America in Detroit in 1919. Deported to Hungary, May 8, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G; FBI file OG 385566

Timofey Saychenko (Тимофей Сайченко)

Deported to Russia, December 12, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Giuseppe Scali

Born 1874, Pisa, Italy. Laborer. By 1900 receiving and distributing anarchist publications; 1901 briefly migrated to Corsica, France; then settled in Carrara, Italy, where was the first editor of the anarchist newspaper Combattiamo! (1902-1904). 1903 migrated to Lucerne, Switzerland to avoid arrest for “defamation.” 1906 migrated to US, where resided until 1920, although he appears to have visited Italy repeatedly in these years. 1907 moved to San Francisco, where he collaborated on the individualist anarchist newspaper Nihil (1908-9) and joined the Gruppo Iconoclasti, which later became the anti-organizational Gruppo Anarchico Volontà and was closely aligned with Luigi Galleani and his newspaper Cronaca Sovversiva, which Scali distributed. October 1916 arrested with several other Italian radicals for “disturbing the peace” and sentenced to 90 days in jail. Arrested May 1918 in connection with raids targeting Cronaca Sovversiva; released on bail. When asked, “Have you ever advocated Anarchy, Mr. Scali?” he replied, “Yes, whenever I had a chance.” Detained again when he posted bail for fellow anarchist Michele Centrone; after a month wrote to anti-radical congressman Albert Johnson to expedite his deportation; deported June 19, 1920. In Italy under government surveillance until 1929; reportedly still an anarchist but not active politically.

INS file 54379/313; CPC busta 4652

See also: Cronaca Sovversica (1903-1920), passim; Maurizio Antonioli et al., Dizionario biografico degli anarchici italiani