Ochrimuk to Oradovsky

Nikolai Ochrimuk (Ochrymuk)

Born 1896, Rakitnica, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1914. Member of the Union of Russian Workers in Newark. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/337

Julius Ohsis (Юлий Осис; Osis)

Ohsis’s Communist Party membership card

Born 1890, Riga, Russia (present-day Latvia). Latvian. Carpenter. Migrated to US 1911. 1917 married fellow radical Katie Namin in Chicago. Member of the Carpenters’ Union. 1915 joined the Socialist Party of America; 1919 became member of Communist Party of America; told authorities he was the financial secretary of the Lettish Branch in Baltimore, but historian Vernon L. Pedersen describes him as the the “Latvian branch head.” Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported with wife February 1, 1921.

INS file 54859/541; FBI file OG 8000-385964

See also: Vernon L. Pedersen, The Communist Party in Maryland, 1919-57

Kate Ohsis (Екатерина Осис; Katie; Osis; née Namin)

Ohsis’s Communist Party membership card

Born 1896, Libau, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Latvian. Migrated to US 1913. 1917 married fellow radical Julius Ohsis in Chicago. Member of the Lettish Branch of the Communist Party of America in Baltimore. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported February 1, 1921.

INS file 54859/542; FBI file OG 8000-385963

See also: Vernon L. Pedersen, The Communist Party in Maryland, 1919-57

Erofey Okoletenko (Ерофей околетенко; Erofly; Grofey; Okoletenco; Nathan Duboff; Nick Dubov)

Born 1895, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Migrated to US 1914. Joined the URW in Detroit, 1916. Arrested January 21, 1919, at end of a prison term for “disorderly conduct and loitering,” and held at Fort Wayne. Escaped June 5, 1920 at 3:30AM and made his way to New York, where he was convinced by attorney Isaac Shore to turn himself in at Ellis Island. Deported to Russia,February 1, 1921.

May 21, 1923 migrated to Mexico; from there returned to the US at El Paso, where arrested and sentenced to sixty days for illegal entry. June 1924 deported again, under a passport the US government obtained from the “Ukrainian Diplomatic Mission,” an anti-Soviet self-proclaimed government in exile not recognized by the United States or Ukraine. Routed via Switzerland, we was turned away at the Russian border and returned to the US in July 21, 1924. August 23, 1924 deported once more, and returned to US again in September 1924 after being not being permitted to enter Switzerland. Finally “paroled in his own custody” (i.e. set free). No further information found.

INS file 54709/673

See: Kansas State News, August 29, 1924; The American Flint, November 1924

Adolf Olehnovich (Adam; Olahucvicz; Alechnovitz)

Born c. 1882, Russia. Polish. Laborer. Migrated to US 1910. Member of the Russian Branch of the Communist Party in Racine, Wisconsin. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

INS file 54859/171

Isidor Oleynik (Исидор Олейник; Sidor; Sider; Sergiej; Uleynik; aka Theodore Oleynik)

Born c.1886, Volhyn, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Migrated to US 1913. Laborer. Wife and child in Russia. Employed at Ford Motor Works. Treasurer of Detroit’s Russian People’s Home; alleged URW member. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

However, refused entry on the basis of his anarchism at Libau, along with several other deportees. Coauthored “An Open Letter to the Russian Premier Lenin” in response.

INS file 54709/502

See also: Free Society (New York), October-November 1921

Harry Olshansky (Harvey, Herasim)

Born c.1895 in Samarkand, Russia (present-day Uzbekistan). Migrated to US 1910. Tailor. Wife and six children in Detroit, four of the children US-born. Member of Detroit’s Russian Branch No. 2 of the Communist Party. Deported to Russia March 18, 1921.

INS file 54859/627

Nikolai Omelianchuk (Николай Омельянчук; Nicholas)

Born 1892, Tułowice, Russia (present-day Poland?). Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1913, from there to US in April 1919 (without inspection). Arrested two days later in Detroit as part of a group of Russian radicals who disrupted a talk by the visiting Socialist Revolutionary (and anti-Bolshevik) Catherine Breshkovsky and threw rotten eggs. Denied any radical affiliations; instead charged with entering the country without inspection and being “likely to become a public charge” (due to the fact that he was suffering from influenza at the time). Deported January 22, 1921.

INS file 54616/172

Wong Tai On (Ong Wu Tai; aka Lee Tai Cen)

Chinese. Student; restaurant worker. Attended Columbia University and worked as a waiter in New York’s Chinatown. 1918 joined the United Chinese Association, an anarchist-led union for Chinatown’s restaurant workers that was chartered as a general recruiting union of the IWW. Helped lead strike of Chinatown’s waiters in December 1918-January 1919. Arrested January 16, 1919 on charges unfounded charge of felonious assault that were immediately dropped; then charges with illegal possession of firearms, which was also dropped; then held for deportation on unspecified grounds (not related to radicalism). Deported to China March 1, 1919.

INS file 54490/2 (file missing); see also file 54519/2

See also: New York Call, February 9, 1919; Rebel Worker (New York), February 15 and May 15, 1919

Fred Onischuk (Онищук)

Born 1894, Kyiv, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Migrated to Canada 1913, then to US 1916. Autoworker. Lived in Detroit. Member of the Communist Party. Arrested January 1920; held at Fort Wayne. “Voluntarily departed” to Russia via Canada October 16, 1920.

INS file 54859/714

Porfiry Onishchenko (Порфирий Онищенко; Porfiery Onishsenko)

Born 1886, Chernihiv, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Steelworker. Migrated to Canada 1913, and from there to the US 1915. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in July 1918 in Buffalo; served as secretary and on various committees of his branch. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/327

Aleksandr Opotsky (Александр Опоцкий; aka Aleksandr Antonov; Александр Антонов)

Born 1896, Grodno, Russia (present-day Poland). Laborer; migrated to US 1913. Joined Union of Russian Workers in McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania in 1917; also a delegate for IWW General Recruiting Union; took “a very active part in the meetings of the Russian radicals” in the region. Arrested Pittsburgh April 1919. At interrogation, declared, “I believe in no government of any kind,” and instead “I favor the system of [Peter] Kropatkin [sic].” When asked if he believed in God—a question with no bearing on his case—he answered, “I do not believe in a God painted on wood, but I believe in the God that gives freedom to the people.” Deported on the Buford.

Reportedly imprisoned in 17 different Soviet prisons. By 1931 he had emigrated to Argentina with aid of comrades abroad.

INS file 54616/135; FBI file OG 367935

See also: Delo Truda, December 1937-February 1938 (with thanks to Malcolm Archibald)

Markus Naumovich Oradovsky (Маркус Наумович Орадовский; Marcus)

Born 1895, Odessa, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Sailor; laborer. 1912 migrated Austria and Germany; circa 1913 migrated Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru; migrated to the US 1916 (without inspection). Could speak Russian, English, French, and Portuguese. Common-law marriage to fellow anarchist and deportee Rosa Oradovsky. 1917 worked as a spring maker and helped organize the Mechanical Spring Works Union, affiliated with the United Hebrew Trades, and helped lead a strike in Brooklyn, after which the union dissolved. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in New York in 1918; served as secretary and editor of URW newspaper Khleb i Volia; elected secretary of the Soviet of Workers’ Deputies of the United States and Canada (an umbrella organization of Russian immigrant radicals). Arrested July 2, 1919 in New York. Told authorities, “I consider myself a citizen of the whole world.” Deported on the Buford.

1920 joined Union of Russian Anarchist Workers Repatriated from America, formed by Hyman Perkus, which critically supported the Bolshevik dictatorship as a temporary necessity. Later that year reportedly imprisoned for his anarchist views. January 1921, Alexander Berkman reported that Oradovsky “Says they [i.e. the Bolsheviks] won’t let him work.” His name is included on lists of victims of Soviet repression, but no further details have been found.

INS file 54616/115-A

See also: Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America; Victor Serge, Anarchists Never Surrender: Essays, Polemics, and Correspondence on Anarchism, 1908–1938; Alexander Berkman Papers, International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam; https://ru.openlist.wiki/%D0%9E%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B4%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%9C%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%BA%D1%83%D1%81_%D0%9D%D0%B0%D1%83%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87_(1894); http://visz.nlr.ru/person/book/vi/16/40

Rosa Oradovsky (Роза Орадовская; Rose)

Born 1894, Smolensk, Russia. Jewish. Migrated to US 1910 with mother and siblings. Became anarchist circa 1911; joined the Union of Russian Workers in New York either 1914 or 1918. Common-law wife of Markus Oradovsky. Following Markus’s deportation, she petitioned to be deported as well; swore out affidavit affirming that she was a member of URW, and “I am still a member of that organization and believe in its principles. I am an anarchist and believe in the abolition of all forms of law and government. I believe in the overthrow of the government of the United States by means of forcible revolution.” Deported February 2, 1921. On the voyage aboard the SS Estonia, elected to a five-person committee of deportees elected to negotiate for better accommodations on the ship.

INS file 54616/115A

See also: Boston Post, March 6, 1921; New York Times, April 2, 1921

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