Monthly Archives: February 2020

Fagotti to Fengol

Alfonso Fagotti

Born 1895, Teramo, Italy. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Anarchist; subscriber to Cronaca Sovversiva. December 1916 arrested in West Rutland, Massachusetts, for stabbing a police officer in the hand during police melee at anarchist anti-preparedness event. (In retaliation a bomb was detonated at the police station, without injury.) Held for deportation upon his release in May 1918; deported June 1919.

INS file 54379/394

See also: Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background

Anton Federako (Tony Federaco)

Born 1891, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. 1919 joined Union of Russian Workers in Harrison, New Jersey. Arrested in Newark during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. When questioned denied URW and claimed he just stopped by its offices for a glass of tea, but an undercover federal informant identified him as a lecturer for the organization. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/339; FBI file OG 379806

Maxim Fedorash (Максим Федораш)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Ivan Fedosky (John Fedosky, Iwan Fesosky; Fidosky)

Born 1889, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1914 and US 1916 (via Canada, without inspection). Member of the Russian branch of the Socialist Party of America in Detroit (not a deportable offense). April 1919 turned into Detroit police by employer, Great Lakes Engineering Co., for “spreading Boslheviki propaganda among the employees of their plants.” Deported on the Buford as “likely to become a public charge” and for entering without inspection. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/170

Kirio Fedyk (Кирио Федык)

Fedyk’s URW membership card

Born 1894, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913 (via Canada). Joined Hartford, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1918. Arrested during first Palmer Raids in November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown

INS file 54709/379; FBI file OG 271860

Ivan Felchuk (Иван Фельчук; John; Filchuk; Wilchuk)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Emil Feltman (Emile)

Born 1881 or 1882, Berlin, Germany. Miner. Mother died shortly after his birth; migrated with his father to US when just four months old. Father died in mining accident in Butte, Montana, when he was six years old. 1898 joined US Army; fought in Spanish-American War and Philippine-American War; honorably discharged 1900. Joined IWW 1913 and became organizer for it 1918. Married wife, fellow IWW member Fannie Martinez, in Bisbee, Arizona in 1916. February 1919 sent to in Jerome, Arizona, to organize miners, and arrested during strike. Stated his opposition to war and his support for the Bolsheviks; according to arresting police officer “he also said that it didn’t make any difference where he was deported to, whether it was Germany or China, he would continue his present agitation as organizer of the I.W.W.s.” Described as “not anxious to leave here,” and his mental and physical health suffered while detained. Deported May 1920. Briefly stayed with fellow IWW deportee Karl Voss, then went to work as a coal miner in Westphalia. Migrated to Soviet Russia, where one of the first “Americans” to join Kuzbass Autonomous Industrial Colony in Kuznets, Siberia. No further information found.

INS file 54616/140; FBI file OG 194288

See also: Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University Library; J. P. Morray, Project Kuzbas: American Workers in Siberia (1921-1926)

Kiril Fengol ( or Kirin; Kirin Pinhol)

Fengol’s URW membership card

Born 1896, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Dishwasher. Migrated to US 1912. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Hartford, Connecticut in 1919. Arrested November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/526; see also FBI file OG 213090

Fernandez to Foli

Ramon Fernandez (Jose Ramon Fernandez; Josef Ramon Fernandez; Raymond Fernandez)

Members of Spanish-speaking Los Corsarios Group, including Fernandez, 1919

Born 1898, Oviedo, Spain. Laborer. Migrated to Cuba circa 1914 and became Cuban citizen; became anarchist around same time. Migrated from Cuba to US 1917. Member of Los Corsarios Group which published anarchist paper El Corsario. One of 14 members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped, but several members, including Fernandez, held for deportation as anarchists. US attempted to deport him to Cuba, but he was denied as having forfeited his Cuban citizenship by avoiding military service in WWI; deported to Spain May 1919, but returned to US as a non-Spanish citizen; 1922 allowed to “voluntarily depart” at his own expense to Russia (via Germany). He intended to join the Kuzbass Autonomous Industrial Colony in Kuznets. No further information found.

INS file 54616/79

See also: Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University Library; Elizabeth Gurley Flynn Papers, University of Wisconsin, Madison; Helen C. Camp, Iron in Her Soul: Elizabeth Gurley Flynn and the American Left

Egor Matveevich Feskov (Грегори Матвеевич Фесков; Egor Feskow; Harry Feskow; Grigory Feskov)

Born Stepok, Russia, 1885. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Joined Hartford, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. 1935, via Russian Consul in New York, employed attorney Aaron Banenson to recover bank savings lost due to deportation, totaling $2,404 ($983.50 plus compound interest); 1943 a judge ruled in Feskov’s favor.

INS files 54709/524 and 56167/137

See also: Hartford Courant, December 23, 1943

William Fields (Field)

Born 1880, London, England. Lumber worker. Migrated to US 1905. Joined IWW 1917. Arrested Seattle, May 1918. Deported February 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/416 (file missing); FBI file OG 194446

Ivan Filisofov (Иван Философов; John Philisoph)

Born 1877, Volynia, Russia (present-day Poland). Laborer. Migrated to Argentina circa 1914; from there migrated to US circa 1915. Wife and three children in Russia. Allegedly a member of the Union of Russian Workers branch in Thomaston, Connecticut; however, he claimed he only belonged to the non-partisan Union of Russian Citizens (an umbrella organization for Russian progressives). Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. A large amount of anarchist, IWW, and Communist literature was confiscated from his room, some of which he claimed belonged to a roommate. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/166; FBI file OG 355772

Olaf Finnestad (Finnstad)

Flier protesting arrests of Finnestad and fellow IWW member Adolph Errson

Born 1896, Stavanger, Norway. Laborer. Migrated to US 1910. Joined IWW in Los Angeles, 1916; 1918 secretary of Minneapolis IWW branch. Arrested Seattle, October 1918. Deported March 1919. In Norway, immediately joined the Norsk Syndikalistik Federation (Norwegian Syndicalist Federation) and the anarchist Norges Ungsocialistiske Forbund (Norwegian Youth’s Socialist League), and lectured “on conditions in the United States.” No further information found.

INS file 54517/68

See also: The Workers’ World (Kansas City), August 1, 1919

Friedrich Fischer (Fred Fischer/Fisher; aka Charles Williams and Charles William Fischer)

Born 1877, Germany. Sailor; lumber worker; laborer. Migrated to US 1896; sailed all over the world from US ports. Joined IWW 1916. Arrested December 1917 as “enemy alien” working on waterfront; released; arrested January 1918, Walla Walla, Washington for IWW membership. Interned as “enemy alien” as Fort Douglas, Utah (even though he declared, “We don’t believe in the German Kaiser ourself [sic]. I have no love for any king or kaiser; makes no difference where he is….I wish the German Kaiser went to hell a long time ago.” “Voluntary departure” June 1919 in exchange for release. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/61

Ignacz Fogler

Deported May 1920 to Austria. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Virgilio Foli

Born 1886, Fanano, Italy. Miner. Migrated to US 1902. Became anarchist circa 1916. Arrested in Spring Valley, Illinois, December 1920. Deported March 1921. Briefly migrated from Italy to Belgium in 1923 looking for work. In Italy, became farmer. Italian authorities noted no radical activity, an in 19137 removed him from the list of subversives. However, after his death in 1969, his comrades wrote in the anarchist newspaper L’Internazionale that his was “a life lived intensely for the affirmation of anarchist ideas the affirmation of anarchist ideas for which he suffered persecution and exile.”

INS file 54885/19; CPC busta 2101

See also: True Republican (Syncamore, IL), March 30, 1921; Andrea Pirondini, Anarchici a Modena: Dizionario biografico.

Fraser to Furs

Donald McPherson Fraser

Born 1888, Edinburgh, Scotland. Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1908, spent time in US and Mexico before migrated to US (via Canada, without inspection) 1915. Joined IWW 1909; became secretary of Astoria, Washington IWW local. Wrote on his 1917 draft registration card, “Don’t believe [in] militarism.” Arrested February 1919, Portland. Deported March 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/2

See also: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/6482/005243374_01000?pid=71224592

Adolfo Frattesi (Adolph Fratese)

Born 1893, Pergola, Italy. Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Anarchist. Member, Circolo Studi Sociali of Milwaukee. Brother Vincenzo Frattesi, sister Maria Nardini, and brother-in-law Pasquale Nardini also members. Arrested 1917 after Italian anarchist “riot.” Sentenced to 25 years as accessory to attempted murder of police, but sentence reversed by state supreme court. Then arrested for “teaching or advocating anarchy.” Deported July 1920. Italian authorities appear to have not placed him under surveillance. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54235/70

See also: Robert Tanzilo, The Milwaukee Police Station Bomb of 1917; Dean A. Strang, Worse than the Devil: Anarchists, Clarence Darrow, and Justice in a Time of Terror

Giuseppe Frattesi (Joe, Joseph)

Born 1894, Pergola, Italy. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Brother of Adolfo and Vincenzo Frattersi and Maria Nardini. Had a “sweetheart” in France. While living in Racine, Wisconsin, involved in defense campaign for his siblings following 1917 Milwaukee “riot”; radicalized and became anarchist as a result. Moved to Chicago, where arrested May 1919, and again August 1919. Deported December 1919. His trunk containing his possessions was lost by immigration authorities. June 1920 migrated to France, where lived with brother Teodolfo, returned to Italy after a short while. Under Italian government surveillance throughout 1930s; reported to still hold anarchist and antifascist ideas, but not to be politically active.

INS file 54616/182; FBI file OG 8000-177156; CPC busta 2172

Vincenzo Frattesi (Vincent Fratese)

Born 1886, Pergola, Italy. Laborer. Migrated to Agignon, France at unknown date, where fined for assault in 1908 and served 8 days in jail for the same in 1910. Migrated to US 1913. Anarchist. Member, Circolo Studi Sociali of Milwaukee. Brother Adolfo Frattesi, sister Maria Nardini, and brother-in-law Pasquale Nardini also members. Arrested 1917 after Italian anarchist “riot.” Sentenced to 25 years as accessory to attempted murder of police, sentence sustained by state supreme court. In prison, repeatedly cited and punished for infractions, and 1920 declared “insane” and moved to mental hospital. Pardoned 1922 on condition of deportation and deported February 1922. Upon his arrival, institutionalized in Naples as “paranoid”; discharged November 1924. Settled in Fossombrone, where continued to be under surveillance and to hold anarchist ideas. July 1928 recommitted to psychiatric hospital in Pesaro, where diagnosed with “paranoid early dementia.” Still institutionalized as of 1940.

INS file 54235/69; CPC busta 2172

See also: Robert Tanzilo, The Milwaukee Police Station Bomb of 1917; Dean A. Strang, Worse than the Devil: Anarchists, Clarence Darrow, and Justice in a Time of Terror

Giovanni Fruzzetti (Frizzetti, aka Balloni; Gianni Lupo)

Born 1865, Carrara, Italy. Granite cutter; farmer. Migrated to US 1892. Anarchist. Lived in Barre, Vermont (where friend of Luigi Galleani and helped found Cronaca Sovversiva) until 1905, then Quincy, Massachusetts until 1910; when bought a 60-acre farm in Bridgeport, Massachusetts. Wife and ten children in US; also supporting six nieces and nephews since his sister-in-law’s death. Health problems due to appendicitis operation. Arrested May 1918; stated belief “in the overthrow of any government by force.” Also told authorities, “My youngest child is feebleminded. My wife cannot leave that child, and she would not be allowed to land in Italy with that child. Therefore, unless I am permitted to return, my wife and I can never see one another again.” Deported June 1919. In Massa Carrara worked a small plot of land and “maintained good conduct,” according to Italian authorities, who also believed (incorrectly) that he was illiterate, and who in 1943 (when he was 74 years old) removed him from their list of subversives.

INS file 54379/351; CPC busta 2192

Timofey Furs (Thomas)

Furs’ URW membership book

Born 1896, Russia. Machinist. Migrated to US 1913. Member of the Union of Russian Workers branch in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/365; FBI file OG 379709

Galeotti to Gazeyog

Alba Galeotti (born Giuseppina Genisio; Galleoti)

Born 1867, Canischio, Italy. Housewife; laborer. Migrated to US circa 1902. April 1902 married coal miner Killo Gotti in Lafayette, Missouri. She adopted the common anarchist name Alba (“Dawn”), and named her children Idea (i.e. “L’Idea” of anarchism) and Ravachol (after the French anarchist of the same name). By 1908 she was contributing funds and writings fo the Italian-American anarchist newspapers Cronaca Sovversiva and La Questione Sociale. Also in contact with anarchists in Italy, including Aldino Felicani (future treasurer of the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee), and raised funs for the antimilitarist anarchist newspaper Rompete le file! (Break Ranks!) in Milan. Separated from Gotti (who died in 1913); in 1909 married anarchist coal miner Guglielmo Galeotti (“William Galleoti”). Lived in various mining towns in Kansas and Illinois. Named their children Ferrer (after martyred Spanish anarchist educator Francisco Ferrer) and Germinal (after Émile Zola’s radical novel about French coal miners, Germinal). Reportedly deported as an anarchist in 1916 but returned to illegally to the US. Arrested 1920 with Guglielmo Galeotti; she escaped custody while he was deported. 1921 she collected money for the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee. Arrested 1923 in Schulter, Oklahoma. Ill and fasting when detained, she refused to eat for 33 days and was declared “insane” and force-fed. Deported January 10, 1924. Her children were left in the care of their eldest sibling, Ida (Idea) Gotti, now age 21. Subsequent activities unknown. Died 1940 in Turin.

See also: Ancestry.com; Cronaca Sovversiva, May 31, 1913; Financial Report of the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee (1925); Jennifer Guglielmo, Living the Revolution: Italian Women’s Resistance and Radicalism in New York City, 1880-1945; Caroline Waldron Merithew, “Anarchist Motherhood: Toward the Making of a Revolutionary Proletariat in Illinois Coal Towns,” in Women, Gender, and Transnational Lives: Italian Workers of the World; Henryetta Daily Stanard (Henryetta OK), January 1 and 2, 1924; Henryetta Standard (Henryetta OK), January 3 and January 7, 1924

Guglielmo Galeotti (aka William Galleoti)

Born 1871, Santa Sofia, Italy. Miner. Anarchist by late 1880s. Considered by Italian authorities to be “extremely dangerous” and “one of the most actives subversives of S. Sofia, capable of fomenting disorder.” Arrested and imprisoned repeatedly between 1888 and 1902. 1898 fled to Switzerland, but deported in 1901 and arrested on (unfounded) suspicion of being an accomplice to the assassination of King Umberto I. Briefly emigrated to Trieste, but expelled. Migrated to US 1902. Lived in various mining towns in Pennsylvania, Kansas, and Illinois; leading figure in Kansas anarchist Gruppo 11 Novembre. 1909 married fellow anarchist and deportee Alba Genisio, with whom he had two children named Ferrer (after martyred Spanish anarchist educator Francisco Ferrer) and Germinal (after Émile Zola’s radical novel about French coal miners, Germinal). 1911 left with other members of the Gruppo 11 Novembre to join forces of the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano in the Mexican Revolution, but quickly disillusioned with the PLM and returned to US. Deported February 19, 1920. Under surveillance in Italy, but in 1935 reported to have “left politics” and “oriented himself towards the regime for which he now shows sympathy.”

CPC busta 2236

See also: Ancestry.com; Michele Presutto, La rivoluzione dietro l’angolo: Gli anarchici italiani e la Rivoluzione messicana, 1910-1914; Henryetta Daily Stanard (Henryetta OK), January 1, 1924

Luigi Galleani

Born 1861, Vercelli, Italy. Editor. Became anarchist while studying law at the University of Turin; left before finishing degree. Fled police to France in 1880; migrated to Switzerland where worked for anarchist geographer Élisée Reclus on his La Nouvelle Géographie universelle. Arrested and expelled; returned to France; deported to Italy. 1894 arrested for anarchist activities and served five years in prison and internal exile. While confined to island of Pantelleria met his wife, Maria. Escaped Pantellaria in 1900 and fled to Egypt, then England. Migrated to US in 1901 with an invitation to edit the anarchist newspaper La Questione Sociale in Paterson, New Jersey. Leader of 1902 general strike of silk workers in Paterson, where indicted for inciting riot and fled to Canada, then Barre, Vermont, where founded newspaper Cronaca Sovversiva. Moved paper to Lynn, Massachusetts; Galleani became the leading Italian anarchist proponent of violent acts of insurrection and revolt. Deported June 1919, leaving wife and six children in the US (only his daughter Cossyra would later rejoin him in Italy). Immediately arrested upon arrival in Italy, but released a day later after maritime workers’ union threatened to strike on his behalf. Relaunched Cronaca Sovversiva in Turin in 1920. Involved in armed resistance movement and evaded warrant for his arrest for two years; turned himself in 1922 and sentenced to 14 months imprisonment for sedition. Maintained contact with comrades in US and fellow deportees, but suffered increasingly from diabetes. 1926 arrested again and sentenced to two years in prison, followed by two years of internal exile. Allowed to return to mainland, but under surveillance until his death in 1931.

INS file 54235/33; CPC busta 2241

See also: Ugo Fedeli, Luigi Galleani: quarant’anni di lotte rivoluzionarie (1891 –1931); Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background; Roberto Gremmo, “La ‘Cronaca Sovversiva’ di Galleani, le ‘bande armate’ di Raffaele Schiavina e la bomba del giovane anarchico Musso,” Storia ribelle 18 (2005): 1657-67; Antonio Senta, Luigi Galleani: The Most Dangerous Anarchist in America

Alexander Gallod (Alex; Golod)

Mason. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Regelio Garcia (Roglio)

Members of Spanish-speaking Los Corsarios Group, including Garcia, 1919

Born 1894, Quibicano, Cuba. Cigar maker. Migrated to US 1903; became anarchist circa 1917. Member of Los Corsarios Group which published anarchist paper El Corsario. One of 14 members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped, but several members, including Garcia, held for deportation as anarchists. When asked why he had failed to apply for naturalization in the US, he replied, “I do not even believe in my own country.” US-born wife, Blanca Fernandez, and 9-month-old child. Deported April 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/79

Isso Gartner (aka Imre Geery or Geerry)

Born 1895, Kassa, Hungary (present-day Košice, Slovakia). Jewish. Jeweler. Migrated to US 1911. A socialist in Hungary, he joined the Socialist Party of America in Baltimore; did not align with either side in 1919 split between Left and Right. Conscientious objector and opposed WWI draft. Attempted to unionize Baltimore jewelry workers in International Jewelry Workers Union (AFL), then arrested May 1918 for allegedly “stealing a number of gold rings” from a former employer and sentenced to six months imprisonment. Subsequently Interned at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, as an “enemy alien.” Suffered from “tuberculosis of the hip and is on crutches.” Deported May 1920 upon release of internees on basis “That he believes in the overthrow by force or violence of the Government of the United States” (a patently unsubstantiated charge). Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/38

See also: Baltimore Sun, May 23, 1918; Jewelers’ Circular-Weekly, July 10, 1918

Jack Gaveel (J. G. Gaveel; aka Jackotonsky, Jacknowsky, Jakov Zukatansky)

Born 1889, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Migrated to England 1905; returned to Netherlands 1910 and migrated to Canada that same year. Joined IWW 1913 in Canada. 1914 secretary of IWW Local no. 339, Edmonton, Canada. Migrated to US 1915. 1917 included in federal indictment of IWW leaders, but dropped before case went to trial. IWW delegate in Los Angeles, where “active in organizing the Austrian and Croatian fishermen.” Arrested April 1921 and sentenced to 1-4 years under California’s criminal syndicalism law. In San Quentin, refused to work in prison jute mill, declaring: “I have never scabbed on my class outside of prison, and I won’t do it inside.” Sent to solitary confinement, sparking sympathy strike of thirteen other imprisoned IWW members. Deported to Canada 1924; subsequently deported from Canada to The Netherlands. 1925 in Hamburg, Germany, where became supporter of the Soviet Union and the Red International of Labor Unions (RILU). Living in Amsterdam in 1926. After WWII worked for Stichting Pelita, a foundation dedicated to aiding migrants from the former Dutch East Indies in The Netherlands. In 1951, receiving IWW literature from US and supporting the Dutch anarchist movement. 1960 (at age 71) wrote to the Industrial Worker and recalled he could still sing most of the songs from the union’s Little Red Song Book; also wrote: “I wish I were in America. I’d join you in the fight then.”

FBI file BS 186701-240

See also: Industrial Worker, June 11, 1921 and August 5, 1922; San Francisco Examiner, August 2, 1922; Daily Worker, February 23, 1925; Daily Worker (special magazine supplement), February 28, 1925; http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/rapportencentraleinlichtingendienst/data/IndexResultaten/IndexVensterResultaat?persoon=Gaveel%2C+J.G.; Jack Gaveel Correspondence, Industrial Workers of the World Collection, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University.

Fred Gazeyog (Gazeyek, Gazeycg)

Born 1895, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to the US 1911. Employee at B. F. Goodrich. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Akron in 1916; became secretary of that branch. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/535

Geray to Giusto

Andrey Geray (Andrew)

Born 1879, Mogilev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Miner. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and two children in Russia. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Greensburg, Pennsylvania July 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/477; FBI file OG 388189

Grigory Gerish (Григорий Гериш, Harry Gerrish)

Born 1896, Russia. Student; laborer. Migrated to US 1913 with childhood sweetheart, Tillie Karetsky, who married him after their arrival. Attended University of Pennsylvania for one year before he had to find work for financial reasons. The couple became radicalized and joined first the Socialist Party and then the United Communist Party in Philadelphia. Both deported February 1921. In Russia, Grigory became a member of the Executive Committee of the Communist International. In 1937 accused of holding Trotskyist sympathies, expelled from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, arrested, and shot.

See: Philadelphia Inquirer, February 1, 1921; Fridrikh Igorevich Firsov, Harvey Klehr, and John Earl Haynes, Secret Cables of the Comintern, 1933-1943

Tilly Gerish (née Katetsky; Tillie Gerrish)

Born 1899, Russia. Singer. Migrated to US 1913 with childhood sweetheart, Grigory Gerish, who married her after their arrival. The couple became radicalized and joined first the Socialist Party and then the United Communist Party in Philadelphia. Both deported February 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54859/126

See also: Philadelphia Inquirer, February 1, 1921

Mikhail Gernet (Михаил Гернет, Michael Gernet, Geronet)

Born 1898, Arkhangelsk, Russia. Lathe operator. Migrated to US 1916 (without inspection). Member Russian Branch no. 3, Socialist Party of America. Detroit. Arrested April 1919 for causing “disturbance” during a talk by Catherina Breshovsky that was critical of the Bolsheviks. When arrested, “The Police beat me up until I was unconscious…I cannot raise my arms, and I can’t eat—I east now a little but with pain.” Deported on the Buford (as “likely to become a public charge” because ” the alien is an agitator and trouble maker and therefore one likely to come in conflict with our laws” and end up in prison!). Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/172

Natale Girolimetti

Born 1899, Ancona, Italy. Anarchist. Year of migration to US unknown. Deported to Italy some time before 1921. An individualist anarchists, described by Italian government as “an individual of impulsive and violent character,” with a “violent, irreducible” opposition to fascism. Badly beaten by Fascists, in 1921 emigrated to France, then Luxembourg, then Germany, then back to France, where active in Italian exile radical groups. Returned to Italy 1926 to seek medical treatment related to head injuries sustain in his earlier beating and immediately arrested for possession of antifascist literature. Released on parole and assaulted by fascists. 1927 arrested while attempted to return to France. 1928 confined to mental institution due to deteriorating mental state (attributed to his head injuries), where died in 1932.

CPC busta 2446

See also: Fabrizio Giulietti, Il movimento anarchico italiano nella lotta contro il fascismo, 1927-1945

Bonaiuto Giusto (Buonianto; Bonaiuti)

Born 1888, Castel di Casio, Italy. Shoemaker; miner. Anarchist. Migrated to US 1909. Member of Circolo dei Studi Sociali, Kensington, Illinois. 1917 migrated to Mexico to avoid registering for the draft; returned to the US ( without inspection) 1918. Arrested May 1918 in raid on the Circolo, subsequently arrested in Chicago “on the grounds that he entered this country without inspection.” Deported December 1919. Involved in anarchist activities back in Castel di Casio. Arrested 1923 for opposing the Fascist government, but acquitted. January 1926 arrested for resisting the draft, and again acquitted. Under government surveillance until at least 1940.

INS file 54616/213; CPC busta 711

Goldman to Grau i Jassans

Emma Goldman

File:Emma Goldman's deportation photo, 1919.jpg

Born 1869, Kovno, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Jewish. Garment worker; nurse; editor. Migrated to US 1885. Became anarchist in US due to Haymarket Affair; soon one of the leading anarchist propagandists in US. Arrested at least thirteen times in US for her activities. Founder and publisher of Mother Earth (1906-1917). Cofounded the Conscription League in 1917, and arrested with Alexander Berkman in June that year under the Espionage Act for interfering in the draft. Sentenced to two years imprisonment and $10,000 fine. After her release, deported on the Buford. n Russia, she and Berkman collected materials for a Museum of the Revolution. Broke with Bolsheviks after 1921 Kronstadt Rebellion; left Russia December 1921 with Berkman. Lived in Germany, France, England, and Canada, continuing her activism and also campaigning against the Soviet dictatorship. 1934 allowed to return to US for a few months for a lecture tour. 1936 traveled to Barcelona during Spanish Civil War, and traveled Europe on behalf of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT. Died in Toronto February 1940.

INS file 52410/43

See also: Emma Goldman, Living My Life; Emma Goldman, My Disillusionment in Russia; Paul Avrich and Karen Avrich, Sasha and Emma: The Anarchist Odyssey of Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman

Philip Golishko (Felip, Filip)

Born 1894, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1914. Member of both the IWW and Union of Russian Workers. Arrested Seattle, February 1920. Deported January 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 381765

Grigory Varfolomeevich Gorbich (Григорий Варфоломеевич Горбич; Gregory; Gorbitch)

Born 1896, Brest or Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Metalworker. Date of migration to US unknown. Anarchist since 1916 and a member fo the Union of Russian Workers. Settled in Petrograd. Deported February 1921. Arrested 1922 “for crossing the border from Poland.” Arrested again July 1923 and sentenced to two years internal exile away from Russia’s major cities or border areas. Arrested again 1925 and again sentenced to internal exile for three years. No further information found.

See: International Committee for Political Prisoners, Letters from Russian Prisons; G. P. Maximoff, The Guillotine at Work: Twenty Years of Terror in Russia (Data and Documents); http://visz.nlr.ru/person/book/vi/4/130

Nikolay Gorin (Николай Горин; Nick; Nicholai; Nickolai)

Born 1895, Tverskoy, Russia. Migrated to US 1912. Machinist. Migrated to US 1912. In Bridgeport, Connecticut joined the Russian branch of the Socialist Party of America, then joined the local branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1919 and became its secretary. Arrested February, 1920. Deported January 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 381756

Ivan Gornobsky (John)

Deported to Russia February 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Vasil Gornovsky (Василь Горновский; Gornovisky)

Born 1894, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Member of the Union of Russian Workers and the IWW. Arrested Seattle, November 1919. Deported February 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 388242

George Goroshkov (Гарошков or Горошков, Garoshkow, Gorshkov, aka Ivan Balui)

Born 1880, Mogilev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Wife and child in Russia. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Monessen, Pennsylvania, in early 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/214; FBI file OG 383004

Samuil Goz (Самуил Гоз; Samuel; Sam; Gordon)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Ivan Gramatsky

Born 1895, Russia. Migrated to US 1914. Joined Communist Party of America December 1919. Arrested Newark January 1920. Deported December 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 384985

Josep Grau i Jassans (José Grau Jassans; Jose Grau; Jessans; Jensans; aka Arnaldo Sopelana/Sopelano, Adolfo Apelle)

Born 1899, Barcelona, Spain. Sailor (oiler and fireman). Anarchist; member of Spanish anarcho-syndicalist CNT. Migrated to US 1917. Immediately joined IWW after arrival and became organizer for it. Member of Los Corsarios Group which published anarchist paper El Corsario, of which Grau i Jassans edited the first three issues before quitted due to disagreements with the group. One of 14 group members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped. Arrested again May 1919 while a delegate to a convention of the IWW’s Marine Transport Workers in Philadelphia. Denied being an anarchist, but admitted IWW membership. Deported December 1919. In Spain joined the anarcho-syndicalist CNT and became a leader of its transportation workers’ union in Barcelona; involved in relaunched CNT paper Solidaridad Obrera. Joined the pro-Communist minority Comités Sindicalistas Revolucionarios within the CNT, and in this capacity attended the Third Congress of Profintern in Moscow in 1924. When the Second Spanish Republic was declared in 1931, he joined the Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC, or Republican Left of Catalonia), a social-democratic, pro-Catalan independence party, and was appointed the private secretary of ERC leader Lluís Companys i Jover. In July 1931 Grau i Jassans was elected to Spanish parliament as an ERC representative, and in that role focused on defending workers and Catalan autonomy. Re-elected in 1933, but expelled in 1934 for allegedly attempting to discredit opponents within the ERC; in 1936 he was “rehabilitated” within the ERC. During the Spanish Civil War, appointed inspector of the state-run petroleum company and of municipal commissioners. 1939 fled to France, and 1942 migrated to Mexico, where joined by wife and two daughters. Worked as a salesman in Mexico, where died in 1965.

INS file 5461/211; FBI file BS 40-9016-1

See also: Arnaldo Sopelana [Josep Grau i Jassans], Lo que yo he visto en Norte-América; Arnau Gonzàlez i Vilalta, Els diputats catalans a les Corts constituents republicanes, 1931-1933 : nacionalisme, possibilisme i reformisme social; https://memoriaesquerra.cat/biografies/grau-jassans-josep; https://ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josep_Grau_i_Jassans

Graves to Gusko

Thomas Graves

Born Haverigg, England. Miner. Migrated to US 1913. One of the striking miners “deported” from Bisbee, Arizona to the New Mexico desert, July 1917. Joined IWW’s Metal Mine Workers Branch 65, Local No. 800, Bisbee, January 1918; became organizer for IWW and returned to Bisbee to reestablish IWW branch. Arrested May 1918 for “vagrancy.” Arrested 1918 in Globe, Arizona, for violating the Espionage Act. Again arrested Globe in April 1919. Deported June 1919. In a confiscated letter, Graves wrote to a friend, “I have been trying to figure our this democracy for a long time but the only answer that I can come to is if you don’t do as I tell you, you must go to the can, therefore I don’t want any more of it, and the sooner they send me back to the lands of the Kings the better.” Continued working as a miner in England, then circa 1929 migrated to colonial Rhodesia (present-day Zambia), where he “acquired a reputation as a gun-totting firebrand” and was a founding member and shop steward of a whites-only miners’ union. Migrated back to England in 1939 after “after being sacked for attempting to instigate a wildcat strike, threatening the mine manager and brutally assaulting an African miner (all in the same week).” Died 1966. 

INS file 54616/87

Additional information supplied by Duncan Money.

Pavel Grib (Paul; Gribb; Greb)

Born 1887, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Machinist, laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Wife and two children in Russia. Active member of the Union of Russian Workers branch in Seattle. Arrested February 7, 1920, as lumber camp near Ashford, Washington. Deported to Russia February 1921. No further information found.

FBI file OG 372555

Seodor Grigoreko or Grigorenko

Born 1895, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Migrated to US 1913. Joined Russian Branch No. 3 of Socialist Party of America in Detroit 1918, which then transferred into the Communist Party of America. Arrested Detroit during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported January 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 385764

Nikolai Grishko (Grishco; Nicholas Hrishco)

Born 1898, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Longshoreman. Migrated to US 1914. 1919 joined Russian Branch no. 1 of the Socialist Party of America in Baltimore; transferred into Communist Party of America, of which he became secretary. Arrested January 1920. Deported February 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI files OG 8000-383428 and 377436

Alfred Groener

Born Germany 1898. Laborer. Migrated to US 1914. Arrested Portland, Oregon, January 1918. Had two IWW pamphlets in his possession, but no evidence that he was a member. Interned as an “enemy alien.” “Voluntary departure” in exchange for release, June 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/80

Adolph Gross

Born 1860, Mainz, Germany. Jewish. Farmer; teamster; news vendor. Migrated to US 1882. Wife (Carrie Gross), seven children, two grandchildren in US. Anarchist; family lived at anarchist Home Colony in Washington since 1903. Opened a newsstand in Tacoma, Washington, circa 1918. Arrested late 1919; sentenced to 28 months in McNeil Island federal prison under Espionage Act for selling “seditious” literature (even though the war had already ended). Deported December 1921 (the oldest known Red Scare deportee), without being allowed to contact family or bring any money or belongings. Settled in Hamburg. His daughter reported in 1922: “it is killing him to live in idleness over there and he says unless he has a few hundred dollars he cannot do anything.” Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/406; FBI file OG 8000-381731

See also: Elizabeth Gurley Papers, Wisconsin Historical Society; The Nation, October 19, 1921

John Grunzweig

John Grunzweig

Born 1901, Schöndorf, Austria-Hungary (present-day Frumușeni, Romania). Laborer. Migrated with parents and siblings to US 1920. Joined Communist Party of America; father kicked him out of the house in Tonawanda, New York. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported May 1920, but when disembarked in Athens, Greece, arrested and put in jail for two weeks; Romanian consul refused him entry because his place of birth was not part of Romania at that time, and Hungary also denied he was a citizen. Released and worked odd jobs in Greece for three months, then stowed away on a Canadian-bound ship in Greece; jumped ship and traveled from Montreal to Tonawanda, where he lived with his father and was arrested May 1921. March 1922 ordered free on bail due to government’s inability to deport him. Labeled “A Man Without a Country” by the American press. By 1940 was a naturalized citizen. Died Buffalo, New York, 1984.

FBI files OG 388225 and BS 202600-1932

See also: Buffalo Times, December 13, 1922; https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/106691432/person/200183622090/story

Ivan Gushchia (Иван Гущя; John; Gushchla)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Ivan Gushchia (John; Gushchany; Gushia)

Gushchia’s URW membership card

Born 1897, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Joined Bridgeport, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers September 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/380

William Gusko (Jusko)

Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Hajduk to Hicke

Alfons Hajduk (Alfonso; Alfonse; Hajdak; Haiduk; Hieduk; Hyduk)

Hajduk’s URW membership card

Born 1886, Volhynia, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Polish. Window cleaner. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and child in Russia. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Newark. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/357

Onofry Halevich

Communist Party of America member. Deported June 1920 to either Austria or Yugoslavia. No further information found.

Included on lists of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G and FBI file BS 202600-33

Vazil Haluszak (Basil; William Halussosek)

Communist Party of America member. Deported March 1920 to Galicia. No further information found.

Included on lists of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G and FBI file BS 202600-33

Peter Hancharuk

“Voluntarily departed” to Russia sometime between December 20, 1919 and February 2, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Vasil Haritouchik (William Hatrinuk)

Born 1868, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. 1918 joined Socialist Party of America, and in 1919 transferred to Russian Branch no. 1 of the Communist Party of America, Detroit. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. “Voluntarily departed” October 1920.

FBI file OG 386253; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Leo Haskevich (Leonti Hackwicz; Leonte Hackewicz; Leo Haskewich; aka Sittimikoff)

Born 1896, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Not political in Russia; joined Union of Russian Workers in Akron, 1917. Involved in attempt to organize strike of Akron rubber workers; arrested December 1917. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54235/159

Ernest Emil Albert Heitmiller (E.A. Heitmiller)

Born 1887, Linden-Limmer, Germany. Sailor; lumber worker. Migrated to US 1914 (via Canada, without inspection). Joined IWW, for which he became a delegate and organizer. Arrested Seattle, February 1919. Deported January 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54645/435; FBI file OG 347306

Petr Herasevich (or Gerasevich)

Born 1892, Kobryn, Russia (present-day Belarus). Pipe inspector. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and son in Russia. Joined Youngstown, Ohio branch of the Union of Russian Workers in January 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. On strike from Youngstown Sheet & Tube when arrested. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/513

Jacob Heroch (or Horoch)

Deported to Russia December 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Christopher Hetagureff

Deported to Russia January 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

John Charles Hicke (John Kicke; aka Kurowsky)

Born 1882, Bukovina, Austria-Hungary (present-day Romania). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913 (via Canada). No apparent political affiliation. Arrested April 1918, in Oxford, Mississippi and interned as an “enemy alien” for nearly two years at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, then detained by immigration authorities. Declared: “I am opposed to the Government of the United States and its peoples. I do not think its peoples are intelligent enough to govern themselves…I think the government should be overthrown and to accomplish this end every action would be justified.” However, later claimed this was simply a ploy to be deported as quickly as possible, as advised by Imre Guerry (Isso Gartner). Repeatedly wrote to US and Austrian officials to expedite his case. Deported to Romania June 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/404

Hing to Indriunas

Wong Hing (Harry Hing)

Born 1899, Guangdong, China. Student; restaurant worker. Migrated to US 1916 (via Mexico, without inspection). Attended Columbia University. Arrested January 1919 as a leader of IWW-led strike of Chinese restaurant workers. Deported March 1919 on charge of illegal entry. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54490/3 (file missing); see also file 54519/2

See also: Baltimore Sun, February 6, 1919; The Rebel Worker, May 15, 1919

Mikhail Hirney (Michael; Mike; Herney)

Mechanic. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Mikhail Hladish (Hladysh)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Alfred Hoffman (aka Edward Compe; Edward Kerlap; Edwin Hoffman)

Born 1886, Hamburg, Germany. Sailor; laborer. Migrated to US 1907 (jumped ship in San Francisco). Joined IWW around 1913; repeatedly arrested for strike-related activities. Seattle. Interned as an “enemy alien” at Fort Douglas, Utah, but declared “I am not a German, no. I am not patriotic for any country.” “Voluntary departure” June 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/64

Fritz Arthur Holm

Born 1890, Korsberga, Sweden. Carpenter. Migrated to US 1911. Joined IWW 1912; also an anarchist and subscriber to Alexander Berkman’s The Blast. Wrote “Strictly opposed to war” on his draft card. Secretary of the Scandinavian Defense League. Arrested Seattle, February 1918; authorities discovered “a wagon load of I.W.W. and anarchist literature in his room.” Deported July 1919. In Sweden, married Ellen Hildur Margareta Molin, 1923. May have written articles for the German anarcho-syndicalist paper Der Syndikalist in the 1920s. Died 1975.

INS file 54379/114

Paul Holovkin (Prokop Holowkin; Golowkin)

Born 1888, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Longshoreman. Migrated to US 1914. Widower; a son in Russia. Joined Branch no. 1 of the Union of Russian Workers in Baltimore, 1919. Deported on the Buford. 1921 reported to have been “shot by the Bolshevik authorities as an active counter-revolutionist.”

INS file 54709/318; FBI file BS 202600-2386-1

Andrew Hostilla (Andrey Kastialla)

Born 1895, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Machinist. Migrated to US 1914. Drafted into US Army 1918; honorably discharged December 1918. Member of Newark branch of the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/353

Stepanos Indriunas (Степанос Индриунас; Steponas)

Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Isaacson to Jackson

Gussie Isaacson (Gussie Itzickson; née Denenberg)

Born 1895, Pinsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Housewife. Jewish. Migrated to US 1906. Became anarchist in New York; involved in Francisco Ferrer Center. Common-law marriage to fellow anarchist Jacob Isaacson. After Jacob was ordered deported in 1920, she swore an affidavit that “I am an anarchist, and a believer and advocate of anarchism,” in order to be deported along with him. “Voluntary departure” to England, June 1922, with Jacob. Returned to US circa 1924 under maiden name, Denenberg. Naturalized between 1930 and 1940. When interviewed in 1970s, stated: “Anarchism is a way of life, no matter what your view is of human nature. No authority over you, no slaved under you–that’s the anarchist life.” Died 1983.

INS file 54616/202

See also: Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America

Jacob (“Jack”) Isaacson (Jacob Itzickson; aka Jacob Denenberg)

Born 1896, Libau, Russia (present-day Latvia). Laborer; locksmith; editor. Laborer, locksmith, editor. Jewish. Migrated to US 1908 with mother and sister. Became anarchist in New York; active in Francisco Ferrer Center, where he became known as “the Rabbi.” Helped publish Revolt (1916) and Freedom (1919). Common-law marriage to fellow anarchist Gussie Denenberg. Arrested May 1919 for antiwar article in Freedom, for which he took responsibility (although he was not the author). Indicted for violation of the Espionage Act (even though the war had ended); 1920 case dropped in exchange for a warrant of deportation. While on bail, he edited The Hotel Worker, organ of the syndicalist International Federation of Workers in the Hotel, Restaurant, Lunchroom, Club, and Catering Industry. “Voluntary departure” to England, June 1922, with Gussie. Returned to US 1924 via Canada, under wife’s maiden name, Denenberg. Opened grocery store in Washington DC. Naturalized between 1930 and 1940, but this brought his true identity to the attention of immigration authorities, who hounded him and threatened him with deportation, driving him to commit suicide in 1946.

INS file 54616/202; FBI file OG 281175

See also: Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America

Andrew Iswashko

Deported to Austria, September 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

George Ivanov (Evenov)

Born 1889, Russia. Laborer. Member of the Communist Party in Bayonne, New Jersey. Deported December 1920. No further information found.

FBI file BS 202600-601

See also: Butte Daily Bulletin, December 29, 1920

Dmitry Ivanyuk (Дмитрий Иванюк, Dimitri Iwaniuk; aka James Nouvak)

One of the circulars Ivanyuk was distributing when arrested

Born 1882, Brodna, Russia (present-day Poland). Migrated to US 1912. Wife and child in Russia. Arrested April 1919 in Camden, New Jersey, for distributing radical circulars calling for a general strike on May First to free all political prisoners. His exact political affiliation is unclear. Arrested again November 1919 in Philadelphia. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/173

Jacob Jackotonsky (Jacknowsky; Jakov Zukatansky)

Born 1891, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Shoemaker. Migrated to US 1912. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Youngstown, Ohio in 1919. Literate and widely read. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/201

Herbert Harold Jackson

Born 1900, Hull, England. Sailor; laborer. Migrated to US 1917 (jumped ship). Joined IWW soon after arrival, in August 1917; arrested several times for IWW activities. “My reason for joining the I.W.W. was because I realized that I was not master of my own economic living and that I was opposed to being enslaved in the machine of production. I believe the worker is entitled to all he produces.” Arrested in Seattle, December 1918, for distributing IWW’s Defense Bulletin. Deported February 1919. Upon arrival to England, all IWW literature confiscated, placed under surveillance, and told not to speak in public. May 1921 migrated to Canada “intending in some way to reach the United States from there.” Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54547/15; FBI file OG 347558

See also: Rebel Worker, April 15, 1919