López García to Lurie

Francisco López García (aka Frank R. Lopez; José Marinero; Jesus Lejendario; Albert Martin; Alberto Martín)

López García in the 1950s

Born 1885, A Coruña, Spain. Galician. Sailor; carpenter. Migrated to US 1904. Became one of the most prominent Spanish-speaking anarchists in the US and contributed to Spanish-language newspapers in several countries; collaborated on New York’s Cultura Obrera (1911-1925) and helped launch its successor, Cultura Proletaria (1927-1953). When he was arrested in 1918, federal agents confiscated a photograph “of Lopez and several other persons with all sorts of implements, entitled ‘The Social Revolution of 1911,'” suggesting that he may have participated in the Mexican Revolution with the forces of the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano. 1912 married Italian widow Rosa [Rose] De Matteis. In Boston, a member of the Grupo Rebelion circa 1914 and a founder and secretary of the Grupo Fraternidad, which was in communication with anarchist groups in Spain, Chile, Argentina, Mexico, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. 1917-1918 became close to Luigi Galleani and Cronaca Sovversiva, but rejected their promotion of violence. Arrested February 1918 during federal raid on Grupo Fraternidad’s headquarters. Described by federal agents as “practically the only real Spanish anarchist leader in the eastern part of the United States,” who “is a man of considerable intelligence and is and has been active in anarchistic circles and in spreading the propaganda of malcontents and disbelievers in government, law and order, of his stamp. It seems to be highly desirable to rid the country of his presence at the earliest time possible.” Ordered deported November, 1918, but released on bond while his case was appealed on the grounds that he was a “philosophical anarchist” who did not advocate violence. Active in Boston’s new International Revolutionary Group, which published the Spanish-language single-issue anarchist magazines El Azote (1921) and America (1922). In 1920 he also became the secretary of the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee, “and has been responsible for voluminous propaganda sent throughout the world by that organization, devoting his time entirely to that work and to other subversive propaganda.” He appears to have separated from his wife during this time. His case was appealed all the way to the Supreme Court, which ruled against him in 1924 and he was deported May 25, 1925.

However, reportedly with the aid of Galician anarchist sailors, he either jumped ship and swam ashore, or returned to North America from Spain, possibly living in Canada for a number of years with his new companion, Mary Berkowitz, until her death. At some point he returned to New York under the name Alberto Martín. 1953 married Russian-Jewish anarchist union organizer Rose Pesotta (as “Albert Martin”), divorced after two years. Collaborated on book Breve historia del movimiento anarquista en Estados Unidos de América del Norte with exiled Spanish anarchists Vladimiro Muñoz and Federica Montseny. Died 1967; left $500 to the Mexican anarchist newspaper Tierra y Libertad in his will.

INS file 54379/511

See also: Miguel Íñiguez, Esbozo de una Enciclopedia Histórica del Anarquismo Español; Bieito Alonso, Anarquistas Galegos en América; Francis Russell, Tragedy in Dedham: The Story of the Sacco-Vanzetti Case; Elaine J. Leeder, The Gentle General: Rose Pesotta, Anarchist and Labor Organizer; Alberto Martin, Vladimiro Muñoz, and Federica Montseny, Breve historia del movimiento anarquista en Estados Unidos de América del Norte; Tierra y Libertad (Mexico City), June 1967

Andrew Lopitsky (Андрей Лопицкий)

Born 1894, Mogilev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Miner. Migrated to US 1913. “We were oppressed in Russia and we heard of good wages and freedom in America. That is the reason I came here.” Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Downs, West Virginia. Arrested December 2, 1919, in connection with a URW-organized miners’ strike at the Consumers Fuel Company mine. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/591; FBI file OG 380920

See also: Charles H. McCormick, Seeing Reds: Federal Surveillance of Radicals in the Pittsburgh Mill District

Adolfo Lorenzini (aka John)

Born 1887, Modena, Italy. Migrated to US 1911. Miner. Became an anarchist around 1914 or 1915. Lived in Spring Valley, Illinois. Subscriber to Italian anarchist paper Umanità Nova. Deported March 1, 1921.

Emigrated to Nice, France 1922. Joined the Communist Party, but no political activity recorded by Italian consul’s surveillance.

INS file 54885/16; CPC busta 2839

Ivan Loshakov (Иван Лошаков; Loshakoff; John)

Born 1891, Kyiv, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Migrated to US 1913. Lumber worker. Around 1917 became an anarchist; joined the Union of Russian Workers in Granite Falls, Washington, and became secretary of URW’s Seattle branch. Arrested Seattle, January 1920. Deported January 22, 1921.

INS file 54860/398; FBI file OG 387801

Prokopy Losiov (Прокопий Лосиов; Losioff; Lasioff)

Born 1891, Chernigov, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer; miner. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and child in Russia. 1917 confined for nine months to the Woodville Asylum in Allegheny County after collapsing at work in a steel mill “overcome by the heat.” Afterward moved to Fairmont, West Virginia, where he joined the United Mine Workers and the Union of Russian Workers. Participated in 1919 miners’ strike. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/600

Anthony Lovenetsky (H. Levinensky)

Born 1894, Mogilev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Polish. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the IWW; early 1919 joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Monessen, Pennsylvania; served as its secretary and chaired meetings. According the immigration offiicals, “the alien is far above the average in intelligence.” Arrested May 1919 in Pittsburgh and held for four days, but released; arrested again in Greensburg, Pennsylvania during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919, while on strike at Page Wire Works. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/474

See also: One Big Union Monthly, May 1920

Vasily Lukashuk (aka Lukov; Василий Лукашук aka Луков; William Lukow; Vasil)

Born 1896, Brest-Litovsk, Russia (present-day Belerus). Migrated to US 1913. Laborer. Lost three fingers and the use of his left arm due to an accident at the Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company. 1915 joined the Socialist Party of America “for a month or two”; 1916 joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Youngstown, Ohio, 1918. On strike when arrested in November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/539; FBI file OG 375161a

Andrew Lukianow (aka John Wilichko)

Born 1885, Mogilev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1914. Laborer. Wife and child in Russia. Worked at Arctic Ice Cream Company in Detroit. Member of the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested November 7, 1919; anarchist literature and correspondence with URW secretary seized. Detained for over six months before being granted bail; claimed his name was John Wilichko and that Lukianow was a friend who had left items in his care, but multiple witnesses identified him as Lukianow. Deported to Russia March 18, 1921.

INS file 54709/314; FBI file OG 380910

Chaim Lurie (Хаим Лурье; Chaim; Michael; Loorie)

Cabinetmaker. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

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