Tag Archives: Spanish

Faces of the First Red Scare

As part of the ongoing research for my book on the global history of immigrant radicals who were deported during America’s First Red Scare, I have posted brief profiles of 836 (and counting) individual deportees I have identified. This list is a work in progress, and entries are being added updated as I obtain additional information.

Who is included:

This list includes radicals and suspected radicals who were deported between 1918 (following America’s entrance into the First World War) and 1925, when the last of the foreign-born radicals arrested between 1917 and 1920 were expelled, some after serving prison sentences or being interned as “enemy aliens.” It includes both those who were deported by government order and those who were ordered deported but “voluntarily departed” at their own expense with the government’s consent (both categories were included in US government deportation statistics). It does not include those who fled the country to avoid arrest or deportation. It includes both individuals deported for belonging to legally-defined “anarchistic classes,” and others who were suspected of radicalism but deported on other grounds (most commonly for entering the country without inspection or being retroactively deemed “likely to become a public charge” at the time of their entry).

This is not a complete list. In the fiscal years (June-July) 1918-1926, the United States deported 979 aliens as “anarchists,” and an unknown number of additional radical immigrants under other statutes. The largest single group of deportees, composed of 242 alleged radicals (as well as seven unrelated deportees) departed on the USAT Buford on December 21, 1919. However, it appears that no complete list of Red Scare deportees was produced by either the Bureau of Immigration or the Bureau of Investigation. I have instead had to rely on partial lists and mentions of individual cases included in these organizations’ files, congressional testimony, radical publications, newspaper reports, and other sources.

How to use this site:

Profiles have been posted in small batches. They are organized in alphabetical order by last name, followed by alternate spellings and pseudonyms in parentheses. (The Cyrillic spellings of Russian names are generally my best guess; American sources from the era were wildly inconsistent in their spellings of such names. The same is true of the transliteration of Chinese names in the Roman alphabet.) You can also browse the Index of Names.

Birth years are often approximate, usually having been calculated from an individual’s age at the time of their examination by immigration authorities, and some may therefore be off by a year.

You can search by individuals’ nationalities (country of birth and, in some cases, ethnicity [i.e. Jewish, Lithuanian, etc.]) by using the tags above.

Occupations describe the individuals’ employment in the US, not necessarily the work they engaged in before arrival or after their deportation.

Political affiliations represented include the syndicalist Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), the anarcho-syndicalist Union of Russian Workers of the United States and Canada (URW); the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM); anarchists unaffiliated with larger organizations; the Communist Party of America (CP); the Communist Labor Party (CLP); the Socialist Party of America (SP); the Socialist Labor Party (SLP); and unaffiliated socialists. You can search by political affiliation by using the tags above.

You may also use the “Search” box at the top of the page to look for individual names, locations, etc.

The main sources used for compiling these profiles are case files from the Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), Record Group 85, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC; the Old German Files (OG) and Bureau Section Files (BS) of the Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Record Group 65, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD (as digitized at fold3.com); and (for Italians) the Casellario Politico Centrale (CPC), Archivio Centrale dello Stato, Rome, Italy.

A special thanks to Molly Thacker and Brooke Thompson, who photographed hundreds of INS files for me; Malcolm Archibald, who has translated a number of Russian-language sources; D.J. Alperovitz, who has provided photographs of several IWW members; and the dozens of other archivists, translators, activists, and colleagues who have helped me locate, acquire, and read material from across the globe while undertaking this research.

Finally, if you have additional information about any of the deportees, or spot an error, please contact me!

Arndt to Bagatchuk

Fred Arndt

Born Germany, year unknown. Construction worker; year of migration unknown. IWW organizer and delegate for Local No. 573 of Construction Workers’ Industrial Union, Seattle. Refused to register for the draft. Arrested during raid on Seattle IWW in February 1919; charged with “criminal anarchy.” Refused to answer questions. Interned at Fort Douglas, Utah as “enemy alien”; released on condition of “voluntary repatriation” and departed June 1919.

INS file 54616/32, FBI file OG 347754

Charles Ashleigh

Born 1888 or 1889, London, England. Clerk, laborer, union organizer, journalist. Middle-class upbringing; joined Independent Labour Party age 15, then Fabian Society and Social Democratic Federation; became a secretary for the Fabian Society 1908 and active in socialist Clarion Scouts movement. 1908-9 sent by ILP to agitate among coal miners in South Wales. 1909 migrated Buenos Aires for clerk position with Central Argentine Railroad; established Socialist Club and wrote for Buenos Aires Herald. Hiked from Argentina to Chile and Peru, then 1912 sailed as crew member from Peru to Portland where jumped ship (with collusion of captain) and regularized his status by crossing into Canada and back. Immediately employed as a paid speaker for Socialist Party of America, but soon left it for IWW, for which became a paid organizer. Traveled as migrant laborer, or “hobo,” throughout US and wrote poetry on behalf of IWW; involved in Rangel-Cline and Everett defense campaigns. Openly queer, he had a romantic relationship with African American radical poet Claude McKay. Arrested 1917 and defendant at federal IWW trial; sentenced to 10 years and $30,000 fine. Joined Communist Party in prison; 1921 sentence commuted on condition of “voluntary departure” in early 1922. In London transferred to Communist Party of Great Britain and on staff of Sunday Worker and Daily Worker, as well as TASS. September 1922 traveled to India to deliver invitations to Fourth Congress of the Comintern; detained and expelled by British authorities but managed to complete his mission. November 1922 in Moscow (with McKay) where worked as translator for Fourth Comintern Congress, then asked to start an “American information section in the RILU,” which transferred to Berlin 1923. Soon arrested in Berlin and expelled. 1930 published semi-autobiographical novel about IWW, The Rambling Kid. 1931 sent to Moscow to write for The Moscow News/Moscow Daily News; 1934 denounced by roommate as homosexual and expelled from USSR. Remained member of CPGB until his death in 1974, but on the margins of local party activity.

INS file 54235/39-A

See also: Steve Kellerman, “Introduction,” Charles Ashleigh, The Rambling Kid (2004); Kevin Morgan, Gidon Cohen, and Andrew Flinn, Communists and British Society, 1920-1991 (2007); Lisa A. Kirschenbaum, International Communism and the Spanish Civil War: Solidarity and Suspicion (2015)

Joseph Aukstuolis

Cook. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Aurelio Vincente Azuara (Vicente Azuara)

Born Spain, 1884. Laborer, miner, editor. Migrated to Mexico 1907, then to US 1912. Joined IWW 1913, became unofficial organizer for it. In Los Angeles, edited unofficial Spanish-language IWW paper El Rebelde (1916-17). Arrested Los Angeles September 1917; defendant at federal IWW trial; sentenced to 20 years and $10,000 fine. Sentence commuted on condition of deportation to Spain 1923. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/48

See also David Struthers, The World in a City: Multiethnic Radicalism in Early Twentieth-Century Los Angeles (2019)

Alfredo Bagaglino

Born 1868, Turin, Italy. Orphaned. Miner. Anarchist. 1904 expelled from France (reason unclear). Migrated to US 1907; miner in Spring Valley, Illinois, where lived with wife Domenica Cariglio and their adopted son. Supporter of Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva, Umanità Nova (Milan), and Alleanza Libertaria (Rome), and active in mining strikes. According to Chicago Immigration Inspector George E. Schubert, Bagaglino “is the actual leader and the most outspoken” of the Spring Valley anarchists, and “a forcible speaker and has command of the language and the high sounding phrases used by the present radical demagogues.” Deported March 1921; wife planned to sell home and join him in Italy. Maintained correspondence with Italian anarchists in US; 1926 arrested by fascist authorities and sentenced to several years “mandato al Confino” (confinement to a prison colony). Died Turin 1936.

INS file 54885/18; CPC busta 239

See also: Un trentennio di attività anarchica (1915-1945) (1953)

Simon Bagatchuk (aka Sam Bush)

Born 1888, Podolsk, Russia. Laborer; migrated to US 1913 (via Canada). April 1919 joined the Seattle branch of Union of Russian Workers. Arrested Seattle, January 17, 1919, then again November 17, 1919. Deported February 1921.

INS file 54860/453; FBI file OG 388850

Canle to Chernyavsky

Juan Canle (John; Jan; Canel; Canlo)

Born 1895, Coruña, Spain. Laborer. Migrated to US 1911. Former member of IWW’s Marine Oilers, Firemen and Watertenders Union. Member of Spanish anarchist group El Ariete in Niagara Falls, New York. Arrested May 1919 with two other members for “alleged conspiracy to overthrow by force the Government of the United States” based on a manifesto they were distributing that called for revolution, but case thrown out by the judge. Deported as anarchist August 1920. Subsequent activities unknown, but may have later been active in anarchist movement in Argentina and/or Uruguay.

INS file 54709/16; FBI files OG 389193 and OG 8000-357909

Arthur Stanley Cattell (aka Kotel)

Born 1886, London, England. Plumber. Migrated to US 1911. Former member of the Socialist Party of America; member and treasurer of West Philadelphia branch of the Communist Party of America. Deported September 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54811/490; FBI file OG 380747

Michele Centrone

Born 1879, Puglia, Italy. Carpenter. Joined Socialist Party of Italy, 1897; gravitated to anarchists 1900. Migrated to US 1903. In San Francisco, collaborated on anarchist papers La Protesta Umana and Nihil; distributor of Cronaca Sovversiva. Member anarchist Volontá Group; secretary of Latin Branch of Local 95 of United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners (AFL). Arrested May 1918; deported March 1920. After Mussolini took power in 1922, Centrone returned to US via Mexico, but apprehended and deported again. 1924 fled to France; arrested and expelled 1928. Spent time in Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg; illegally returned to France 1931. Involved in antifascist exile organizations, including Giustizia e Libertà; implicated in plots to assassinate Mussolini; correspondent for US anarchist papers, including L’Adunata dei Refrattari. 1936, at age 57, volunteered to fight in Spanish Civil War as part of anarchist Ascaso Column. Killed in action August 28, 1936.

INS file 54379/330; FBI file OG 321621; CPC busta 1243

See also: Mario Gianfrate and Kenyon Zimmer, Michele Centrone, tra vecchio e nuovo mondo: Anarchici pugliesi in difesa della libertà spagnola

Antonio Cesco (Chesco)

Born 1884, northern Italy. Miner. Migrated to US 1908. Former Socialist Party member; anarchist; distributor of Cronaca Sovversiva. Member, United Mine Workers. Arrested Yorkville, Ohio, while in hospital with injured leg from mining injury. Deported February 1920. Not placed under surveillance by Italian authorities. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/401

Boris Cevetsky (Sckiwitsky)

Born 1885, Vilnius, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Immigrated to US 1913; dishwasher. Early 1919 joined Detroit’s Russian Branch No. 3 of the Socialist Party , which transferred into the Communist Party. Arrested January 1920; held at Wort Wayne. Deported March 18, 1921.

INS file 54859/985

Yakov Cewook (Yakow; Gewook; Tsiwuh)

Born 1886, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1911. Wife and two children in Russia. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Youngstown, Ohio, 1918. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/540

Alexandr “Sasha” Chernov (Александр Чернов, Alexander Chernoff; aka Vasiley Vasilitt; aka Lightner)

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Chernoff.jpg

Born 1896, Samara, Russia. Machinist. Migrated to US 1913. Member of both Union of Russian Workers and IWW; lecturer for URW. Arrested March 1919 in Waterbury, Connecticut, and sentenced to six months in prison for violation of the Espionage Act; after release “actively engaged in pernicious propaganda.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/117; FBI file OG 8000-363703

See also: Lazar Lipotkin, The Russian Anarchist Movement in North America

George Chernov (Chernoff; Chernove; Chernova; Obernoff)

Born 1893, Kherson, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Mechanic. Migrated to US 1913. Joined Branch no. 2 of the Union of Russian Workers in Detroit, 1917. Employee of Ford Motor Company, where arrested November 1919. Deported November 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/285

Ivan Chernyavsky (Иван Чернявский; John Cherniawsky; Chermiansky)

Chernyavsky’s URW membership card (which he attempted to rip up during arrest)

Born 1894, Vilnius, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Machinist. Migrated to US 1912. Member of Union of Russian Workers, in Jackson, Michigan. Arrested Detroit October 1918. Deported January 1921. Subsequent activities unknown; possibly anarchist Chernyavsky arrested in Petrograd 1923.

INS file 54709/465; FBI file OG 375427

Fernández to Foli

Josef Ramón Fernández (José Ramón Fernández; José Fernández; Fernande)

Members of Spanish-speaking Los Corsarios Group, including Fernandez, 1919

Born 1898, Oviedo, Spain. Laborer. Became an anarchist at age sixteen, migrated to Cuba circa 1914. Migrated from Cuba to US 1917. Member of Los Corsarios Group which published anarchist paper El Corsario. One of 14 members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped, but several members, including Fernandez, held for deportation as anarchists. Deported to Spain May 5, 1919. No further information found.

INS file 54616/79

Ramón Fernández (Raymond Fernandez)

Born in Cuba. Anarchist and likely IWW member. Arrested 1918 in Seattle and convicted of Criminal Syndicalism; pardoned by the governor after three months so that he could be deported. Held in Seattle immigration station until March 1920, then transferred to Ellis Island. November 1921 deported to Spain, but refused admission due to his Cuban birth. Returned to Ellis Island, and March 1922 deported to Cuba, but refused admission on the grounds that he forfeited his Cuban citizenship by avoiding military service in WWI. July 22, 1922 allowed to “voluntarily depart” at his own expense to Russia (via Rotterdam). Joined the Kuzbass Autonomous Industrial Colony in Kuznets until its dissolution in 1926, writing occasional reports for the paper Cultura Obrera.

See: Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University Library; Elizabeth Gurley Flynn Papers, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Egor Matveevich Feskov (Грегори Матвеевич Фесков; Egor Feskow; Harry Feskow; Grigory Feskov)

Born Stepok, Russia, 1885. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Joined Hartford, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. 1935, via Russian Consul in New York, employed attorney Aaron Banenson to recover bank savings lost due to deportation, totaling $2,404 ($983.50 plus compound interest); 1943 a judge ruled in Feskov’s favor.

INS files 54709/524 and 56167/137

See also: Hartford Courant, December 23, 1943

William Fields (Field)

Born 1880, London, England. Lumber worker. Migrated to US 1905. Joined IWW 1917. Arrested Seattle, May 1918. Deported February 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/416 (file missing); FBI file OG 194446

Ivan Filisofov (Иван Философов; John Philisoph)

Born 1877, Volynia, Russia (present-day Poland). Laborer. Migrated to Argentina circa 1914; from there migrated to US circa 1915. Wife and three children in Russia. Allegedly a member of the Union of Russian Workers branch in Thomaston, Connecticut; however, he claimed he only belonged to the non-partisan Union of Russian Citizens (an umbrella organization for Russian progressives). Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. A large amount of anarchist, IWW, and Communist literature was confiscated from his room, some of which he claimed belonged to a roommate. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/166; FBI file OG 355772

Olaf Finnestad (Finnstad)

Flier protesting arrests of Finnestad and fellow IWW member Adolph Errson

Born 1894, Stavanger, Norway. Laborer. Migrated to US 1910. Joined IWW in Los Angeles, 1916; 1918 secretary of Minneapolis IWW branch. Arrested Seattle, October 1918. Deported March 1919. In Norway, immediately joined the Norsk Syndikalistik Federation (Norwegian Syndicalist Federation) and the anarchist Norges Ungsocialistiske Forbund (Norwegian Youth’s Socialist League), and lectured “on conditions in the United States.” August 1920 immigrated to Canada. At some point prior to 1951 he illegally returned to the US and gained US citizenship. Died Portland, Oregon, 1974.

INS file 54517/68

See also: The Workers’ World (Kansas City), August 1, 1919; Ancestry.com

Friedrich Fischer (Fred Fischer/Fisher; aka Charles Williams and Charles William Fischer)

Born 1877, Germany. Sailor; lumber worker; laborer. Migrated to US 1896; sailed all over the world from US ports. Joined IWW 1916. Arrested December 1917 as “enemy alien” working on waterfront; released; arrested January 1918, Walla Walla, Washington for IWW membership. Interned as “enemy alien” as Fort Douglas, Utah (even though he declared, “We don’t believe in the German Kaiser ourself [sic]. I have no love for any king or kaiser; makes no difference where he is….I wish the German Kaiser went to hell a long time ago.” “Voluntary departure” June 1919 in exchange for release. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/61

Enrique Flores Magón

Enrique Flores Magón (standing center left, without a had) with family and supporters in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, March 4, 1923, following his deportation

Born Mexico, 1877. Millwright, journalist. Opponent, along with brother Ricard Flores Magón, of Mexican president Porfirio Díaz, leading to arrest in 1903. Both brothers immigrated to the US later that year, founding the anti-Díaz Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM) and its newspaper Regeneración. The Flores Magón borthers, and hence the PLM, became increasingly radical, eventually embracing anarchism and supporting the syndicalist IWW. The brothers were repeatedly arrested up until 1917, when Enrique left the PLM. 1918 Enrique began sentence for “mailing un-mailable matter”; released from Leavenworth 1920. 1923 “voluntary departure” to Mexico. Active in Mexico’s anarchist movement for many years, but became less radical over time. Died 1954.

INS file 54861/116

Ignacz Fogler

Deported May 1920 to Austria. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Virgilio Foli

Born 1886, Fanano, Italy. Miner. Migrated to US 1902. Became anarchist circa 1916. Arrested in Spring Valley, Illinois, December 1920. Deported March 1921. Briefly migrated from Italy to Belgium in 1923 looking for work. In Italy, became farmer. Italian authorities noted no radical activity, an in 19137 removed him from the list of subversives. However, after his death in 1969, his comrades wrote in the anarchist newspaper L’Internazionale that his was “a life lived intensely for the affirmation of anarchist ideas the affirmation of anarchist ideas for which he suffered persecution and exile.”

INS file 54885/19; CPC busta 2101

See also: True Republican (Syncamore, IL), March 30, 1921; Andrea Pirondini, Anarchici a Modena: Dizionario biografico.

Goldman to Grau i Jassans

Emma Goldman

File:Emma Goldman's deportation photo, 1919.jpg

Born 1869, Kovno, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Jewish. Garment worker; nurse; editor. Migrated to US 1885. Became anarchist in US due to Haymarket Affair; soon one of the leading anarchist propagandists in US. Arrested at least thirteen times in US for her activities. Founder and publisher of Mother Earth (1906-1917). Cofounded the Conscription League in 1917, and arrested with Alexander Berkman in June that year under the Espionage Act for interfering in the draft. Sentenced to two years imprisonment and $10,000 fine. After her release, deported on the Buford.

In Russia, she and Berkman collected materials for a Museum of the Revolution. Broke with Bolsheviks after 1921 Kronstadt Rebellion; left Russia December 1921 with Berkman. Lived in Germany, France, England, and Canada, continuing her activism and also campaigning against the Soviet dictatorship. 1934 allowed to return to US for a few months for a lecture tour. 1936 traveled to Barcelona during Spanish Civil War, and traveled Europe on behalf of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT. Died in Toronto February 1940.

INS file 52410/43

See also: Emma Goldman, Living My Life; Emma Goldman, My Disillusionment in Russia; Paul Avrich and Karen Avrich, Sasha and Emma: The Anarchist Odyssey of Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman

Philip Golishko (Felip, Filip)

Born 1894, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1914. Member of both the IWW and Union of Russian Workers. Arrested Seattle, February 1920. Deported January 1921.

FBI file OG 381765

José González 

Deported IWW member. No further information found.

Grigory Varfolomeevich Gorbich (Григорий Варфоломеевич Горбич; Gregory; Gorbitch)

Born 1896, Brest or Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Metalworker. Date of migration to US unknown. Anarchist since 1916 and a member of the Union of Russian Workers.

Deported February 1921. Arrested 1922 “for crossing the border from Poland.” Settled in Petrograd. Arrested again July 1923 and sentenced to two years internal exile away from Russia’s major cities or border areas. Arrested again 1925 and again sentenced to internal exile for three years. No further information found.

See: International Committee for Political Prisoners, Letters from Russian Prisons; G. P. Maximoff, The Guillotine at Work: Twenty Years of Terror in Russia (Data and Documents); http://visz.nlr.ru/person/book/vi/4/130

Nikolay Gorin (Николай Горин; Nick; Nicholai; Nickolai)

Born 1895, Tverskoy, Russia. Migrated to US 1912. Machinist. Migrated to US 1912. In Bridgeport, Connecticut joined the Russian branch of the Socialist Party of America, then joined the local branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1919 and became its secretary. Arrested February, 1920. Deported January 1921.

FBI file OG 381756

Ivan Gornovsky (John; Gornobsky)

Born 1886, Selets, Russia (present-day Belarus). Brother of Vasil Gornovsky. Active in the radical movement in Russia. Migrated to US 1913. Laborer. Wife and child in Russia. Member of the Union of Russian Workers and the IWW. Secretary of Seattle URW Branch. Arrested October 16, 1919 and charged with criminal syndicalism. Arrested again January 1920. Deported to Russia February 1921.

INS file 54860/407

Vasil Gornovsky (Василь Горновский; Vasel; Gornovisky)

Born 1895, Grodno region, Russia (present-day Belarus). Brother of Ivan Gornovsky. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Member of the Union of Russian Workers and the IWW. Arrested Seattle, November 1919. Deported February 1921.

INS file 54860/427; FBI file OG 388242

George Goroshkov (Гарошков or Горошков, Garoshkow, Gorshkov, aka Ivan Balui)

Born 1880, Mogilev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Wife and child in Russia. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Monessen, Pennsylvania, in early 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/214; FBI file OG 383004

Samuel Goz (Самуил Гоз; Samuil; Sam Gordon)

Born 1903, Vilna, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Jewish. Claimed, “I was a member of the Bolshevik Party in Russia and Trotsky read for me the Manifesto and Programs…I wanted to join the [Red] army but they would not take me because I was only fifteen years old.” Migrated to US with mother and younger brother 1918. Laborer. Arrested Buffalo, January 1920, at age seventeen. Declared, “I do believe in assassinating any public official who opposes the will of the working people. In fact, I would kill them myself if I had a chance.” Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

INS file 54859/906

Ivan Gramatsky

Born 1895, Russia. Migrated to US 1914. Joined Communist Party of America December 1919. Arrested Newark January 1920. Deported December 1920.

FBI file OG 384985

Josep Grau i Jassans (José Grau Jassans; Jose Grau; Jessans; Jensans; aka Arnaldo Sopelana/Sopelano, Adolfo Apelle)

Born 1899, Barcelona, Spain. Sailor (oiler and fireman). Anarchist; member of Spanish anarcho-syndicalist CNT. Migrated to US 1917. Immediately joined IWW after arrival and became organizer for it. Member of Los Corsarios Group which published anarchist paper El Corsario, of which Grau i Jassans edited the first three issues before quitted due to disagreements with the group. One of 14 group members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped. Arrested again May 1919 while a delegate to a convention of the IWW’s Marine Transport Workers in Philadelphia. Denied being an anarchist, but admitted IWW membership. Deported December 1919.

In Spain joined the anarcho-syndicalist CNT and became a leader of its transportation workers’ union in Barcelona; involved in relaunched CNT paper Solidaridad Obrera. Joined the pro-Communist minority Comités Sindicalistas Revolucionarios within the CNT, and in this capacity attended the Third Congress of Profintern in Moscow in 1924. When the Second Spanish Republic was declared in 1931, he joined the Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC, or Republican Left of Catalonia), a social-democratic, pro-Catalan independence party, and was appointed the private secretary of ERC leader Lluís Companys i Jover. In July 1931 Grau i Jassans was elected to Spanish parliament as an ERC representative, and in that role focused on defending workers and Catalan autonomy. Re-elected in 1933, but expelled in 1934 for allegedly attempting to discredit opponents within the ERC; in 1936 he was “rehabilitated” within the ERC. During the Spanish Civil War, appointed inspector of the state-run petroleum company and of municipal commissioners. 1939 fled to France, and 1942 migrated to Mexico, where joined by wife and two daughters. Worked as a salesman in Mexico, where died in 1965.

INS file 5461/211; FBI file BS 40-9016-1

See also: Arnaldo Sopelana [Josep Grau i Jassans], Lo que yo he visto en Norte-América; Arnau Gonzàlez i Vilalta, Els diputats catalans a les Corts constituents republicanes, 1931-1933 : nacionalisme, possibilisme i reformisme social; https://memoriaesquerra.cat/biografies/grau-jassans-josep; https://ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josep_Grau_i_Jassans

López García to Lurie

Francisco López García (aka Frank R. Lopez; José Marinero; Jesus Lejendario; Albert Martin; Alberto Martín)

López García in the 1950s

Born 1885, A Coruña, Spain. Galician. Sailor; carpenter. Migrated to US 1904. Became one of the most prominent Spanish-speaking anarchists in the US and contributed to Spanish-language newspapers in several countries; collaborated on New York’s Cultura Obrera (1911-1925) and helped launch its successor, Cultura Proletaria (1927-1953). When he was arrested in 1918, federal agents confiscated a photograph “of Lopez and several other persons with all sorts of implements, entitled ‘The Social Revolution of 1911,'” suggesting that he may have participated in the Mexican Revolution with the forces of the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano. 1912 married Italian widow Rosa [Rose] De Matteis. In Boston, a member of the Grupo Rebelion circa 1914 and a founder and secretary of the Grupo Fraternidad, which was in communication with anarchist groups in Spain, Chile, Argentina, Mexico, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. 1917-1918 became close to Luigi Galleani and Cronaca Sovversiva, but rejected their promotion of violence. Arrested February 1918 during federal raid on Grupo Fraternidad’s headquarters. Described by federal agents as “practically the only real Spanish anarchist leader in the eastern part of the United States,” who “is a man of considerable intelligence and is and has been active in anarchistic circles and in spreading the propaganda of malcontents and disbelievers in government, law and order, of his stamp. It seems to be highly desirable to rid the country of his presence at the earliest time possible.” Ordered deported November, 1918, but released on bond while his case was appealed on the grounds that he was a “philosophical anarchist” who did not advocate violence. Active in Boston’s new International Revolutionary Group, which published the Spanish-language single-issue anarchist magazines El Azote (1921) and America (1922). In 1920 he also became the secretary of the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee, “and has been responsible for voluminous propaganda sent throughout the world by that organization, devoting his time entirely to that work and to other subversive propaganda.” He appears to have separated from his wife during this time. His case was appealed all the way to the Supreme Court, which ruled against him in 1924 and he was deported May 25, 1925.

However, reportedly with the aid of Galician anarchist sailors, he either jumped ship and swam ashore, or returned to North America from Spain, possibly living in Canada for a number of years with his new companion, Mary Berkowitz, until her death. At some point he returned to New York under the name Alberto Martín. 1953 married Russian-Jewish anarchist union organizer Rose Pesotta (as “Albert Martin”), divorced after two years. Collaborated on book Breve historia del movimiento anarquista en Estados Unidos de América del Norte with exiled Spanish anarchists Vladimiro Muñoz and Federica Montseny. Died 1967; left $500 to the Mexican anarchist newspaper Tierra y Libertad in his will.

INS file 54379/511

See also: Miguel Íñiguez, Esbozo de una Enciclopedia Histórica del Anarquismo Español; Bieito Alonso, Anarquistas Galegos en América; Francis Russell, Tragedy in Dedham: The Story of the Sacco-Vanzetti Case; Elaine J. Leeder, The Gentle General: Rose Pesotta, Anarchist and Labor Organizer; Alberto Martin, Vladimiro Muñoz, and Federica Montseny, Breve historia del movimiento anarquista en Estados Unidos de América del Norte; Tierra y Libertad (Mexico City), June 1967

Andrew Lopitsky (Андрей Лопицкий)

Born 1894, Mogilev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Miner. Migrated to US 1913. “We were oppressed in Russia and we heard of good wages and freedom in America. That is the reason I came here.” Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Downs, West Virginia. Arrested December 2, 1919, in connection with a URW-organized miners’ strike at the Consumers Fuel Company mine. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/591; FBI file OG 380920

See also: Charles H. McCormick, Seeing Reds: Federal Surveillance of Radicals in the Pittsburgh Mill District

Adolfo Lorenzini (aka John)

Born 1887, Modena, Italy. Migrated to US 1911. Miner. Became an anarchist around 1914 or 1915. Lived in Spring Valley, Illinois. Subscriber to Italian anarchist paper Umanità Nova. Deported March 1, 1921.

Kept under government surveillance upon his return until 1941.

INS file 54885/16; CPC busta 2839

Ivan Loshakov (Иван Лошаков; Loshakoff; John)

Born 1891, Kyiv, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Migrated to US 1913. Lumber worker. Around 1917 became an anarchist; joined the Union of Russian Workers in Granite Falls, Washington, and became secretary of URW’s Seattle branch. Arrested Seattle, January 1920. Deported January 22, 1921.

INS file 54860/398; FBI file OG 387801

Prokopy Losiov (Прокопий Лосиов; Losioff; Lasioff)

Born 1891, Chernigov, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer; miner. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and child in Russia. 1917 confined for nine months to the Woodville Asylum in Allegheny County after collapsing at work in a steel mill “overcome by the heat.” Afterward moved to Fairmont, West Virginia, where he joined the United Mine Workers and the Union of Russian Workers. Participated in 1919 miners’ strike. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/600

Anthony Lovenetsky (H. Levinensky)

Born 1894, Mogilev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Polish. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the IWW; early 1919 joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Monessen, Pennsylvania; served as its secretary and chaired meetings. According the immigration offiicals, “the alien is far above the average in intelligence.” Arrested May 1919 in Pittsburgh and held for four days, but released; arrested again in Greensburg, Pennsylvania during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919, while on strike at Page Wire Works. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/474

See also: One Big Union Monthly, May 1920

Vasily Lukashuk (aka Lukov; Василий Лукашук aka Луков; William Lukow; Vasil)

Born 1896, Brest-Litovsk, Russia (present-day Belerus). Migrated to US 1913. Laborer. Lost three fingers and the use of his left arm due to an accident at the Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company. 1915 joined the Socialist Party of America “for a month or two”; 1916 joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Youngstown, Ohio, 1918. On strike when arrested in November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/539; FBI file OG 375161a

Andrew Lukianow (aka John Wilichko)

Born 1885, Mogilev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1914. Laborer. Wife and child in Russia. Worked at Arctic Ice Cream Company in Detroit. Member of the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested November 7, 1919; anarchist literature and correspondence with URW secretary seized. Detained for over six months before being granted bail; claimed his name was John Wilichko and that Lukianow was a friend who had left items in his care, but multiple witnesses identified him as Lukianow. Deported to Russia March 18, 1921.

INS file 54709/314; FBI file OG 380910

Chaim Lurie (Хаим Лурье; Chaim; Michael; Loorie)

Cabinetmaker. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Nichiperuck to Notore

Walter Nichiperuck

Deported to Russia January 22, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

José Nicieza (Niechesa; Nierchesa; Micezer)

Members of Spanish-speaking Los Corsarios Group, including Nicieza, 1919

Born 1899, Oviedo, Spain. Laborer. Migrated to Cuba 1914; from there migrated to US 1917. Claimed to have held anarchist ideas “Since my childhood” and sympathized with anarchism in Spain, but not active in movement until emigrated. Member of Los Corsarios Group which published anarchist paper El Corsario. One of 14 members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped, but several members, including Nicieza, held for deportation as anarchists. Deported to Spain May 4, 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/79

Frank Nikolaev (Николаев; Nikolaeff)

Born 1884, Russia (somewhere in present-day Belarus). Steelworker. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Monessen, Pennsylvania, in 1919. Arrested November 26, 1919 in Greensburg, Pennsylvania. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/520; FBI file OG 381430

Paul Nikolajchyk (Nicholachuk; aka Paul Nicholas)

Nikolajchyk’s Communist Party membership card

Born c.1888 in Russia. Migrated to US 1913. Wife in Russia. Lived in Newark; member of New York’s Russian Branch No. 1 of the Communist Party. Deported to Russia February 1, 1921.

INS file 54859/217

Anton Nikolaychuk (Nick; Nikolajchuk)

Nikolaychuk’s Communist Party membership card

Born. c.1894, Kyiv oblast, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Migrated to US 1913. Laborer. Wife and child in Russia. Joined the Socialist Party of America April 1919, then joined Baltimore’s First Russian Branch of the Communist Party of America. Arrested December 1919. Deported to Russia February 1, 1921.

INS file 54809/680

Alexey Nishancoff (Aleck; Alexey Nischtsshankow; Alexis Nischtschkenov; Nischenko)

Born 1892, Mordovo, Saratov, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1912, and from there migrated to US 1916. Attended radical meetings, purchased radical literature, and sympathized with the Bolsheviks, but never joined any radical organization. Worked as a stock-keeper at Ford Motor Company in Detroit, but “he was discharged by this latter firm for making Bolshevik and I.W.W. speeches to his fellow workmen. The Ford company delivered him over to the Department of Justice and he was later turned over to this service.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54649/62; FBI file OG 379194

David Nordloff

Nordloff’s IWW credentials

Born 1889, Gävle, Sweden. Metalworker. Migrated to US 1910 (via Canada). Joined the IWW in 1916; became delegate and organizer for the IWW’s Metal and Machinery Workers’ Industrial Union. Arrested May 1918 on raid on IWW members in Seattle. “Voluntary departure” with wife and four children, June 6, 1919.

INS file 54379/451; FBI file OG 8000-189115

Joe Notore (Ioe)

Born Italy. Laborer. Migrated to the US 1914. Member of the anarchist Circolo di Studi Sociali in Chicago’s Kensington neighborhood. Arrested May 1918. Deported December 20, 1919. Italian government attempts to locate and surveil him after his arrival failed. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/190; CPC busta 3562

Perkus to Petruccioli

Hyman Perkus (Хайман Перкус; Nikofor)

Born 1888, Riga, Russia (present-day Latvia). Jewish. Carpenter. Had been a social democrat in Russia. 1912 migrated to Paris; from there migrated to US 1915. Became an anarchist in the US and joined the Union of Russian Workers in Cleveland in 1916, then a member of the URW’s First Branch in New York. Member Anarchist Red Cross. Partner of fellow URW member Dora Lipkin. Became national Secretary of the URW; succeeded Peter Bianki as editor of URW paper Khleb i Volia. During examination answered: “Why did I become an anarchist? I have suffered from injustices and oppression and have seen that the people in general also suffer from injustices and oppression.” Also stated, “I think the only way is to use the same methods that the United States people used against England in 1776 when the United States people got their freedom…You know what they did.” Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. January 1921 he founded the Union of Russian Anarchist Workers Repatriated from America, which critically supported the Bolshevik dictatorship as a temporary necessity, and he accepted the concept of the “dictatorship of the proletariat.” February 1921 he spoke at Peter Kropotkin’s funeral, reading a paper that criticized Kropotkin’s support of the Allies in the First World War and which, according to Alexander Berkman, “outraged everyone at the grave.” March 1921 joined Berkman and Emma Goldman in unsuccessfully attempting to negotiate peace between the Red Army and the Kronstadt sailors. Arrested multiple times in the aftermath of the Kronstadt uprising. Later attended the Moscow Institute of Journalism. He may have eventually joined the Communist Party. Reportedly killed during Stalin’s purges.

INS file 54709/116

See also: Victor Serge, Anarchists Never Surrender: Essays, Polemics, and Correspondence on Anarchism, 1908–1938; Alexander Berkman Papers, International Institute for Social History, Amsterdam; The J. Abrams Book: The Life and Work of an Exceptional Personality, trans. Ruth Murphy, ed. Brian Moen; Rose Pesotta Papers, New York Public Library; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America

Filippo Perrone (Philip; Felipe; aka Vincenzo Lentini)

Born 1881, Agrigento (Sicily), Italy. Laborer. Migrated to US 1901. Lived in Tampa, New York, Chicago, and Milwaukee. Anarchist, closely associated with Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva. 1911 joined group of Italian anarchists who joined the forces of the Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM) in Tijuana, Mexico, in opening phase of the Mexican Revolution; quickly disillusioned with the the PLM and soon returned to US, where an outspoken critic of the PLM and Mexican Revolution. September 25, 1911 arrested in San Francisco after he “spoke disparagingly about the American flag, condemned law and order, denounced all forms of government and ended with a tirade against the Pope”; this sparked a successful “free speech fight” involving anarchists and IWW members, and the charges against him were dropped. Arrested circa 1922 in Seattle. Deported August 8, 1922. 1923 arrested in Ventimiglia while attempting to clandestinely emigrate. 1924 illegally emigrated to France and then US, using the name “Vincenzo Lentini.” Remained active in Italian American anarchist movement. Deported again after World War II. Died in Sicily shortly thereafter.

CPC busta 3875

See also: Michele Presutto, La rivoluzione dietro l’angolo gli anarchici italiani e la rivoluzione messicana, 1910-1914; Kenyon Zimmer, Immigrants Against the State: Yiddish and Italian Anarchism in America; Un trentennio di attività anarchica (1915-1945)

Pietro Giovanni Perruchon (Peter; aka Ursus)

Born 1885, Arnaz (Aosta), Italy. Miner. Migrated to US 1907 but returned in Italy 1910; 1911 returned to US. Wife (Maria Rosa Joly) followed in 1912; daughter Lotta (“Struggle”) born in 1914. Worked as miner in Colorado and then Arizona. Became an anarchist sometime before his return to the US. Acted as literature and correspondence distributor for Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva. 1915 published a militant anti-war article for La Questione Sociale. 1917 involved in miners’ strike in Globe and Miami, Arizona. Arrested March 26, 1918 in Globe for distributing radical and antiwar literature. Convicted of violating the Espionage Act at trail in Tucson in May 1918; jury deliberated for only one minute and thirty seconds; sentenced to two years in Leavenworth. Upon release, detained for deportation. Denied permission to visit his wife (Rosa) and daughter (Lotta) in Miami, Arizona before his deportation. Authorities noted, “it is understood that his deportation will not seriously interfere with their maintenance or welfare since the wife is operating an apparently prosperous boarding house.” Deported March 27, 1920. In Arnaz, founded Gruppo di emancipazione anarchica in 1920. April 1921 arrested on suspicion of connection to the bombing La Diana theater, but acquitted. 1923 migrated to France; returned to Italy 1924. 1925 returned to France; worked as chauffeur in Paris; his daughter Lotta joined him in France. 1937 returned to Italy to claim an inheritance; arrested and claimed to have abandoned his radicalism; freed and returned to France. Remained in correspondence with Italian anarchists in the US up until his death in France in 1967.

INS file 54379/192; CPC busta 3877

See also: Cronaca Sovversiva, passim; Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University; http://www.bfscollezionidigitali.org/entita/14402-perruchon-giovanni-pietro/; Il Fondo L’Adunata Collection, Boston Public Library; L’Adunata dei Refrattari, October 14, 1967

Paraliett Kutzman Petcoff (Kuzman; Huzman)

Born 1887, Bulgaria. Laborer. 1910 migrated to Canada. Lost the sight in one eye due to workplace accident. Migrated to US 1917. Joined the IWW’s Metal Mine Workers Industrial Union no. 800 in March 1919. Arrested June 11, 1919 in Cleveland. Claimed to be from a wealthy family in Bulgaria, but immigration authorities concluded, “While the Bureau is unable to find that any of the anarchistic charges contained in the warrant are substantiated, it is of the opinion that the alien was a person likely to become a public charge at the time of entry.” Deported January 22, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/220

Jose Petit y Fernandez (Jose Petit Fernandez; Jose Petit; aka Casimiro Petit Fernandez; Jesus Sanchez)

Born 1879, Oviedo, Spain. Cigar worker. Anarchist. Migrated to US circa 1914. Married Maria Alvarez in Tampa, January 1914. Returned alone to Spain circa 1917; again migrated to the US to rejoin his wife and three children November 19, 1918. Arrested February 1919 for having fraudulently used his deceased brother’s passport to enter the US (and avoid military service during his time in Spain). Bureau of Investigation agent opined “that this man is too ignorant to take any initiative in anarchistic and Bolsheviki propaganda or plots but he is a dangerous man to be at large to be used as a tool for those who have the initiative.” Deported to Cuba, June 22, 1919, accompanied by his family. Subsequent activities unknown, but he was still living in Cuba in 1946.

FBI file OG 335078

See also: Tampa Times, April 24 and June 20, 1919; Tampa Tribune, February 1, 1914 and February 5 and June 24, 1919 and May 21, 1946

Konstantin Petrashka (Константин Петрашка; Kontatin Petrosham; Kostativ Petroshak)

Born 1898, Stanki, Russia (present-day Poland). Millworker. Migrated to US 1914. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in New London, Connecticut, July 1919; became its secretary. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/528; FBI file OG 8000-382590

Settimio Petruccioli (Settime; Settimo; Petrucioli)

Born 1888, Bevagna, Italy. Laborer; barber. Migrated to US 1913. Anarchist. Member of the Circolo di Studi Sociali in Kensington, Illinois; supporter of Luigi Galleai’s Cronaca Sovversiva. Arrested June 1919. Deported December 20, 1919. February 1920 emigrated to Canada. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/215; CPC busta busta 3912

Povff to Prokuda

Sam Povff (Pavff; aka Henry Lang; Sam Brokr; Otto Schwarz; Harry Wulf)

Born 1878, Poltava, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Sailor; thief. Anarchist since age 17. Arrested 1899 for revolutionary activities but released; later (says 1901) participated in a mutiny at Kronstadt naval base and sentenced to 13 years internal exile in Siberia. Escaped and emigrated to US 1910 (jumped ship). Briefly belonged to “an anarchistic organization in New York.” Moved to the West Coast, where he used a dozen aliases and made his living through apparently politically-motivated theft. 1911 arrested in Huntington, Oregon, for larceny; sentenced to two years in prison. Circa 1912 arrested in Stockton, California for burglary; sentenced to two years in San Quentin. 1914 arrested in Los Angeles for “highway robbery”; sentenced to six years in San Quentin; served four years and two months. 1919 arrested in Portland, Oregon for attempted robbery of individuals selling “moonshine,” explaining, “They had no right to poison the working class people. I think I had a right to rob them.” Turned over to immigration authorities, who described him as “a most reprehensible and undesirable character.” He also stated, “Of course if I am deported I would maybe be better off, because I have had so much trouble in this country…I don’t see any difference between this country and the country where I came from. I see there are thousands and millions of poor people today, without work, without anything. At the same time it seems to me that there are banks and stores and things, and working people haven’t got any chance to use that.” Deported December 17, 1922.

INS file 54859/184

Ivan Povlycic

Deported to Yugoslavia, May 8, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Pearl Powell (Perl; Powel; Podell; aka Polia Pawlockaya)

Born 1894, Russia. Migrated to US 1910. Member of the Communist Party of America in Brooklyn, New York. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920; released on bail. Married David Sova, a fellow Brooklyn Communist who had also been arrested in January 1920, in Philadelphia. Sova returned to Russia shortly thereafter. She “voluntarily departed” December 23, 1920.

FBI file BS 40-2476-1

See also: Minneapolis Star, December 27, 1920

Andrei Pranka (Андрей Пранка; Andy; Prauka)

Born 1890, Chernihiv, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Miner. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and child in Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Monessen, Pennsylvania. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919, while participating in a miners’ strike. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/475

Ivan Pravoslavnov (Иван Православнов; John Pravosleavanv)

Born 1898, Saratov, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1914. Employee of Singer Sewing Machine Company. Radicalized in the US and joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Elizabethport, New Jersey (present-day Elizabeth) circa 1917. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported January 22, 1921.

FBI file OG 8000-382507

Frank Prego (aka Franciscal)

Born Galicia, Spain. Sailor. Brother of CNT leader and Solidaridad editor José Prego (José Prego Veira). IWW member. 1913 involved in maritime strike in New Orleans; arrested for allegedly “shooting to kill” a policeman; sentenced to twelve years in prison. Deported 1918.

See: The Voice of the People, July 31, 1913; Bieito Alonso, “Spanish Anarchists and Maritime Workers in the IWW,” in Wobblies of the World: A Global History of the IWW

Grigori Prigozy (Григорий Пригози; Gregory; George)

Born 1884, Vilna, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. 1919 joined Russian Branch No. 5 of the Communist Party of America in Detroit. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. “Voluntarily departed” October 14, 1920 (via Canada).

INS file 54860/30; FBI file OG 388025

Stepan Prokopovich (Степан Прокопович; Steve Prokopowich; Prakspoduch)

Born 1884, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and two children in Russia. Worked at a wire mill in Ansonia, Connecticut. Attended the Union of Russian Workers’ automobile school in Bridgeport, Connecticut, but denied URW membership and no evidence of it produced. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/371; FBI file OG 213357

Platon Prokuda (Платон Прокуда; Plaron; A. Proncudo)

Born 1893, Russia. Migrated to US 1912. Laborer. Joined the Socialist Party of America, then the Union of Russian of Workers in Detroit. After the government broke up the URW in November 1919, began attending Communist Party events but did not join; remained an anarchist “Because no matter what government it is, there is always scandal there, fraud, graft, and all that sort of stuff.” Arrested January 1920, held at Fort Wayne. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

Refused entry on the basis of his anarchism at Libau, along with several other deportees. Coauthored “An Open Letter to the Russian Premier Lenin” in response.

INS file 54860/4

See also: Free Society, October-November 1921

Reid to Rivera

Patrick Reid (aka Larry; Jimmy; Billy; Matt)

Born 1871, Dreary, Ireland. Protestant parents. Laborer. Migrated to US circa 1890s. Itinerant laborer throughout US, Canada, and Mexico. Arrested in Centralia, Washington, November 1919. He was “ashamed to say” that, due to lack of funds, he was not dues paying IWW member, but he believed in its ideology, and stated the only government he supported was that of Soviet Russia. Deported April 2, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/581; FBI file OG 378240

Dimitry Remar

Born 1896, Podolsk, Russia. Migrated to Canada 1915, then to US 1918. Laborer. Member of Detroit’s Russian Branch No. 5 of the Communist Party. Arrested January 1920. Deported to Russia, March 18, 1921.

INS file 54859/796

Benjamin Repsys (Repshys)

Born 1894, Kovno, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Lithuanian. Migrated to US 1913. Autoworker. Employed at Ford. 1918 joined Detroit’s Branch No. 116 of the Lithuanian Socialist Federation, then transferred into Communist Party. Arrested November 15, 1919 for receiving radical literature, but released. Arrested again January 1920; deported to Russia March 18, 1921.

INS file 54859/658

Manuel Rey y García (Manuel Rey; aka Louis G. Raymond)

Born 1888, Castrofoya, Spain. Galician. Sailor; union organizer; house painter. Father killed in the Cuban War of Independence. 1905 migrated to Cuba; 1909 to 1914 worked as sailor throughout Atlantic Ocean; 1914 migrated to US (without inspection; jumped ship). Anarchist. Joined the IWW circa 1914 and became secretary of the IWW’s Marine Transport Workers Industrial Union in Philadelphia; April 1917 moved to Niagara Falls, New York, and elected secretary of the local IWW organization. Arrested three times over the next six months for failure to register for the draft and for speaking against the war. Defendant at mass IWW trial 1917-18; sentenced to twenty years and a $20,000 fine. During his incarceration corresponded with Jewish anarchist Lilly Sarnoff, who became his lifelong companion. Sentence commuted December 1922 on condition of deportation; deported March 22, 1923. Illegally returned; again deported 1926. Returned again under the name “Louis G. Raymond.” Continued to be active in the anarchist movement; lived in the anarchist community of Stelton, New Jersey; coedited the newspaper Freedom (1933-34). Died in New York in 1990 at age 101.

INS file 54297/18; FBI file OG 8000-160053

See also: Industrial Workers of the World Collection, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University; Peter Cole, Wobblies on the Waterfront: Interracial Unionism in Progressive-Era Philadelphia; Bieito Alonso, “Spanish Anarchists and Maritime Workers in the IWW,” in Wobblies of the World: A Global History of the IWW; Bieito Alonso, Anarquistas galegos en América; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America

Federico Ricci (aka D. Federico Ricci)

Born 1887, Cesenatico, Italy. Shoemaker. In Italy was a socialist. Migrated to US 1905; became anarchist circa 1910; returned to Italy 1911; migrated to US agains 1913. Arrested in Haverhill, Massachusetts in January, 1918, for failure to register for the draft; sentenced to a year in prison. Stated, “I do not believe in any form of government, because the people have no liberty.” Deported May 22, 1919. 1920 arrested in Naples for desertion; released on probation. Moved back to Cesenatico, “where he lives a solitary life.” 1925 emigrated to France; returned to Italy 1929. Under surveillance until 1941, but no radical activity noted.

INS files 54379/2 and 54379/3; CPC busta 4302

Daniel Rice (Reisch; Risch)

Born 1885, Tolkova (Grodno), Russia (present-day Belarus?). Laborer. Migrated to US 1909. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in 1919 in Newark. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Stated, “I was so much dissatisfied with the Russian Government as I knew it, that I am since that time reluctant to believe that any government is good…I am not satisfied with the United Sates Gov’t and do not believe it is acting as a free government.” Deported on the Buford. Wife and child in Newark. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/340

Augusto Rigoni (August)

Born 1893, Afiago (Vicenza), Italy. Laborer. Not radical in Italy. Year of migration unknown. In Kensington, Illinois joined the anarchist Circolo Studi Sociali; supported Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva. Deported December 20, 1919. After his return, according to Italian authorities, he “demonstrated sympathy with socialism” but withdrew from political activity and “was not considered a politically dangerous element.” Married, had children, and “devoted himself exclusively to the work of the fields of his property together with his brothers.” 1932 developed “symptoms of mental alienation” and confined to provincial psychiatric hospital in Vicenza, where he died that same year.

CPC busta 4329

See also: Cronaca Sovversiva, July 15, 1916

Thomas Rimmer

Born 1886, England. Sailor; miner. Migrated to Canada 1912; from there migrated to US 1914 (without inspection). Radicalized in US; joined the Socialist Party of America and the Western Federation of Miners; then joined the IWW circa 1914. One of the organizers of the 1917 miners’ strike in Butte, Montana; elected to the strikers’ publicity Committee; spoke at funeral of IWW organizer Frank Little. 1918 became IWW delegate. Arrested May 6, 1918, on police raid of IWW hall in Seattle. While detained in Seattle, befriended fellow deportee Moses Baritz, beginning a lifelong “political and personal friendship.” Deported March 9, 1919, as “likely to become a public charge” at the time of his entry because “a man of the character and disposition he clearly was [sic] would almost certain sometime to come into conflict with the laws of any country like the United States and get into jail.” In Liverpool, joined the Merseyside IWW branch. 1921 joined the small, breakaway Socialist Party of Great Britain, of which Baritz was already a member. That same year he was “believed to be traveling frequently between England and Canada.” After a period of lapsed membership, rejoined the SPGB in 1933. Died 1952.

INS file 54379/417; FBI file

See also: The Butte Miner, July 11 and July 29, 1917; San Francisco Examiner, August 6, 1917; Socialist Review (London), February 1, 1959; http://socialiststandardmyspace.blogspot.com/2014/09/death-of-moses-baritz.html

Louis Ristick (Luis)

Born 1896, Volynia, Russia. Machinist. Migrated to US 1913. Employed at the Singer Sewing Machine Company in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Joined the Union of Russian Workers 1919. Arrested in New York during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/457

Librado Rivera

Born 1864, Rayón, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Teacher; laborer; journalist. 1888 became teacher in Mexico. 1900 cofounded a “liberal” group in San Luis Potosí to combat Catholic influence on government. Arrested 1902 for political activities and imprisoned for a year. 1903 collaborated with Enrique and Ricardo Flores Magón on the paper El hijo del Ahuizote and arrested for “ridiculing public officials.” Migrated to US 1905. That same year cofounded the Partido Liberal Mexicano; around this time became an anarchist. 1906 arrested in St. Louis and US government attempted to illegally extradite him to Mexico, but eventually released. 1907 moved to Los Angeles, where arrested without warrant, along with other PLM leaders, by agents of the Furlong Detective Agency on behalf of the Mexican government; convicted of violating US neutrality laws but then released. 1910 a founding editor of the PLM newspaper Regeneración. 1911 arrested with other PLM leaders, again charged and convicted for violating neutrality laws for organizing and supplying PLM fighters in the Mexican Revolution. 1914 released from McNeil Island Prison. 1918 arrested and convicted for violating the Espionage Act with material published in Regeneración; sentenced to 15 years. 1920 transferred from McNeil Island to Leavenworth Penitentiary. 1923 his sentence was commuted on condition of deportation to Mexico. Offered positions in the government of San Luis Potosí, which he declined. Founded and edited a succession of anarchist newspapers. 1927 arrested and sentenced to 6 months for “insulting the president” and “inciting the public to anarchy.” 1932 died after being hit by a car in Mexico City.

See: Alicia Perez Salazar, Librado Rivera, un soñador en llamas; Ricardo Flores Magón, Dreams of Freedom: A Ricardo Flores Magón Reader; Donald C. Hodges, Mexican Anarchism after the Revolution; Aurora Mónica Alcayaga Sasso, “Librado Rivera y los hermanos rojos en el movimiento social y cultural anarquista en Villa Cecilia y Tampico, Tamaulipas, 1915-1931” (PhD diss., Universidad Iberoamericano); http://www.libradorivera.com/; http://www.antorcha.net/biblioteca_virtual/politica/viva_tierra/libradoindice.html