Tag Archives: Italian

Faces of the First Red Scare

As part of the ongoing research for my book on the global history of immigrant radicals who were deported during America’s First Red Scare, I have posted brief profiles of 836 (and counting) individual deportees I have identified. This list is a work in progress, and entries are being added updated as I obtain additional information.

Who is included:

This list includes radicals and suspected radicals who were deported between 1918 (following America’s entrance into the First World War) and 1925, when the last of the foreign-born radicals arrested between 1917 and 1920 were expelled, some after serving prison sentences or being interned as “enemy aliens.” It includes both those who were deported by government order and those who were ordered deported but “voluntarily departed” at their own expense with the government’s consent (both categories were included in US government deportation statistics). It does not include those who fled the country to avoid arrest or deportation. It includes both individuals deported for belonging to legally-defined “anarchistic classes,” and others who were suspected of radicalism but deported on other grounds (most commonly for entering the country without inspection or being retroactively deemed “likely to become a public charge” at the time of their entry).

This is not a complete list. In the fiscal years (June-July) 1918-1926, the United States deported 979 aliens as “anarchists,” and an unknown number of additional radical immigrants under other statutes. The largest single group of deportees, composed of 242 alleged radicals (as well as seven unrelated deportees) departed on the USAT Buford on December 21, 1919. However, it appears that no complete list of Red Scare deportees was produced by either the Bureau of Immigration or the Bureau of Investigation. I have instead had to rely on partial lists and mentions of individual cases included in these organizations’ files, congressional testimony, radical publications, newspaper reports, and other sources.

How to use this site:

Profiles have been posted in small batches. They are organized in alphabetical order by last name, followed by alternate spellings and pseudonyms in parentheses. (The Cyrillic spellings of Russian names are generally my best guess; American sources from the era were wildly inconsistent in their spellings of such names. The same is true of the transliteration of Chinese names in the Roman alphabet.) You can also browse the Index of Names.

Birth years are often approximate, usually having been calculated from an individual’s age at the time of their examination by immigration authorities, and some may therefore be off by a year.

You can search by individuals’ nationalities (country of birth and, in some cases, ethnicity [i.e. Jewish, Lithuanian, etc.]) by using the tags above.

Occupations describe the individuals’ employment in the US, not necessarily the work they engaged in before arrival or after their deportation.

Political affiliations represented include the syndicalist Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), the anarcho-syndicalist Union of Russian Workers of the United States and Canada (URW); the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM); anarchists unaffiliated with larger organizations; the Communist Party of America (CP); the Communist Labor Party (CLP); the Socialist Party of America (SP); the Socialist Labor Party (SLP); and unaffiliated socialists. You can search by political affiliation by using the tags above.

You may also use the “Search” box at the top of the page to look for individual names, locations, etc.

The main sources used for compiling these profiles are case files from the Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), Record Group 85, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC; the Old German Files (OG) and Bureau Section Files (BS) of the Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Record Group 65, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD (as digitized at fold3.com); and (for Italians) the Casellario Politico Centrale (CPC), Archivio Centrale dello Stato, Rome, Italy.

A special thanks to Molly Thacker and Brooke Thompson, who photographed hundreds of INS files for me; Malcolm Archibald, who has translated a number of Russian-language sources; D.J. Alperovitz, who has provided photographs of several IWW members; and the dozens of other archivists, translators, activists, and colleagues who have helped me locate, acquire, and read material from across the globe while undertaking this research.

Finally, if you have additional information about any of the deportees, or spot an error, please contact me!

Abate to Aguilera

Erasmo Abate (aka Hugo Roland)

Born 1895, Formia, Italy. Construction worker, house painter. Immigrated to US in 1912. Anarchist; in Philadelphia secretary of anarcho-syndicalist Union of Italian Workers and edited La Comune (1911-1915) and La Conquista (1920-1921). Deported 1922; wife and child remained in US. In Italy, sent by Errico Malatesta to aid antifascist movement in Ancona, where helped lead local section of the armed antifascist organization Arditi del Popolo. Arrested and fled to Paris, where member of the exiled Italian antifascist Comitato di Azione and key figure in the “Garibaldi Affair,” a plot to assassinate Mussolini and invade Italy led by Ricciotti Garibaldi, but Abate withdrew in 1925, shortly before Garibaldi was revealed to by an agent of Mussolini. In 1926 Abate illegally returned to the US under the name Hugo Roland and rejoined his family; in Chicago edited Germinal (1926), then settled in Michigan. Remained an active anarchist in the US until his death in 1977.

INS file 55009/80; CPC busta 1

See also Hugo Rolland Papers, International Institute for Social History

Jacob Abrams (Yankel Abramovsky; Jack Abrams)

Jacob Abrams, 1921

Born 1883, Uman, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Bookbinder. Immigrated to US in 1908. Anarchist; union militant; member of New York Jewish anarchist groups Shturem and Frayhayt. Wife Mary Domsky, fellow anarchist and survivor of the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. Arrested with other group members in 1918 for writing and distributing fliers opposing US intervention in Russian Civil War. Deported 1921 after losing landmark Supreme Court free-speech case Abrams v. United States. In Russia, opened a steam laundry (a skill he had learned in US federal prison ) and worked for anarcho-syndicalist publishing house Golos Truda, but quickly became disillusioned and left for Paris with Mary in 1925, then the couple moved to Mexico City in 1926, where they joined the Spanish anarchist exiled group Tierra y Libertad, and also befriended Leon Trotsky. 1939 cofounded Yiddish newspaper Di Shtime in Mexico City. Contracted cancer in 1945 and in 1952 allowed to temporarily enter US for medical treatment under FBI supervision. Died 1953 in Mexico.

INS file 54517/79

See also Richard Polenberg, Fighting Faiths: The Abrams Case, the Supreme Court, and Free Speech; The J. Abrams Book: The Life and Work of an Exceptional Personality, trans. Ruth Murphy, ed. Brian Moen

Mikhail Abrosimov (Михаил Абросимов; Michael Abrossemoff)

Born 1901, Petrograd, Russia. Polish. Seaman, laborer. In Russia, had been a socialist and served four years in prison for “wrecking a house of prostitution.” Immigrated to US 1916. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in New York. Arrested and beaten during November 1919 Palmer Raids. Deported 1919 on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/453

Veniamin Afanasevich (Вениамин Афанасьевич; Benjamin; Afansievich; aka Benjamin Ptashetchnik)

Born 1897, Vilna, Russia (present-day Vilnius, Lithuania). Carpenter. Immigrated to US 1916. Polish. Member of the Union of Russian Workers in New York, as was his brother. Arrested and beaten during November 1919 Palmer Raids. Deported 1919 on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/277

Crescencio Lopez Aguilera

Born 1889, Mexico. Miner. Immigrated to US 1907. Divorced, one daughter. Anarchist, member of Partido Liberal Mexicano. Treasurer of anarchist group “Los Errantes” (affiliated with the Partido Liberal Mexicano) in Morenci, Arizona; corresponded with Ricardo Flores Magón’s wife, María Broussé. Deported 1919. Still contributing funds to anarchist publications in Mexico as of 1929.

INS file 54709/70; FBI file OG 360538

Arndt to Bagatchuk

Fred Arndt

Born Germany, year unknown. Construction worker; year of migration unknown. IWW organizer and delegate for Local No. 573 of Construction Workers’ Industrial Union, Seattle. Refused to register for the draft. Arrested during raid on Seattle IWW in February 1919; charged with “criminal anarchy.” Refused to answer questions. Interned at Fort Douglas, Utah as “enemy alien”; released on condition of “voluntary repatriation” and departed June 1919.

INS file 54616/32, FBI file OG 347754

Charles Ashleigh

Born 1888 or 1889, London, England. Clerk, laborer, union organizer, journalist. Middle-class upbringing; joined Independent Labour Party age 15, then Fabian Society and Social Democratic Federation; became a secretary for the Fabian Society 1908 and active in socialist Clarion Scouts movement. 1908-9 sent by ILP to agitate among coal miners in South Wales. 1909 migrated Buenos Aires for clerk position with Central Argentine Railroad; established Socialist Club and wrote for Buenos Aires Herald. Hiked from Argentina to Chile and Peru, then 1912 sailed as crew member from Peru to Portland where jumped ship (with collusion of captain) and regularized his status by crossing into Canada and back. Immediately employed as a paid speaker for Socialist Party of America, but soon left it for IWW, for which became a paid organizer. Traveled as migrant laborer, or “hobo,” throughout US and wrote poetry on behalf of IWW; involved in Rangel-Cline and Everett defense campaigns. Openly queer, he had a romantic relationship with African American radical poet Claude McKay. Arrested 1917 and defendant at federal IWW trial; sentenced to 10 years and $30,000 fine. Joined Communist Party in prison; 1921 sentence commuted on condition of “voluntary departure” in early 1922. In London transferred to Communist Party of Great Britain and on staff of Sunday Worker and Daily Worker, as well as TASS. September 1922 traveled to India to deliver invitations to Fourth Congress of the Comintern; detained and expelled by British authorities but managed to complete his mission. November 1922 in Moscow (with McKay) where worked as translator for Fourth Comintern Congress, then asked to start an “American information section in the RILU,” which transferred to Berlin 1923. Soon arrested in Berlin and expelled. 1930 published semi-autobiographical novel about IWW, The Rambling Kid. 1931 sent to Moscow to write for The Moscow News/Moscow Daily News; 1934 denounced by roommate as homosexual and expelled from USSR. Remained member of CPGB until his death in 1974, but on the margins of local party activity.

INS file 54235/39-A

See also: Steve Kellerman, “Introduction,” Charles Ashleigh, The Rambling Kid (2004); Kevin Morgan, Gidon Cohen, and Andrew Flinn, Communists and British Society, 1920-1991 (2007); Lisa A. Kirschenbaum, International Communism and the Spanish Civil War: Solidarity and Suspicion (2015)

Joseph Aukstuolis

Cook. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Aurelio Vincente Azuara (Vicente Azuara)

Born Spain, 1884. Laborer, miner, editor. Migrated to Mexico 1907, then to US 1912. Joined IWW 1913, became unofficial organizer for it. In Los Angeles, edited unofficial Spanish-language IWW paper El Rebelde (1916-17). Arrested Los Angeles September 1917; defendant at federal IWW trial; sentenced to 20 years and $10,000 fine. Sentence commuted on condition of deportation to Spain 1923. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/48

See also David Struthers, The World in a City: Multiethnic Radicalism in Early Twentieth-Century Los Angeles (2019)

Alfredo Bagaglino

Born 1868, Turin, Italy. Orphaned. Miner. Anarchist. 1904 expelled from France (reason unclear). Migrated to US 1907; miner in Spring Valley, Illinois, where lived with wife Domenica Cariglio and their adopted son. Supporter of Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva, Umanità Nova (Milan), and Alleanza Libertaria (Rome), and active in mining strikes. According to Chicago Immigration Inspector George E. Schubert, Bagaglino “is the actual leader and the most outspoken” of the Spring Valley anarchists, and “a forcible speaker and has command of the language and the high sounding phrases used by the present radical demagogues.” Deported March 1921; wife planned to sell home and join him in Italy. Maintained correspondence with Italian anarchists in US; 1926 arrested by fascist authorities and sentenced to several years “mandato al Confino” (confinement to a prison colony). Died Turin 1936.

INS file 54885/18; CPC busta 239

See also: Un trentennio di attività anarchica (1915-1945) (1953)

Simon Bagatchuk (aka Sam Bush)

Born 1888, Podolsk, Russia. Laborer; migrated to US 1913 (via Canada). April 1919 joined the Seattle branch of Union of Russian Workers. Arrested Seattle, January 17, 1919, then again November 17, 1919. Deported February 1921.

INS file 54860/453; FBI file OG 388850

Bahruk to Baldenkov

Dimitry Bahruk

Born Russia, 1897. Migrated at unknown date to Detroit. Deported to Russia January 22, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of radical deportees in INS file 54325/36G

Frederick Baker

Born 1881 in Surrey, England. Sustained head injury in 1912 that may have affected his behavior. Drafted into British Army in 1915 but honorably discharged due to “nervous breakdown.” Immigrated to US 1916. Laborer, clerk. Arrested Chicago 1917 for stealing $80 from a neighbor and spent three months in prison. Arrested October 6, 1918 as an IWW member, which he denied (but which is confirmed in other sources). The Bureau of Immigration concluded “this alien is mentally defective,” but “no evidence indicating that the defect is mental insanity.” Deported as “likely to become a public charge,” March 1, 1919 (despite receiving a pension from the British Post Office). Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54552/33

See also: Klasen Kampf, April 1919

Andrei Balash (Андрей Балаш, Andrew Balucz)

Born Vilna region, Russia, 1886. Migrated to US 1913. Joined URW in New Haven, CT, 1919. Arrested Ansonia, CT November 1919; trove of Russian-language anarchist literature found in his room. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/320

Giovanni Baldazzi (John Baldazzi; Baldazza)

Born 1883, Imola, Italy. Printer, electrician, labor organizer. Anarchist by 1903; wrote for several anarchist newspapers; proponent of general strike; arrested multiple times in Italy for strike activity. 1906 disillusioned with labor movement and turned to individualist anarchism. 1907-1910 migrated between England, France, and Italy as a sale representative. 1912 expelled from France to Italy, where again involved in labor and strike activity. 1914 collaborated on Utopia, a pro-war, syndicalist-leaning paper edited by Benito Mussolini. Migrated to US late 1914. Joined IWW upon arrival; organizer and lecturer for IWW’s Bakers’ Union (New York), editor and contributor to IWW paper Il Proletario. Arrested Old Forge, PA July 1917 for “pernicious activities” as labor organizer and opposing conscription; defendant at IWW federal trial, sentenced to ten years and $30,000 fine. Sentence commuted on condition of deportation; deported 1922. In Rome quickly gravitated toward Fascism; worked for Fascist Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro and newspaper La Stirpe, founded by fellow Wobbly-turned-Fascist Edmondo Rossoni. 1931-1936 employed as translator for Italian National Olympic Committee. 1935, however, placed under government surveillance and reported to privately be “intimately hostile to Fascism.” Died 1940.

INS file 54235/39; CPC busta 268

See also http://www.bfscollezionidigitali.org/entita/12935-baldazzi-giovanni/

Ivan G. Baldenkov (Baldenkoff)

Born 1895, Zvenyhorodka, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Bookkeeper, salesman, journalist. Migrated to US 1912. Joined URW in Newark, 1915; joined IWW 1919; also joined Syracuse, NY branch of Communist Labor Party. Organizer for IWW and literary agent for URW. Arrested 1920; led hunger strike of nine other detained Russian radicals in Cortland County jail demanding expedited deportation. Deported February 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/325

Balick to Baritz

Vasiliy Balik (Василий Балик, Wasily Balick or Bilicki)

Born 1896, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer; migrated to US 1913. Employee of Remington Arms Union Metallic Cartridge Company, Bridgeport, CT. Joined of Union of Russian Workers August 1919; arrested September 1919, Hartford, CT. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/389

Ugo Balzano

Born 1882, Castel di Sangro, Aquila, Italy. Typographer; migrated to US 1903; employed by mainstream Italian-American Cleveland newspaper, La Voce del Popolo Italiano. Anarchist; member Circolo Studi Sociali di Cleveland; distributor of Cronaca Sovversiva; publisher of anarchist paper L’Appello (1916-1917). Deported 1919. Arrested immediately upon return to Italy for avoiding the draft. Died Castel di Sangro, 1926.

INS file 54616/348; CPC busta 298

See also: http://bibliotecaborghi.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Cicolani-La-presenza-anarchica.pdf

Walter Banaczyk

Banaczyk’s Communist Party membership card

Born 1901, Słupia, Russia (present-day Poland). Polish. Auto worker. Migrated to US with mother 1915 to join father already there; employee at Fischer Body. December 1919 joined Branch 37, Polish Section of the Communist Party of America. Arrested Detroit January 1920, age 18. “Voluntarily departed” to Poland October 16, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54859/569; FBI files OG 382042 and BS 202600-768-1

Peter P. Banaitis

Born 1899, Lithuania. Miner, laborer, toolmaker. Migrated to US 1911. Member International Union of Tool, Die, and Mold Makers; member Branch 37, Lithuanian Section of the Communist Party of America. Arrested January 1920, Chicago. When asked if he intended to remain in US, replied “he did intend to remain here but he has no preference, and as people are thrown in jail here for their beliefs he thinks he will enjoy just as much liberty in his native country as he does here.” According to immigration inspector, “Subject appears to be a typical Bolshevik and is more or less intelligent…This individual should be deported by all means as he is manifestly and potentially a bad influence.” Deported December 9, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54811/563; FBI file OG 382041

Daniel Bardaio

Born Russia, year unknown. Member Communist Party of America. Deported February, 1921. No further information.

Included in list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Moses Baritz

Moses Baritz, center

Born 1883, Manchester, England. Jewish. Musician, journalist. Member Socialist Party of Great Britain; renowned (and feared) agitator and debater, able to quote Marx extemporaneously. Music critic for the Manchester Guardian. He “made more than one journey to America,” and in Canada in 1911 helped found the tiny, “impossibilist” Socialist Party of North America. Migrated to US 1915 to avoid conscription; joined Socialist Party of America, then in 1916 in Detroit cofounded the small and more radical breakaway “Socialist Party of the United States” (which later became the Socialist Educational Society, the Workers’ Socialist Party, and finally the World Socialist Party of the United States). Arrested for anti-war speeches Seattle, 1918. “Voluntary departure” September 1918 to Australia, where debated IWW members, then expelled. Went to New Zealand, from which he was the first person expelled under the Undesirable Immigrants Exclusion Act. From there went to South Africa, then returned to England 1920, where resumed SPGB membership; in 1924 also became “Britain’s first radio disc jockey.” Died 1938.

INS file 54408/12

See: http://socialiststandardmyspace.blogspot.com/2014/09/death-of-moses-baritz.html; https://www.solidarityforeverbook.com/book/solidarityforever.pdf; Ian Angus, Canadian Bolsheviks: The Early Years of the Communist Party of Canada (2004); Karla Doris Rab, Role-Modeling Socialist Behavior: The Life and Letters of Isaac Rab (2010)

Bernstein to Bianki

Ethel Bernstein (Этель Бернштейн)

Born 1898, Russia. Garment worker. Migrated to US 1911. Became anarchist circa 1917; joined Jewish anarchist Frayhayt Group, along with partner, Samuel Lipman. Arrested New York 1919 for distributing copies of The Anarchist Soviet Bulletin. Admitted anarchism, but denied belonging to URW and refused to answer further questions. November 1919 led hunger strike on Ellis Island to protest conditions. Deported on the Buford. In 1920, worked for the People’s Commissariat Foreign Affairs Department. 1921 reunited with Samuel Lipman, deported from US with Jacob Abrams et al. 1930s Lipman killed in Stalin’s purges; 1940s Bernstein’s son killed in Second World War; unknown date Bernstein sentenced to ten years hard labor in Soviet prison camp.

INS file 54616/115

See also: Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America

Yakov Berov (Яков Беров, Jacob Berov, aka Jocob Byra)

Born 1891, Russia. Laborer. Wife and son in Russia. Migrated alone to US 1913. Joined Union of Russian Workers 1919; secretary of Monessen, Pennsylvania URW branch. Arrested 1919; deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/479

Isidoro Bertazzon (Bertason)

Born 1891, Treviso, Italy. Radical in Italy. Migrated to US 1907; laborer. Anarchist; member of Seattle’s Circolo di Studi Sociali, distributed Cronaca Sovversiva. Narrowly evaded arrest November 25, 1917. “Voluntary return” via Canada early 1921. 1922 immigrated to Australia, where he edited numerous anarchist and antifascist newspapers. Died 1940.

CPC busta 551

See also: Gianfranco Cresciani, “Exploitation, Emigration and Anarchism: The Case of Isidoro Alessandro Bertazzon,” Altreitalie, no. 46 (June 2013)

Fedor Biacharsky (Федор Бячарский, Frank Biacharski)

Born 1885, Kupyn, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer. Migrated to US 1914 (via Canada); wife in Russia. Joined Youngstown, Ohio branch of Union of Russian Workers 1919. Arrested November 1919 in Palmer Raids. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/208; FBI file OG 380612

Pietro Bianchi

Born 1882, Isola Fano, Italy. Mason; laborer until lost an eye; fish peddler; co-op manager. Anarchist. Migrated to US 1907. Married. Member, Circolo Studi Sociali of Milwaukee. Arrested 1917 after Italian anarchist “riot.” Deported December 1919. In Italy became a baker and remained under government surveillance until 1940, but no political activity noted after his arrival.

INS file 54235/64; CPC busta 621

See also: Dean A. Strang, Worse than the Devil: Anarchists, Clarence Darrow, and Justice in a Time of Terror

Nadia Bianki (Надя Бианки)

Born Russia, 1895. To US 1913. An anarchist since 1914. Joined URW 1918. Wife of deportee Peter Bianki. Son, Peter, born in New York 1917. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

INS file 55009/15

Peter Bianki (Петр Бианки, Bianki/Bianky, Peter Bianchi)

Born 1891, Odessa, Russia (present-day Ukraine), to Italian parents (the Bianchis). Laborer; metal worker; printer. Migrated to US 1913. Joined Union of Russian Workers after its formation in 1914 and became one of its leading figures. Elected URW Secretary January 1919, and then editor of its newspaper Khleb i Volia. Wife and son in US. Arrested New York in February 1919. Deported on the Buford. In Russia, joined the Communist Party and worked in a variety of positions for the Soviet government. In 1928 relocated to Siberia to direct a grain requisition squad; killed in an armed peasant uprising March 1930 and celebrated as a Communist martyr.

INS file 54616/115

See also: Malcolm Archibald, “Peter Bianki: The Soviet Years,” Kate Sharpley Library, http://www.katesharpleylibrary.net/pnvzh1

Canle to Chernyavsky

Juan Canle (John; Jan; Canel; Canlo)

Born 1895, Coruña, Spain. Laborer. Migrated to US 1911. Former member of IWW’s Marine Oilers, Firemen and Watertenders Union. Member of Spanish anarchist group El Ariete in Niagara Falls, New York. Arrested May 1919 with two other members for “alleged conspiracy to overthrow by force the Government of the United States” based on a manifesto they were distributing that called for revolution, but case thrown out by the judge. Deported as anarchist August 1920. Subsequent activities unknown, but may have later been active in anarchist movement in Argentina and/or Uruguay.

INS file 54709/16; FBI files OG 389193 and OG 8000-357909

Arthur Stanley Cattell (aka Kotel)

Born 1886, London, England. Plumber. Migrated to US 1911. Former member of the Socialist Party of America; member and treasurer of West Philadelphia branch of the Communist Party of America. Deported September 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54811/490; FBI file OG 380747

Michele Centrone

Born 1879, Puglia, Italy. Carpenter. Joined Socialist Party of Italy, 1897; gravitated to anarchists 1900. Migrated to US 1903. In San Francisco, collaborated on anarchist papers La Protesta Umana and Nihil; distributor of Cronaca Sovversiva. Member anarchist Volontá Group; secretary of Latin Branch of Local 95 of United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners (AFL). Arrested May 1918; deported March 1920. After Mussolini took power in 1922, Centrone returned to US via Mexico, but apprehended and deported again. 1924 fled to France; arrested and expelled 1928. Spent time in Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg; illegally returned to France 1931. Involved in antifascist exile organizations, including Giustizia e Libertà; implicated in plots to assassinate Mussolini; correspondent for US anarchist papers, including L’Adunata dei Refrattari. 1936, at age 57, volunteered to fight in Spanish Civil War as part of anarchist Ascaso Column. Killed in action August 28, 1936.

INS file 54379/330; FBI file OG 321621; CPC busta 1243

See also: Mario Gianfrate and Kenyon Zimmer, Michele Centrone, tra vecchio e nuovo mondo: Anarchici pugliesi in difesa della libertà spagnola

Antonio Cesco (Chesco)

Born 1884, northern Italy. Miner. Migrated to US 1908. Former Socialist Party member; anarchist; distributor of Cronaca Sovversiva. Member, United Mine Workers. Arrested Yorkville, Ohio, while in hospital with injured leg from mining injury. Deported February 1920. Not placed under surveillance by Italian authorities. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/401

Boris Cevetsky (Sckiwitsky)

Born 1885, Vilnius, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Immigrated to US 1913; dishwasher. Early 1919 joined Detroit’s Russian Branch No. 3 of the Socialist Party , which transferred into the Communist Party. Arrested January 1920; held at Wort Wayne. Deported March 18, 1921.

INS file 54859/985

Yakov Cewook (Yakow; Gewook; Tsiwuh)

Born 1886, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1911. Wife and two children in Russia. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Youngstown, Ohio, 1918. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/540

Alexandr “Sasha” Chernov (Александр Чернов, Alexander Chernoff; aka Vasiley Vasilitt; aka Lightner)

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Chernoff.jpg

Born 1896, Samara, Russia. Machinist. Migrated to US 1913. Member of both Union of Russian Workers and IWW; lecturer for URW. Arrested March 1919 in Waterbury, Connecticut, and sentenced to six months in prison for violation of the Espionage Act; after release “actively engaged in pernicious propaganda.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/117; FBI file OG 8000-363703

See also: Lazar Lipotkin, The Russian Anarchist Movement in North America

George Chernov (Chernoff; Chernove; Chernova; Obernoff)

Born 1893, Kherson, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Mechanic. Migrated to US 1913. Joined Branch no. 2 of the Union of Russian Workers in Detroit, 1917. Employee of Ford Motor Company, where arrested November 1919. Deported November 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/285

Ivan Chernyavsky (Иван Чернявский; John Cherniawsky; Chermiansky)

Chernyavsky’s URW membership card (which he attempted to rip up during arrest)

Born 1894, Vilnius, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Machinist. Migrated to US 1912. Member of Union of Russian Workers, in Jackson, Michigan. Arrested Detroit October 1918. Deported January 1921. Subsequent activities unknown; possibly anarchist Chernyavsky arrested in Petrograd 1923.

INS file 54709/465; FBI file OG 375427

Coacci to Dardzinski

Ferruccio Coacci

Born 1892, Ancona, Italy. Shoemaker. Migrated to US 1911. Anarchist militant associated with Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva. Wife and two children in Bridgewater, Massachusetts. Arrested 1918. Subsequently suspected by police (but not most historians) of involvement in the robberies and murder for which Sacco and Vanzetti were arrested. Deported April 18, 1920; joined by family in Italy. According to Eugene Lyons, Coacci’s “yellow-haired wife wept for the vanished glories of life in a New England shoe town,” and “The man’s shelves were lined with brochures on the home manufacture of bombs and he professed himself a terrorist of the Galleani school.” October 1921 migrated to Argentina, where involved in anarchist “expropriations” and bombings, associated with Severino Di Giovanni. Arrested Buenos Aires 1930 with two other Italian anarchists in connection with robbery of a bus company.

INS file 54379/396; FBI file OG 387205; CPC busta 1382

See also: Eugene Lyons, Assignment in Utopia; Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background

Umberto Colarossi

Born 1894, Carpineto, Italy. Bookkeeper. Migrated to US 1913. Became anarchist “After a few months I arrived in this country.” Associated with Luigi Galleani and Cronaca Sovversiva. In Mexico 1917-1919 to avoid US draft. Arrested Chicago, May 1919. Deported July 1920. September 1921, wrote letter to Italian government repenting and renouncing his pas radicalism. 1922 inducted into Italian military. In Italy became manager for the Singer Corporation. 1929 fascist government reported that “he has maintained a sincere attitude of sympathy towards the current regime, also showing loyalty to the current institutions, thus giving evident proof of repentance.”

INS file 54616/214; CPC busta 1400

See also: Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background

Sam Colbus (aka Colbas, Colbun, Kolbun)

Born 1879, Russia. Minder. Migrated to US 1910. Wife and two children in Russia. Joined Union of Russian Workers 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919, in Fairmont, West Virginia. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/592

Amy Colyer (née Withall)

Born 1881, London, England. Housewife. Joined the Independent Labour Party. 1915 married William Thomas Colyer. Migrated to US 1915 with husband. 1916 joined the Socialist Party of America in Boston, 1917 became branch secretary; joined the Communist Party of America in 1919; secretary of Boston CPA branch. Arrested with husband during second Palmer Raids, January 1920; arrested again in 1922 and detained at Deer Island Prison; formed a prisoners’ “soviet.” Told immigration agents, “As a communist I am opposed to all capitalist governments.” When asked “Do you understand the form of government that you are enjoying in the United States?” she replied, “I am not enjoying it, but I think I understand it.” Appealed their case to the US Court of Appeals for the First Circuit but lost; both deported April 11, 1922. Joined the Communist Party of Great Britain and the Labour Party; then became active in the Independent Labour Party again.

INS file 54810/162

See also: https://books.google.com/books?id=jUPJAl4AAYcC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false; Deirdre M. Moloney, National Insecurities: Immigrants and U.S. Deportation Policy since 1882

William Thomas Colyer (aka Tom Colyer)

Born 1883, London, England. Civil servant. Opposed the First World War; joined the Independent Labour Party. Migrated to US 1915 with his new wife, Amy Colyer. 1916 joined the Socialist Party of America in Boston; became a leading figure in the Massachusetts branch of the SPA, which he helped transfer into the Communist Party of America 1919. Wrote for several radical publications, and on the editorial staff of The Communist. Made a declaration of intent to naturalize in 1916, but abandoned plans to become a US citizen “Because of the treatment I have received and because I have discovered that the Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence and the historic speeches of Lincoln are interpreted entirely different by the authorities from any way which I could possibly imagine by reading those documents.” Arrested with Amy during second Palmer Raids, January 1920; arrested again in 1922 and detained at Deer Island Prison; formed a prisoners’ “soviet.” Appealed their case to the US Court of Appeals for the First Circuit but lost; both deported April 11, 1922. Later that year he published a scathing critique of the US titled Americanism: A World Menace. Joined the Communist Party of Great Britain and the Labour Party. 1926 became secretary of the Greater London Left-Wing Movement (an organization created to expand Communist influence within the Labour Party), then secretary of the National Left-Wing Movement, but resigned from the CPGB around this same time and forced to resign from the NLWM after less than a year for resisting CPGB control of the organization. Became chair of the Kent Federation of Labour Parties; ran unsuccessfully for Parliament in 1931 and 1935 as a Labour Party candidate. 1942 resigned from Labour Party and rejoined the Independent Labour Party, for which he eventually served on the National Administrative Council. Died 1956.

INS file 54810/209

See also: https://books.google.com/books?id=jUPJAl4AAYcC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_Colyer; Lawrence Parker, Communists and Labour: The National Left-Wing Movement, 1925-1929

James Cully (Jimmy; Culley)

IWW member; led group of 200 draft resisters in Rockford, Illinois, where all were arrested and 112 convicted. Deported to England sometime before October 1919. Continued as street speaker for the Merseyside IWW branch in Liverpool.

Included on list of deported IWW members in One Big Union Monthly, October 1919

See also Gerald E. Shenk, “Work or Fight!”: Race, Gender, and the Draft in World War One; Socialist Review (London), February 1, 1959

George Cyzyk (Cysyk, Cyzik, Chizhik, aka Paul Gigalko; Paul Zygaloff)

Born 1896, Vilnius, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Member of and lecturer for Union of Russian Workers. Arrested Cleveland, February 1918, then New York during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Anarchist literature, including copies The Anarchist Soviet Bulletin, found in his home. Suspected involvement in a counterfeiting scheme. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/125; FBI file OG 375385

Jan Dalkovksy (Ян Далковский; Dalkowsky)

Born 1896, Plotsk Governate, Russia (present-day Poland). Polish. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Joined Polish Local No. 28 of Socialist Party of America in Erie, Pennsylvania in January 1918; transferred into Communist Party in 1919. Also a member of the IWW. Arrested January 1920. Deported to Poland, February 26, 1921.

INS file 54809/280

Ivan Danilovich (Иван Данилович, John Danilovich)

Born 1895, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1914. Wife in Russia. Member of the Union of Russian Workers in Bridgeport, Connecticut. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown

INS file 54709/390; FBI file OG 388677

John Dardzinski

Born c.1905, Russia. Polish. Migrated to US 1912; shade maker. Member of the Communist Party. Arrested in Hamtramck, Michigan, January 1920. Deported March 18, 1921.

INS file 54859/574

Elak-Berman to Faggi

David Maksimovich Elak-Berman (David Ilak; David Eelak; aka A. Emelianoff)

Born 1891, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1908 or 1909. Joined Union of Russian Workers branch in McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania; became branch’s treasurer. Deported on the Buford.

Settled in Petrograd, but then fled to Poland. 1923 migrated to Montevideo, Uruguay; joined anarchist Delo Truda Group there and active anarchist until his death in 1941.

INS file 54616/221; FBI file OG 368087

See also: https://www.katesharpleylibrary.net/4f4rz9

Roberto Elia

Born 1871, Catanzaro, Italy. Laborer; printer. A socialist in Italy beginning 1898, for which arrested numerous times. Migrated to US 1906. became “fanatic anarchist and propagandist” in US. New York. Worked as typesetter for Carlo Tresca’s La Plebe in Pittsburgh, then 1910 worked on Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva in Barre, Vermont, before moving to Boston and then New York in 1914. Member of anarchist Gruppo Gaetano Bresci in East Harlem. Published anarchist magazines Domani (1919) and L’Ordine (1919-1920). Arrested February 1920 under suspicion of printing leaflets left at the sites of 1919 anarchist bombings throughout US. Held incommunicado, along with friend and coworker Andrea Salsedo, in twelfth-floor Manhattan offices of Bureau of Investigation, where the pair admitted to printing the leaflets and supplied testimony implicating alleged members of the bomb plot. Salsedo was, according to Elia, beaten while interrogated, and was distressed at informing on his comrades; on night of May 1 Salsedo jumped (or some claimed was thrown) to his death from the window. Elia deported August 1920.

Active in Italian anarchist movement, though this went largely unnoticed by Italian government surveillance. Selected at January 1921 conference to co-edit a proposed new anarchist newspaper, but the project was delayed and Elia died of tuberculosis before the new publication appeared in 1924.

INS file 54861/280 (file missing); CPC busta 1879

See also: Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background; Charles Howard McCormick, Hopeless Cases: The Hunt for the Red Scare Terrorist Bombers; Beverly Gage, The Day Wall Street Exploded: A Story of America in Its First Age of Terror; Maurizio Antonioli et al., Dizionario biografico degli anarchici italiani; Aldo G. Ventrici, Roberto Elia. L’anarchismo antiorganizzatore negli Stati Uniti di primo ‘900; http://www.calabriaonweb.it/index.php/news3/primo-piano/6391-vita-e-morte-di-roberto-elia-l-anarchico-catanzarese-compagno-di-sacco-e-vanzetti

Nikolai Elkevich (Николай Элькевич; Nicholas; Mike)

Elkevich’s Communist Party membership card

Born Vilna, Russia, c. 1891. Polish. Migrated to US 1913. Laborer. Member of Socialist Party, then of Detroit’s Russian Branch No. 4 of the Communist Party. Arrested January 1920. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

INS file 54709/710

Ivan Elko (Evan; Velko)

Born 1895, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Miner. Migrated to US 1914. Worked at Dakota Mines in Fairmont, West Virginia. Joined both the Union of Russian Workers and the United Mine Workers; elected secretary of Farmington, West Virginia URW branch. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Stated, “I don’t want to be deported. I want to remain here. I want to work here and I might stay here throughout my life.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/602

Robert Elstin (aka Robert Kisten)

Elstin’s application and membership card for the Communist Party

Born 1884, Russia. Latvian. Carpenter. Migrated to Canada in 1913 as the “man servant” of Russian Consul General Basek, then to US in 1914. Former member of the Russian branch of the Socialist Party of America, transferred to Baltimore’s Lettish Branch of the Communist Party of America in 1919. Wife, Evelyn, in the US. Arrested in Baltimore during second Palmer Raids, January 2, 1920. Deported February 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54859/535; FBI file OG 388790

Ivan Ermola (John Yarmola, Ivan Yermola, Иван Ермола)

Born 1895, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1913. Joined Newark branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1918. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/350

Adolph Ersson

Born 1890, Karlskrona, Sweden. Sailor; laborer. Migrated to Australia 1905, where involved in union and strike activity. Migrated to US 1912. Joined IWW 1914 in Denver. Survivor of 1916 Everett Massacre, for which he was arrested until charges dropped in 1917. Arrested Seattle, October 1918, and again in Los Angeles May 1919; deported June 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 315813

See also: Industrial Worker, March 3, 1916

Jakim Eschuk (Jack Esczuk; Escuk)

Born c.1891, Volhynia, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Joined Detroit’s Russian Branch No. 3 of the Communist Party. Arrested January 1920; held at Fort Wane. Deported to Russia, March 3, 1921.

INS file 54860/362

Nikita Eskimashko (aka Nikita Ikmasko)

Born 1894, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Carpenter. Migrated to US 1913. Member of Philadelphia branch no. 1 of the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/331

Fred Evanow (Theo; Evanov; Evanof)

Born 1896, Russia. Migrated to US 1913. Plumber. Illiterate. Member of the Communist Party in Detroit. Arrested January 2, 1920. Deported March 18, 1921.

INS file 54859/5

Angelo Faggi

Born 1885, Brozzi, Italy. Laborer; journalist. Anarcho-syndicalist; IWW member. Socialist parents; joined Italian Socialist Party at age 15; active in Genoa’s Chamber of Labor (Camera del Lavoro). Journalist for socialist and syndicalist newspapers. By 1907 he was a revolutionary syndicalist, and left the PSI. 1909 moved to Piacenza, where secretary of the Chamber and Labor. Arrested several times for labor and anti-war activism. 1912 migrated to Lugano, Switzerland to avoid prison; expelled 1914 and migrated to Paris, and 1915 migrated to US. In Barre, Vermont, published local labor paper Lo Scalpellino. Joined IWW as lecturer and in 1916 became editor of IWW newspaper Il Proletario, while drawing closer to the anarchists. Arrested multiple times for IWW agitation; final arrest in Chicago in May 1919; deported August 1919.

In Piacenza again elected secretary of the Chamber and Labor and formed the local branch of the paramilitary anti-fascist organization Arditi del Popolo. 1920 helped lead factory takeovers in Sestri Ponente, and became acting secretary of the anarcho-syndicalist Unione Sindacale Italiana (USI). Arrested 1921 in on suspicion of involvement with bombing of the Teatro Diana, intended to pressure authorities to release Errico Malatesta and other imprisoned anarchists, prompting a general strike of workers in Piacenza. While in prison, elected to parliament as a protest candidate for the Italian Socialist Party (prompting heated debate among anarchist comrades). Released from prison but repeatedly assaulted by fascists; migrated to Nice, France with his family in 1923. Involved in antifascist exile organizations and advocated a Popular Front with Communists. By 1937 he had joined the Partito Socialista Unitario. When WWII broke out, he joined the French military. After the war he returned to Piacenza and participated in socialist politics, and in 1956 elected mayor of Piacenza as a member of the Italian Social Democratic Party; died 1957.

INS file 53895/198; CPC busta 1925

See also: Vincenzo Mantovani, Anarchici alla sbarra: la strage del Diana tra primo dopoguerra e fascismo; Sandro Antonini, Storia della Liguria durante il fascismo; http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/angelo-virgilio-faggi_(Dizionario-Biografico)

Fagotti to Fengol

Alfonso Fagotti

Born 1895, Teramo, Italy. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Anarchist; subscriber to Cronaca Sovversiva. December 1916 arrested in West Rutland, Massachusetts, for stabbing a police officer in the hand during police melee at anarchist anti-preparedness event. (In retaliation a bomb was detonated at the police station, without injury.) Held for deportation upon his release in May 1918; deported June 1919.

INS file 54379/394

See also: Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background

Anton Federako (Tony Federaco)

Born 1891, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. 1919 joined Union of Russian Workers in Harrison, New Jersey. Arrested in Newark during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. When questioned denied URW and claimed he just stopped by its offices for a glass of tea, but an undercover federal informant identified him as a lecturer for the organization. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/339; FBI file OG 379806

Nick Federov

Born 1884, Samara, Russia. Migrated to US 1907. Machinist. Wife and daughter in Milwaukee. Member of Milwaukee’s Russian Branch No. 1 of the Communist Party; previously a member of the Socialist Party. Wife Titena Federov, as well as her mother Olga and stepfather Mike Kruk, all Communist Party members. Arrested January 1920. When asked about the possibility of being deported without his wife, he replied: “I can’t live without my wife; maybe I going to get crazy, or something like that.” Deported March 18, 1921.

INS file 54859/149

Maxim Fedorash (Максим Федораш)

Born Kamianets-Podilskyi, Russia (present-day Ukraine), 1884. Migrated to US 1914. Laborer. In 1915 injured while working on railroad in Canada and hospitalized for two months. Attended Communist-run night school in Detroit and supported Communist ideas, but never joined the party. Arrested January 1920. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

INS file 54859/770

Ivan Fedosky (John Fedosky, Iwan Fesosky; Fidosky)

Born 1889, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1914 and US 1916 (via Canada, without inspection). Member of the Russian branch of the Socialist Party of America in Detroit (not a deportable offense). April 1919 turned into Detroit police by employer, Great Lakes Engineering Co., for “spreading Boslheviki propaganda among the employees of their plants.” Deported on the Buford as “likely to become a public charge” and for entering without inspection. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/170

Kirio Fedyk (Кирио Федык)

Fedyk’s URW membership card

Born 1894, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913 (via Canada). Joined Hartford, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1918. Arrested during first Palmer Raids in November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown

INS file 54709/379; FBI file OG 271860

Ivan Felchuk (Иван Фельчук; John; Filchuk; Wilchuk; Nilchuk)

Born 1893 in Skobelka, Volyn, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Migrated to US 1913. Autoworker. Summer 1919 joined Detroit’s Russian Branch No. 3 of the Communist Party. Deported February 26, 1921.

INS file 54859/9

Emil Feltman (Emile)

Born 1881 or 1882, Berlin, Germany. Miner. Mother died shortly after his birth; migrated with his father to US when just four months old. Father died in mining accident in Butte, Montana, when he was six years old. 1898 joined US Army; fought in Spanish-American War and Philippine-American War; honorably discharged 1900. Joined IWW 1913 and became organizer for it 1918. Married wife, fellow IWW member Fannie Martinez, in Bisbee, Arizona in 1916. February 1919 sent to in Jerome, Arizona, to organize miners, and arrested during strike. Stated his opposition to war and his support for the Bolsheviks; according to arresting police officer “he also said that it didn’t make any difference where he was deported to, whether it was Germany or China, he would continue his present agitation as organizer of the I.W.W.s.” Described as “not anxious to leave here,” and his mental and physical health suffered while detained. Deported May 1920.

Briefly stayed with fellow IWW deportee Karl Voss, then went to work as a coal miner in Westphalia. Migrated to Soviet Russia, where one of the first “Americans” to join Kuzbass Autonomous Industrial Colony in Kuznets, Siberia. No further information found.

INS file 54616/140; FBI file OG 194288

See also: Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University Library; J. P. Morray, Project Kuzbas: American Workers in Siberia (1921-1926)

Kiril Fengol ( or Kirin; Kirin Pinhol)

Fengol’s URW membership card

Born 1896, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Dishwasher. Migrated to US 1912. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Hartford, Connecticut in 1919. Arrested November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/526; see also FBI file OG 213090