Sachar to Sánchez

Andrey Sachar (Андрей Сачар; Andrej; Andrew; aka Henry Sugar)

Born 1898, Minsk oblast, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1913. Employed by the Ford Motor Company in Detroit. 1918 became secretary of the Russian National Home/Russian People’s Home, “an alleged Bolshevik organization” that hosted talks by members of the Union of Russian Workers and the Communist Party of America, and admitted support for the Bolshevik government and for a revolution in the US (but subsequently claimed his testimony had not been accurately translated). Arrested April, 1919, after three members of Russian community swore out affidavits that he had advocated the overthrow of the US government. The accusations may have been related to a dispute within Detroit’s Russian Orthodox All Saints Church, of which Sachar was reportedly a member. “Voluntarily departed” September 25, 1920.

INS file 54709/557; FBI file BS 202600-353-1

Andrei Sacharchuk

Communist Party member. Arrested Atlantic City, November 19, 1919; then went to Elkhorn West Virginia; arrested for deportation in Welch, West Virginia, where he distributed radical literature. Deported to Russia, March 18, 1921.

INS file 54861/359

Mike Sachco

Born c.1897, Russia. Migrated to US 1912. Steamfitters’ helper. Member of Milwaukee’s Russian Branch No. 2 of the Communist Party. Arrested January, 1920. Deported March 18, 1921.

INS file 54859-158

Nikita Safroniev (Никита Сафроньев; Necita; Zafronia; Safronieff)

Born 1883, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1914. Wife in Russia. Member of the Maspeth, Queens branch of the Union of Russian Workers in New York. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 9, 1919. Testified: “I lived long enough in Russia under the Czar. I have seen enough brutality committed there, but I have never seen the brutality that was committed upon the Russian people here in my case…When I was arrested…I was travelling in the automobile, they were beating me in the sides with their handcuffs; and this continued all the way until they brought me to the Park Row Building in New York.” Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/284; FBI file OG 379106

See also: Constantine M. Panunzio, The Deportation Cases of 1919-1920

Orteof Sahtabnog (Ortiof; Ortiob Shtabnoy)

Born 1891, Russia. Miner. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch at the Jamieson No. 9 mine in Farmington, West Virginia, September 1919; became branch secretary. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/586

Nikofor Salabay (Никофор Салабай)

Born Kyiv, Russia (present-day Ukraine), c.1890. Migrated to Canada 1913 and from there to US 1916. Autoworker. Wife and two children in Russia. Joined the Communist Party of America in Pittsburgh, September 1919. Arrested January 1920. Deported to Russia February 1, 1921.

INS file 54860/644

Marcelo Salinas y López (Marcelino; Marcelo Salinas; Marcelo Salinas Lopez; aka Marcelino Menendez; Jorge Gallart; George Gallart; Pedro Martín; Pedro Martín Sánchez; Palomero)

Born 1889, Batabanó, Cuba. Cigarworker; writer. Became anarchist circa 1908, in Cuba. Migrated to US 1911. Active in anarchist groups in Ybor City, Florida, where also joined and organized for the IWW. Wrote for Spanish-language anarchist newspapers published throughout the world. A strong supporter of the Partido Liberal Mexicano in the Mexican Revolution. Was briefly the roommate of anarchist Manuel Pardiñas, who in 1912 returned to Spain and assassinated Spanish Prime Minister José Canalejas; therefore wrongly suspected of involvement in the assassination; January 1913 the Mexican government warned the US (falsely) that Salinas was part of plot to kill Mexican President Madero. Arrested and deported to Cuba February 7, 1913. He illegally returned to the US in June of that year under the name “Marcelino Menendez” and participated in IWW maritime strike in New Orleans; then in New York under the name “Jorge (Georgie) Gallart,” where he frequented the Francisco Ferrer Center and collaborated on the newspaper Cultura Obrera; participated in protests at the home John D. Rockefeller, Jr. in response to the 1914 Ludlow Massacre. That same year migrated to Spain as “Jorge Gallart,” where he was part of an influential group of “americanos” (Spanish-speaking anarchists who had lived in the US) and collaborated on anarchist newspapers and joined and organized on behalf of the anarcho-syndicalist Confederación Nacional del Trabajo; imprisoned numerous times for these activities. 1916 migrated to either Mexico or the US; by 1918 was again in New York where, under the name “Pedro Martín,” he was a member of the Los Corsarios Group and became editor the newspaper El Corsario. One of 14 group members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped, but several members, including Salinas, held for deportation as anarchists. He claimed to have been born in Cartagena, Spain, and was deported to Spain May 4, 1919 as “Pedro Martín.”

Arrested during a propaganda tour in Andalusia (for possession false identity documents under the name Pedro Martín); sentenced to two months in prison in Cádiz and then deported to Cuba August 1, 1919. In Cuba took active part in 1919 general strikes; arrested and sentenced to death along with several other leading anarchists, but released 1921. While in prison, sent a letter to the Comintern to apply for the creation of a Cuban Communist Party, but soon disillusioned with Soviet Communism. 1921 cofounded newspaper Los Tiempos Nuevos; 1923-1924 collaborated on ¡Tierra!. 1920-1940s became nationally recognized as radical poet, novelist, and playwright. 1944 helped found the Asociacíon Libertaria de Cuba (ALC); 1948 appointed its Secretary of Culture. Edited a succession of Cuban anarchist newspapers. 1956 coauthored pamphlet Proyecciones libertarias, which denounced Fulgencio Batista but also questioned rebel Fidel Castro’s views. 1956-1959 a member of the secretariat of the Confederacíon de Trabajadores de Cuba. Refused to support Castro’s seizure of power. 1960 appointed to the national committee of the embattled ALC, which resolved its support for the Cuban Revolution but called for “total opposition to all the imperialisms, totalitarianisms and dictatorships of the world.” 1961 refused to sign a declaration condemning anarchists who did not support the Castro regime. 1967 migrated to US; legally allowed to enter as an anti-Castro refugee. Lived in Miami, Florida, where he continued to be an active member of the Movimiento Libertario Cubano en el Exilio and to write for anarchist publications. Died 1976.

INS file 53572/12 (1913 deportation); 54616/79 (1919 deportation [under name “Pedro Martin aka Pedro Martin Sanchez”])

See also: Marcelo Salinas: Un ideal sublime y elevado; Kirwin R. Shaffer, Anarchists of the Caribbean: Countercultural Politics and Transnational Networks in the Age of US Expansion; Frank Fernández, Cuban Anarchism: The History of a Movement; Manuel Buenacas, El movimiento obrero español, 1886-1926; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America

Nikolai Salov (Николай Салов; Nick Saloff)

Born 1891, Alagir, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1914; from there migrated to US 1915. Joined the Communist Party of America in Seattle. Deported January 22, 1921.

INS file 54861/31

Nikolai Saluk (Николай Салюк; Nikolaj; Celiuk)

Born 1892, Bobry, Russia. Migrated to US 1910. Laborer; punch press operator. Member of Detroit’s Russian Branch No. 3 of the Communist Party. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

INS file 54860/24

Roland S. Samuleson (aka Roy Samuelson)

Born 1884, Stockholm, Sweden. Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Joined IWW Mixed Local No. 382 in Seattle in April 1917; became IWW delegate. Arrested January 1920 in Everett, Washington, for “criminal syndicalism” after the Great Northern Railway fired him for organizing his fellow workers and reported him to the police. Deported August 13, 1920.

INS file 54861/371; FBI file OG 386735

Ivan Samuylov (Иван Самуйлов; John; Samuyloff; Somaurloff; Samuyilof)

Member of the Communist Party of America in New York. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1919. Deported to Russia December 23, 1920.

Included on lists of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G and FBI file BS 202600-33

See also: Minneapolis Star, December 27, 1920

Vladimir Samuylov (Владимир Самуйлов; Samuyloff; Samoileff; aka Pavel Wolkoff)

Member of the Communist Party of America in New York. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1919. Deported to Russia December 23, 1920; accompanied by teenage son and daughter.

Included on lists of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G and FBI file BS 202600-33

See also: Minneapolis Star, December 27, 1920; New-York Tribune, December 19, 1920

Ramón Sánchez

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Members of Spanish-speaking Los Corsarios Group, including Sánchez, 1919

Born 1886, Santa Cruz, Canary Islands, Spain. Cigarmaker. Migrated with family to Cuba 1898; Migrated to Mexico 1916; from there migrated to US 1916. Anarchist; member of Los Corsarios Group which published anarchist paper El Corsario. One of 14 members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped, but several members, including Sánchez, held for deportation as anarchists. Deported to Spain May 4, 1919.

INS file 54616/79

Ramón L. Sánchez (aka R.J. Sánchez)

Ramón L. Sánchez’s mugshot, 1921

Arrested June 21, 1921 in Sacramento for “criminal syndicalism” after handing out IWW literature. Sentenced to 1 to 14 years in San Quentin Penitentiary. Contracted tuberculosis in prison. Sentence commuted 1924 on condition of deportation to Spain.

See: Sacramento Star, June 22, October 21, 1921; Daily Worker, February 29 and June 2, 1924; Stephen M. Kohn, American Political Prisoners: Prosecutions under the Espionage and Sedition Acts

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