Tag Archives: Swedish

Faces of the First Red Scare

As part of the ongoing research for my book on the global history of immigrant radicals who were deported during America’s First Red Scare, I have posted brief profiles of 761 (and counting) individual deportees I have identified. This list is a work in progress, and some entries will be updated as I obtain additional sources.

Who is included:

This list includes radicals and suspected radicals who were deported between 1918 (following America’s entrance into the First World War) and 1925, when the last of the foreign-born radicals arrested between 1917 and 1920 were expelled, some after serving prison sentences. It includes both those who were deported by government order and those who were ordered deported but “voluntarily departed” at their own expense with the government’s consent (both categories were included together in US government deportation statistics). It does not include those who fled the country to avoid arrest or deportation. It includes both individuals deported for belonging to legally-defined “anarchistic classes,” and others who were suspected of radicalism but deported on other grounds (most commonly for entering the country without inspection or being retroactively deemed “likely to become a public charge” at the time of their entry).

This is not a complete list. In the fiscal years (June-July) 1918-1926, the United States deported 979 aliens as “anarchists,” and an unknown number of additional radical immigrants under other statutes. The largest single group of deportees, composed of 242 alleged radicals (as well as seven unrelated deportees) departed on the USAT Buford on December 21, 1919. However, it appears that no complete list of Red Scare deportees was produced by either the Bureau of Immigration or the Bureau of Investigation. I have instead had to rely on partial lists and mentions of individual cases included in these organizations’ files, congressional testimony, radical publications, newspaper reports, and other sources.

How to use this site:

Profiles have been posted in small batches. They are organized in alphabetical order by last name, followed by alternate spellings and pseudonyms in parentheses. (The Cyrillic spellings of Russian names are generally my best guess; American sources from the era were wildly inconsistent in their spellings of such names. The same is true of the transliteration of Chinese names in the Roman alphabet.) You can also browse the Index of Names.

Birth years are often approximate, usually having been calculated from an individual’s age at the time of their examination by immigration authorities, and some may therefore be off by a year.

You can search by individuals’ nationalities (country of birth and, in some cases, ethnicity [i.e. Jewish, Lithuanian, etc.]) by using the tags above.

Occupations describe the individuals’ employment in the US, not necessarily the work they engaged in before arrival or after their deportation.

Political affiliations represented include the syndicalist Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), the anarcho-syndicalist Union of Russian Workers of the United States and Canada (URW); the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM); anarchists unaffiliated with larger organizations; the Communist Party of America (CP); the Communist Labor Party (CLP); the Socialist Party of America (SP); the Socialist Labor Party (SLP); and unaffiliated socialists. You can search by political affiliation by using the tags above.

You may also use the “Search” box at the top of the page to look for individual names, locations, etc.

The main sources used for compiling these profiles are case files from the Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), Record Group 85, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC; the Old German Files (OG) and Bureau Section Files (BS) of the Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Record Group 65, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD (as digitized at fold3.com); and (for Italians) the Casellario Politico Centrale (CPC), Archivio Centrale dello Stato, Rome, Italy.

A special thanks to Molly Thacker, who photographed dozens of INS files for me; Malcolm Archibald, who has translated a number of Russian-language sources; D.J. Alperovitz, who has provided photographs of several IWW members; and the dozens of other archivists, translators, activists, and colleagues who have helped me locate, acquire, and read material from across the globe while undertaking this research.

Finally, if you have additional information about any of the deportees, or spot an error, please contact me!

Ahlteen to Anderson

Carl Ahlteen (Carl Althén, aka Carl Johansson)

Born 1888, Sweden. Laborer. Migrated to US 1911. IWW member, began editing Swedish IWW paper Allarm 1915. Arrested Minneapolis 1917 and defendant in federal IWW trial; in 1918 sentenced to twenty years in prison and fined $20,000. 1923 released from Leavenworth on condition of deportation. 1924 spoke at Stockholm memorial meeting for Joe Hill, whom he had known in the US. Son Carl Y. Ahlteen born that same year. Withdrew from labor activism and opened a homeopathy practice in Stockholm. In 1931, sentenced to 75 days imprisonment and 3 kroner fine for medical malpractice after a patient died under his care, and subsequently moved his family to Colombia and the Panama Canal Zone, where he continued his homeopathic practice and died in 1953. In 1957 his son, a licensed chiropractor, became a naturalized citizen of the US.

INS file 54235/62 (file missing); FBI Miscellaneous Files, file 13031

Clement Alexanderovitch

Born 1893, Vilna, Russia (present-day Vilnius, Lithuania). Laborer, steelworker; migrated to US 1914 and settled in Pittsburgh, where joined Communist Party of America in 1919 shortly after its founding. Arrested November 1919; deported 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54860/337; FBI file OG 382279

August Allman (Allmann)

Born 1870, Obereisenbach, Germany. Agricultural worker; migrated to US 1887. IWW member since at least 1917; arrested 1918 in Walla Walla, Washington. Like all IWW members arrested in Washington, charged with promoting illegal destruction of property and as “likely to become a public charge”–despite $528 in savings. Due to German nationality, interned as an “enemy alien” at Ford Douglas, Utah. Deported 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/36

Lars Anderson (Andersson)

IWW stickers in Anderson’s possession

Born 1881, Sweden. Laborer, immigrated without inspection to US via Canada 1904; crossed between US and Canada several times for work. Joined IWW 1916. Arrested Spokane, WA, 1918; in possession of a number of IWW stickers (or “silent agitators”); deported November 1918. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/241

Peter Anderson (Andersson; aka Peter Martel)

Born 1885, Sweden. Laborer; immigrated to Canada 1908 and US 1910. Joined IWW 1917 in Montana; later member of Rockford, IL IWW’s Literature Committee; arrested 1918 for distributing IWW literature; deported 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/532; FBI file OG 8000-212463

Henning Anderson (Andersson)

Henning Anderson’s IWW delegate credentials

Born 1884, Sweden. Sailor, laborer; immigrated to US 1908, worked between US and Canada until 1915. Joined IWW 1912; union organizer and delegate for Lumber Workers Industrial Union. Arrested Spokane, WA 1918; deported 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/196

Beniecewich to Berg

Kazimir Benicewich (or Benicowich)

Born circa 1880, Vilna, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Tailor. Migrated to US circa 1902; opened his own tailor shop in Baltimore 1919. Joined IWW circa 1914, but left circa 1916; joined Baltimore Branch No. 1 of Union of Russian Workers in 1917; active in national URW affairs. Arrested November 1919. Deported 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/419

Tom Benich

Born 1895, Slavonia, Austro-Hungarian Empire (present-day Croatia). Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Member, Socialist Labor Party; 1919 joined South Slavic Branch no. 75, Communist Party of America. Claims he joined CP “in order to get the members to come over to the Socialist Labor Party.” Arrested Youngstown, Ohio 1920. Stated, “I believe that the working men should run this country.” Deported to Yugoslavia, September 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 384859

Philip Berezka (or Beresko)

Born 1896, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913 via Canada. Employed by Pullman Coach Company. Joined Socialist Party in Rockford, Illinois, in 1918; joined Communist Party of America, November, 1919. Arrested Chicago, January 1920, during second Palmer Raids; declared “I do not believe in organized government.” Arrested again while on bail August 1920, with Kondrate Serovatke, while posting pro-Soviet posters on telephone poles. “Voluntary departure” to Russia, October 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54808/7; FBI files OG 811, OG 386686, and BS 202600-152-1

Philip Berezovsky (aka Philip Borodsky)

Deported to Russia 1921. No further information available.

Included on list of deported radicals in FBI file BS 202600-33

Edward Berg

Edward Berg’s IWW credentials

Born 1880, Sweden. Laborer. Migrated to US 1905. Joined IWW 1906; paid organizer and delegate for Lumber Workers Industrial Union no. 500. Arrested Spokane, Washington, April 1918. Deported November 1918. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/240

Berger to Bernat

Frederick Harold Berger (Фредрик Харольд Бергер)

Born 1885, Russia. Laborer. Anarchist; belonged to “revolutionary groups in Russia” and participated in 1905 revolution; migrated to US 1913; joined IWW shortly thereafter. Arrested Fresno, California, September 1917 for public drunkenness; detained after IWW membership card found. Declared, “I hold allegiance to no country. The world is my country…I was a syndicalist since I was a lad of 13 or 14.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54407/17

Otto Berglind (Otto Bergleind; aka August Berdland)

Born 1880, Västmanland County, Sweden. Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1908, then US 1913; joined IWW that same year. IWW members. Arrested January 1918 in Everett, Washington. Deported October 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/33

Alexander Berkman (Александр Беркман; Ovsei Osipovich Berkman)

Born 1870, Vilnius, Russia (present-day Lithuania), to well-off Jewish family. Drawn to Russian populist movement as a student. Migrated to US 1888; soon after became anarchist and lifelong collaborator of Emma Goldman. Laborer; typesetter; editor. 1892 attempted to assassinate steel manager Henry Clay Frick in retaliation for deaths of workers during Homestead Strike. Sentenced to 21 years; served 14. By his release in 1906 he was one of the most well-known anarchists in the US. Became editor of Goldman’s Mother Earth, then 1915 moved to San Francisco where published The Blast. Co-founded the No-Conscription League in 1917 and arrested that June under the Espionage Act. Sentenced to two years federal prison, then deported on the Buford. In Russia, he and Goldman collected materials for a Museum of the Revolution. Broke with Bolsheviks after 1921 Kronstadt Rebellion; left Russia December 1921 with Goldman. Lived illegally in Germany, France, and elsewhere in Europe until his death. Wrote numerous leftwing critiques of the Soviet regime, including The Bolshevik Myth (1925). Cofounder and secretary of the Joint Committee for the Defense of Revolutionists Imprisoned in Russia; member of Relief Fund of the International Working Men’s Association for Anarchists and Anarcho-Syndicalists Imprisoned or Exiled in Russia. In ill health, committed suicide Nice, France, 1936.

INS file 52410/43

See also: Alexander Berkman, The Bolshevik Myth (Diary 1920–1922); Emma Goldman, Living My Life; Paul Avrich and Karen Avrich, The Anarchist Odyssey of Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman; Alexander Berkman Papers, International Institute for Social History

Grigoriy Berko (Григорий Берко; Gregory Berko)

Born 1895, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US, year unknown. Member, Rockford, Illinois branch of the Communist Party. Arrested Chicago, January 1920; “voluntary departure” to Russia October 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file BS 202600-150-1

Charles Bernat (Бернат)

Born 1879, Russia (present-day Estonia). Lumber worker. Migrated to US 1902. Joined IWW around 1908; IWW delegate and organizer; in 1917 became Secretary of Lumber Workers Industrial Union Local No. 500, Seattle. Arrested Seattle, June 1918. Deported February 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54517/491

Elak-Berman to Faggi

David Maksimovich Elak-Berman (David Ilak; David Eelak; aka A. Emelianoff)

Born 1891, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1908 or 1909. Joined Union of Russian Workers branch in McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania; became branch’s treasurer. Deported on the Buford. Settled in Petrograd, but then fled to Poland. 1923 migrated to Montevideo, Uruguay; joined anarchist Delo Truda Group there and active anarchist until his death in 1941.

INS file 54616/221; FBI file OG 368087

See also: https://www.katesharpleylibrary.net/4f4rz9

Roberto Elia

Born 1871, Catanzaro, Italy. Laborer; printer. A socialist in Italy beginning 1898, for which arrested numerous times. Migrated to US 1906. became “fanatic anarchist and propagandist” in US. New York. Worked as typesetter for Carlo Tresca’s La Plebe in Pittsburgh, then 1910 worked on Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva in Barre, Vermont, before moving to Boston and then New York in 1914. Member of anarchist Gruppo Gaetano Bresci in East Harlem. Published anarchist magazines Domani (1919) and L’Ordine (1919-1920). Arrested February 1920 under suspicion of printing leaflets left at the sites of 1919 anarchist bombings throughout US. Held incommunicado, along with friend and coworker Andrea Salsedo, in twelfth-floor Manhattan offices of Bureau of Investigation, where the pair admitted to printing the leaflets and supplied testimony implicating alleged members of the bomb plot. Salsedo was, according to Elia, beaten while interrogated, and was distressed at informing on his comrades; on night of May 1 Salsedo jumped (or some claimed was thrown) to his death from the window. Elia deported August 1920. Active in Italian anarchist movement, though this went largely unnoticed by Italian government surveillance. Selected at January 1921 conference to co-edit a proposed new anarchist newspaper, but the project was delayed and Elia died of tuberculosis before the new publication appeared in 1924.

INS file 54861/280 (file missing); CPC busta 1879

See also: Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background; Charles Howard McCormick, Hopeless Cases: The Hunt for the Red Scare Terrorist Bombers; Beverly Gage, The Day Wall Street Exploded: A Story of America in Its First Age of Terror; Maurizio Antonioli et al., Dizionario biografico degli anarchici italiani; Aldo G. Ventrici, Roberto Elia. L’anarchismo antiorganizzatore negli Stati Uniti di primo ‘900; http://www.calabriaonweb.it/index.php/news3/primo-piano/6391-vita-e-morte-di-roberto-elia-l-anarchico-catanzarese-compagno-di-sacco-e-vanzetti

Nikolai Elkevich (Николай Элькевич; Nicholas)

Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Ivan Elko (Evan; Velko)

Born 1895, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Miner. Migrated to US 1914. Worked at Dakota Mines in Fairmont, West Virginia. Joined both the Union of Russian Workers and the United Mine Workers; elected secretary of Farmington, West Virginia URW branch. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Stated, “I don’t want to be deported. I want to remain here. I want to work here and I might stay here throughout my life. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/602

Robert Elstin (aka Robert Kisten)

Born 1884, Russia. Carpenter. Migrated to US 1914. Former member of the Russian branch of the Socialist Party of America, transferred to Communist Party of America in 1919. Wife, Evelyn, in the US. Arrested in Baltimore during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported February 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 388790

Ivan Ermola (John Yarmola, Ivan Yermola, Иван Ермола)

Born 1895, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1913. Joined Newark branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1918. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/350

Nathan Duboff Eroffey

Deported to Russia February 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G.

Adolph Ersson

Born 1890, Karlskrona, Sweden. Sailor; laborer. Migrated to Australia 1905, where involved in union and strike activity. Migrated to US 1912. Joined IWW 1914 in Denver. Survivor of 1916 Everett Massacre, for which he was arrested until charges dropped in 1917. Arrested Seattle, October 1918, and again in Los Angeles May 1919; deported June 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 315813

See also: Industrial Worker, March 3, 1916

Nikita Eskimashko (aka Nikita Ikmasko)

Born 1894, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Carpenter. Migrated to US 1913. Member of Philadelphia branch no. 1 of the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/331

Angelo Faggi

Born 1885, Brozzi, Italy. Laborer; journalist. Anarcho-syndicalist; IWW member. Socialist parents; joined Italian Socialist Party at age 15; active in Genoa’s Chamber of Labor (Camera del Lavoro). Journalist for socialist and syndicalist newspapers. By 1907 he was a revolutionary syndicalist, and left the PSI. 1909 moved to Piacenza, where secretary of the Chamber and Labor. Arrested several times for labor and anti-war activism. 1912 migrated to Lugano, Switzerland to avoid prison; expelled 1914 and migrated to Paris, and 1915 migrated to US. In Barre, Vermont, published local labor paper Lo Scalpellino. Joined IWW as lecturer and in 1916 became editor of IWW newspaper Il Proletario, while drawing closer to the anarchists. Arrested multiple times for IWW agitation; final arrest in Chicago in May 1919; deported August 1919. In Piacenza again elected secretary of the Chamber and Labor and formed the local branch of the paramilitary anti-fascist organization Arditi del Popolo. 1920 helped lead factory takeovers in Sestri Ponente, and became acting secretary of the anarcho-syndicalist Unione Sindacale Italiana (USI). Arrested 1921 in on suspicion of involvement with bombing of the Teatro Diana, intended to pressure authorities to release Errico Malatesta and other imprisoned anarchists, prompting a general strike of workers in Piacenza. While in prison, elected to parliament as a protest candidate for the Italian Socialist Party (prompting heated debate among anarchist comrades). Released from prison but repeatedly assaulted by fascists; migrated to Nice, France with his family in 1923. Involved in antifascist exile organizations and advocated a Popular Front with Communists. By 1937 he had joined the Partito Socialista Unitario. When WWII broke out, he joined the French military. After the war he returned to Piacenza and participated in socialist politics, and in 1956 elected mayor of Piacenza as a member of the Italian Social Democratic Party; died 1957.

INS file 53895/198; CPC busta 1925

See also: Vincenzo Mantovani, Anarchici alla sbarra: la strage del Diana tra primo dopoguerra e fascismo; Sandro Antonini, Storia della Liguria durante il fascismo; http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/angelo-virgilio-faggi_(Dizionario-Biografico)

Hing to Indriunas

Wong Hing (Harry Hing)

Born 1899, Guangdong, China. Student; restaurant worker. Migrated to US 1916 (via Mexico, without inspection). Attended Columbia University. Arrested January 1919 as a leader of IWW-led strike of Chinese restaurant workers. Deported March 1919 on charge of illegal entry. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54490/3 (file missing); see also file 54519/2

See also: Baltimore Sun, February 6, 1919; The Rebel Worker, May 15, 1919

Mikhail Hirney (Michael; Mike; Herney)

Mechanic. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Mikhail Hladish (Hladysh)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Alfred Hoffman (aka Edward Compe; Edward Kerlap; Edwin Hoffman)

Born 1886, Hamburg, Germany. Sailor; laborer. Migrated to US 1907 (jumped ship in San Francisco). Joined IWW around 1913; repeatedly arrested for strike-related activities. Seattle. Interned as an “enemy alien” at Fort Douglas, Utah, but declared “I am not a German, no. I am not patriotic for any country.” “Voluntary departure” June 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/64

Fritz Arthur Holm

Born 1890, Korsberga, Sweden. Carpenter. Migrated to US 1911. Joined IWW 1912; also an anarchist and subscriber to Alexander Berkman’s The Blast. Wrote “Strictly opposed to war” on his draft card. Secretary of the Scandinavian Defense League. Arrested Seattle, February 1918; authorities discovered “a wagon load of I.W.W. and anarchist literature in his room.” Deported July 1919. In Sweden, married Ellen Hildur Margareta Molin, 1923. May have written articles for the German anarcho-syndicalist paper Der Syndikalist in the 1920s. Died 1975.

INS file 54379/114

Paul Holovkin (Prokop Holowkin; Golowkin)

Born 1888, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Longshoreman. Migrated to US 1914. Widower; a son in Russia. Joined Branch no. 1 of the Union of Russian Workers in Baltimore, 1919. Deported on the Buford. 1921 reported to have been “shot by the Bolshevik authorities as an active counter-revolutionist.”

INS file 54709/318; FBI file BS 202600-2386-1

Andrew Hostilla (Andrey Kastialla)

Born 1895, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Machinist. Migrated to US 1914. Drafted into US Army 1918; honorably discharged December 1918. Member of Newark branch of the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/353

Stepanos Indriunas (Степанос Индриунас; Steponas)

Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Jankovich to Justkavich

Jerto Jankovich

Born 1896, Bosnia, Austria-Hungary (present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina). Migrated to US 1913. Joined Socialist Party of America in Pittsburgh, and transferred into Communist Party of America in 1919. Arrested March 1920. Deported to Yugoslavia, June 1920.

FBI file OG 387576

John Janson (Johnson; Jensen; aka Earnest/Ernest Laukivors/Laukivirs/Laukioirs)

Janson’s Socialist Party membership card, under the name Ernest Loukivirs

Born 1886, Libau, Russia (present-day Latvia). Sailor; wrestler; model. Latvian. Migrated to US 1916. Joined Lettish Branch of the Socialist Party of America in Boston in March 1917 (not a deportable offense). 1918 left Boston to make his way to Russia via the West Coast. Arrested Denver for allegedly “advocating anarchy.” Arrested again in Wyoming June 1918. According to immigration authorities, “The alien is highly educated, having written considerable fiction, and is therefore, holding the views that he does, a dangerous person to have in the country.” Hoped to return to Latvia (“Lettland”) to fight for its independence. Deported on the Buford. Appears to be “the Boston deportee” (as he was the only Buford deportee from Boston) mentioned by Alexander Berkman, who Berkman described as a former sailor and former employee of a detective firm who in Russia quickly joined the Cheka.

INS file 54379/534

See also: Alexander Berkman, The Bolshevik Myth (Diary 1920-1922)

George Jerevich

Deported to Yugoslavia, September 1, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Johan Johanson (John Johnson; real name Jonas Back)

Born 1874, Finland. Laborer. Migrated to US 1901. Wife and two children in Finland. Joined IWW circa 1917. Twice confined to an insane asylum in Idaho, in 1915 and 1918. Arrested September 1919 in Spokane, initially under state’s criminal syndicalism law. Deported August 14, 1920. September 1920 reported to have left for Soviet Russia. September 1921 rumored to to be en route to the US. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/81; FBI file BS 186701-200

Ragnar Johanson (Johannson)

Born 1887, Stockholm, Sweden. Painter; union organizer. Joined the syndicalist Young Socialist League circa 1900, also joined the painters union. 1910 participated in the founding congress of the syndicalist Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden, or SAC), for which he became an organizer and gifted speaker. Migrated to US 1912. Joined IWW and became one of its best-known Swedish organizers. Was aiding IWW organizer Frank Little in Butte copper strike in 1917 where Little was lynched; received identical threats against his own life. Defendant in federal IWW trial in 1917-18, where sentenced to ten years in prison and a $30,000 fine. Sentenced commuted in exchange for deportation; deported January 1, 1923. Immediately resumed activity on behalf of the SAC; became manager of the SAC’s publishing house, Federativs förlag, from 1929 to 1954. 1940 briefly imprisoned for writing a pamphlet condemning the Hitler-Stalin Pact. 1942-1954 served as treasurer of the anarcho-syndicalist International Working Men’s Association. Died 1959.

INS file 54616/58

See also: https://www.sac.se/Om-SAC/Historik/Biografier/Johanson,-Ragnar-1887-1959; Henry Bengston, On the Left in America: Memoirs of the Scandinavian-American Labor Movement

David E. Johnson

Born 1883, Sweden. Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1900; migrated to US (from Canada) 1903; moved back and forth between US and Canada several times. Joined IWW 1916. Arrested March 1918, St. Maries, Idaho. Deported November 4, 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/197

Oscar Johnson (aka Arthur Ludwig Holden)

Born 1893, Gottenburg, Sweden. Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Joined IWW 1916. Survivor of 1916 Everett Massacre, for which he was arrested until charges dropped in 1917. Arrested Seattle, January 17, 1918. Described by immigration officials as “quite intelligent,” and “a very undesirable acquisition to the population of the United States.” Deported November 30, 1918. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/9

Victor Jubkiavich

“Voluntary departure” to Russia, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

John Justkavich (aka Sam Ushkovich)

Member of the Communist Party of America in Bayonne, New Jersey. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported to Russia on December 23, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

See also: The Morning Post (Camden, New Jersey), December 23, 1920

Makliarchuk to Manninger

Lazar Makliarchuk (Matliarchok)

Deported to Russia February 1, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Ivan Malash (Иван Малаш; John)

Born 1891, Aleksandrovka, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1913. Mason; laborer. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Norwich, Connecticut, in November 1919. Arrested at his home in Yantic, Connecticut, February, 1920. Deported January 22, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/10; FBI file OG 353738

Vasily Malevsky (Василий Малевский; Wassily Maliewsky)

Born 1898, Khomsk, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Machinist. Migrated to US 1914. April 1919 joined the Union of Russian Workers in Newark (however, evidence suggested he may have been a member as early as 1917). Arrested during a raid on URW headquarters in Akron, Ohio during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/536

Karl Malmstrom

Born 1897, Ystad, Sweden. Laborer. Migrated to Argentina 1915, then to US later that year (without inspection). Joined the IWW in Portland, Oregon, December 1916. Arrested February, 1917 in San Francisco for distributing IWW literature and sentenced to 60 days; arrested in Seattle in 1918 on the same charge; arrested March, 1919 in Everett, Washington and held for deportation. When asked, “You do not desire to become a citizen of this country?” he answered: “Never…I am a citizen of the world.” Also stated: “For the workers to get industrial freedom, I would pick up arms at any time…Just like in Russia—do away with the parasites.” Deported June 29, 1919 (as “likely to become a public charge”). Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/34

Ustin Manko (Устин Манько; Austin; Justyn)

Born 1894, Kherson, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Machinist. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Bridgeport, Connecticut in May 1919. Arrested February 1920. Married Julia Chervenak while being held on Ellis Island, May 11, 1920. Deported January 22, 1921; accompanied by Julia. Son born in Ukraine. Suspected of Bolsheviks of being a “spy”; migrated with family in 1924 to Turkey, then France (where daughter born), then Mexico (where another son born). US-born Julia returned to US 1928 and regained her US citizenship 1932; brought children to US 1933, but Ustin had to remain in Mexico City. Unsuccessfully petitioned to rejoin family; deemed “insane” by US consulate in Mexico; in his letters to his family he became increasingly paranoid and incoherent. Died in Mexico City, 1976. Ustin (“Austin Voronkov”) is the subject of the semi-fictional novel The Invention of Exile (2014) by his granddaughter, Vanessa Manko.

INS file 54861/146; FBI file OG 8000-382402

See also: https://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/what-happens-to-the-deported; Vanessa Manko, The Invention of Exile: A Novel; interview with Vanessa Manko, New York City, June 13, 2018

Pavel Manko

Deported to Russia January 22, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Julius Manninger (Julian; aka Julius Pichler)

Born 1896, Ponitz, Austria-Hungary (present-day Hungary). Laborer. Migrated to US 1909. Joined the Socialist Party of America, and attended a single meeting of the Communist Party of America. Arrested January 1920 in Fort Wayne, Indiana. Deported June 22, 1920 as an alleged member of the Communist Party of America. In February 1921 Assistant Secretary of Labor Louis F. Post “concluded that such deportation had been in error and under a misapprehension of the true facts.” Returned to US December 1921 (under his family name, Pichler); declared his intention to become a US citizen.

INS file 54859/122

See also: Hancock Democrat (Greenfield IN), January 26, 1922; Garrett Clipper (Garrett IN), January 30, 1922

Nabagez to Newlander

Ivan Nabagez (Иван Набагез; John; Nabajix; Nabagiz)

Born 1894, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Hartford, Connecticut in August 1919. Arrested in the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/397

Alexander Nagula (Александр Нагула)

Member of Russian Branch No. 3 of the Communist Party of America in Detroit. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. “Voluntary departure” to Russia via Canada, October 16, 1920. No further information found.

FBI file BS 202600-1377-1

Pasquale Nardini

Born 1882, Fano, Italy. Migrated to US 1910 with wife, Maria (née Frattesi) and five-year-old son. Member, along with Maria, of anarchist Circolo Studi Sociali of Milwaukee. Both arrested 1917 after Italian anarchist “riot.” Both convicted of “assault with the intent to kill and murder,” but had convictions overturned by the court. Immediately then detained for deportation. Pasquale deported July 15, 1920; deportation warrant against Maria cancelled June 8, 1920 (Note: some sources incorrectly conclude that Maria was deported with Pasquale, but see INS file 54235-70). Migrated to Canada 1921; Maria and their son joined him there. Maria and son returned to US 1925; Pasquale followed, illegally, likely shortly thereafter. No known record of radical activities after their return. 1941 the family was living in Harlem and running a grocery store; 1945 Maria became US citizen. Pasquale died 1951.

INS file 54235/72 (file missing)

See also: Robert Tanzilo, The Milwaukee Police Station Bomb of 1917; Dean A. Strang, Worse than the Devil: Anarchists, Clarence Darrow, and Justice in a Time of Terror

Anani Nazarchuk (Анани Назарчук; Anni; Andrew; Nazarczuk)

Born 1892, Volhynia, Russia (present-day Ukraine or Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Member of the Socialist Party of America in Bristol, Connecticut. Also allegedly a member of the Union of Russian Workers, but based on flimsy evidence. Arrested June, 1918 for distributing radical literature; arrested again in the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/164; FBI file OG 8000-373183

Andrei Nazaruk (Андрей Назарук; Andrew; Mazaruk; aka Prisoophick)

Born 1894, Zabawa, Russia (present-day Poland). Belarussian. Steelworker. Migrated to US 1914. Alleged member of the Union of Russian Workers, although based on flimsy evidence. Arrested in Newark, December 3, 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/627

Gavril Nechiporenko (Гаврил Нечипоренко; Gabriel)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Mayer Libson Nehring (Myer; Meier; Libsohn; Nearing)

Born 1892, Warsaw, Russia (present-day Poland). Jewish. Hatmaker; chiropractor; pharmacist. Migrated to US 1914. Anarchist and alleged IWW organizer in Cleveland. February 1919 convicted of violating the Espionage Act for anti-war speech and sentenced to 19 years. At sentencing the judge declared: “I presume that the Russian Bolshevists would welcome you, and Lenine and Trotzky would be glad to see you back in the event that the government should deport you…in the event that the Government does not send you back to Russia I am going to protect America from your activities by sending you the Atlanta penitentiary for 19 years at hard labor.” Sentence commuted on condition of deportation; deported February 26, 1921. However, refused entry on the basis of his anarchism at Libau, along with several other deportees. Coauthored “An Open Letter to the Russian Premier Lenin” in response. Returned to US. Apparently ceased radical activities. Belatedly received an unconditional presidential pardon September 1930; 1935 applied for US citizenship and denied for “Lack of attachment to the principles of the constitution of the United States and not [being] well disposed to the good order and happiness of the same,” but upon appeal this decision was reversed.

INS file 54616/23 (file missing); INS file 121/2

See also: Pittsburgh Daily Post, February 23, 1919; Freedom (London), May 1921; Free Society (New York), October-November 1921; U.S. Naturalization Records Indexes, 1794-1995, Ancenstry.com

Pavel Nestoruk (Павел Несторук; Paul Nestoruck; aka Piole Nestium; Prole Nestruk; Nestrum)

Born 1888, Brest-Litovsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913 (via Canada). Wife and children in Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Bridgeport, Connecticut, 1919. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/395

Ivan Nevar (Иван Невар; John Newar)

Born 1885, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Newark in September 1919. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/338; FBI file OG 381446

Carl William Newlander (Karl Wilhelm Nylander)

Born 1893, Boo, Sweden. Laborer; bookseller. Migrated to US 1906 to evade military service. Lived in Chicago, San Francisco, and New York. Became anarchist and close friend of Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman; collaborated on Mother Earth, The Blast, and the Mother Earth Bulletin; ran the Mother Earth Book Shop in New York. Arrested June 29, 1918 for draft evasion and January 1919 sentenced to 60 days under the Selective Service Act. Upon his release detained for deportation; deported April 24, 1919. In Sweden settled in Hjortkvarn, but blacklisted in 1920 after conflict with an employer. Visited Goldman and Berkman in Stockholm in early 1921, and corresponded extensively with Goldman. 1922 migrated to Canada with companion and child. Reunited with and aided Goldman after she migrated there in 1927; became secretary of Toronto’s Libertarian Group.

INS file 54517/1

See also: Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University; Freedom (New York), April-May 1919; Emma Goldman Papers, International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam; Paul Avrich and Karen Avrich, Sasha and Emma: The Anarchist Odyssey of Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman

Nichiperuck to Notore

Walter Nichiperuck

Deported to Russia January 22, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

José Nicieza (Niechesa; Nierchesa; Micezer)

Members of Spanish-speaking Los Corsarios Group, including Nicieza, 1919

Born 1899, Oviedo, Spain. Laborer. Migrated to Cuba 1914; from there migrated to US 1917. Claimed to have held anarchist ideas “Since my childhood” and sympathized with anarchism in Spain, but not active in movement until emigrated. Member of Los Corsarios Group which published anarchist paper El Corsario. One of 14 members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped, but several members, including Nicieza, held for deportation as anarchists. Deported to Spain May 4, 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/79

Frank Nikolaev (Николаев; Nikolaeff)

Born 1884, Russia (somewhere in present-day Belarus). Steelworker. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Monessen, Pennsylvania, in 1919. Arrested November 26, 1919 in Greensburg, Pennsylvania. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/520; FBI file OG 381430

Paul Nikolajchyk (aka Paul Nicholas)

Deported to Russia February 1, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Alexey Nishancoff (Aleck; Alexey Nischtsshankow; Alexis Nischtschkenov; Nischenko)

Born 1892, Mordovo, Saratov, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1912, and from there migrated to US 1916. Attended radical meetings, purchased radical literature, and sympathized with the Bolsheviks, but never joined any radical organization. Worked as a stock-keeper at Ford Motor Company in Detroit, but “he was discharged by this latter firm for making Bolshevik and I.W.W. speeches to his fellow workmen. The Ford company delivered him over to the Department of Justice and he was later turned over to this service.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54649/62; FBI file OG 379194

David Nordloff

Nordloff’s IWW credentials

Born 1889, Gävle, Sweden. Metalworker. Migrated to US 1910 (via Canada). Joined the IWW in 1916; became delegate and organizer for the IWW’s Metal and Machinery Workers’ Industrial Union. Arrested May 1918 on raid on IWW members in Seattle. “Voluntary departure” with wife and four children, June 6, 1919.

INS file 54379/451; FBI file OG 8000-189115

Joe Notore (Ioe)

Born Italy. Laborer. Migrated to the US 1914. Member of the anarchist Circolo di Studi Sociali in Chicago’s Kensington neighborhood. Arrested May 1918. Deported December 20, 1919. Italian government attempts to locate and surveil him after his arrival failed. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/190; CPC busta 3562