Tag Archives: Argentine

Faces of the First Red Scare

As part of the ongoing research for my book on the global history of immigrant radicals who were deported during America’s First Red Scare, I have posted brief profiles of 761 (and counting) individual deportees I have identified. This list is a work in progress, and some entries will be updated as I obtain additional sources.

Who is included:

This list includes radicals and suspected radicals who were deported between 1918 (following America’s entrance into the First World War) and 1925, when the last of the foreign-born radicals arrested between 1917 and 1920 were expelled, some after serving prison sentences. It includes both those who were deported by government order and those who were ordered deported but “voluntarily departed” at their own expense with the government’s consent (both categories were included together in US government deportation statistics). It does not include those who fled the country to avoid arrest or deportation. It includes both individuals deported for belonging to legally-defined “anarchistic classes,” and others who were suspected of radicalism but deported on other grounds (most commonly for entering the country without inspection or being retroactively deemed “likely to become a public charge” at the time of their entry).

This is not a complete list. In the fiscal years (June-July) 1918-1926, the United States deported 979 aliens as “anarchists,” and an unknown number of additional radical immigrants under other statutes. The largest single group of deportees, composed of 242 alleged radicals (as well as seven unrelated deportees) departed on the USAT Buford on December 21, 1919. However, it appears that no complete list of Red Scare deportees was produced by either the Bureau of Immigration or the Bureau of Investigation. I have instead had to rely on partial lists and mentions of individual cases included in these organizations’ files, congressional testimony, radical publications, newspaper reports, and other sources.

How to use this site:

Profiles have been posted in small batches. They are organized in alphabetical order by last name, followed by alternate spellings and pseudonyms in parentheses. (The Cyrillic spellings of Russian names are generally my best guess; American sources from the era were wildly inconsistent in their spellings of such names. The same is true of the transliteration of Chinese names in the Roman alphabet.) You can also browse the Index of Names.

Birth years are often approximate, usually having been calculated from an individual’s age at the time of their examination by immigration authorities, and some may therefore be off by a year.

You can search by individuals’ nationalities (country of birth and, in some cases, ethnicity [i.e. Jewish, Lithuanian, etc.]) by using the tags above.

Occupations describe the individuals’ employment in the US, not necessarily the work they engaged in before arrival or after their deportation.

Political affiliations represented include the syndicalist Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), the anarcho-syndicalist Union of Russian Workers of the United States and Canada (URW); the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM); anarchists unaffiliated with larger organizations; the Communist Party of America (CP); the Communist Labor Party (CLP); the Socialist Party of America (SP); the Socialist Labor Party (SLP); and unaffiliated socialists. You can search by political affiliation by using the tags above.

You may also use the “Search” box at the top of the page to look for individual names, locations, etc.

The main sources used for compiling these profiles are case files from the Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), Record Group 85, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC; the Old German Files (OG) and Bureau Section Files (BS) of the Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Record Group 65, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD (as digitized at fold3.com); and (for Italians) the Casellario Politico Centrale (CPC), Archivio Centrale dello Stato, Rome, Italy.

A special thanks to Molly Thacker, who photographed dozens of INS files for me; Malcolm Archibald, who has translated a number of Russian-language sources; D.J. Alperovitz, who has provided photographs of several IWW members; and the dozens of other archivists, translators, activists, and colleagues who have helped me locate, acquire, and read material from across the globe while undertaking this research.

Finally, if you have additional information about any of the deportees, or spot an error, please contact me!

Momotuk to Murza

Trofin Momotuk (Трофин Момотук; Mormochuk; Theodore Maumat)

Born 1886, Russia. Steelworker. Migrated to US 1913. Wife in Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Youngstown, Ohio. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/187

Giuseppe Montagni

Born 1890, Riva di Trento (present-day Riva di Garda), Austro-Hungarian Empire (present-day Italy). Electrician. Migrated to US 1911. Lived in Buffalo, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh. Joined the Communist Party of America. Deported June 19, 1920. Apparently did not join Italian Communist Party. Late 1922 illegally emigrated to Hungary (reportedly hoping to reach Russia); caught in Budapest without proper papers and sent to internment camp at Zalaegerszeg for ten months, then expelled back to Italy, June 1924. Moved around Italy looking for steady work for several years, then settled in his hometown as a farmer. Maintained his radical beliefs and Italian government surveillance until 1941.

FBI file OG 204622; CPC busta 3359

Tugardo Montanari (Montenari)

Born 1886, Orciano di Pesaro, Italy. Metalworker. Migrated to US 1903. Iron molder and member of the International Molders Union. Not radical before arrival; became anarchist and distributed Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva around New England by motorcycle. 1913 arrested in Worchester, Massachusetts for “lewd and lascivious cohabitation” with his companion, fellow anarchist Lucia Mancini, and sentenced to six months. Arrested May 17, 1918, in Mansfield, Massachusetts. Deported June 24, 1919. Mancini and their daughter remained in US. 1923 Montanari emigrated to France, where continued to be active in anarchist and antifascist circles. 1977 still living in France and contributing funds to Italian anarchist publication Volontà.

INS file 54379/374; CPC busta 3366

See also: Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America; Volontà, January-February 1977

Ivan Morgolenkow (aka John Novak)

Born 1891, Russia. Longshoreman. Migrated to US 1911. Union of Russian Workers Baltimore. Arrested December 3, 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/622

Grigori Moroz (Григорий Мороз; Gregory; aka Mike Moroz)

Born 1893, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. 1913 migrated to Canada; 1916 migrated to US. April 1919 joined Branch No. 1 of the Union of Russian Workers in Baltimore. Worked for the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Plant; October 1919 a “special officer” of the company reported him to the Department of Justice for wearing a “suspicious black button” bearing the name of the URW newspaper Khleb i Volia. Arrested November 1919. Deported February 1, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/108

Roman Mosichuk (Роман Мосичук; Mosichok; Mosicshok; Mosithuk)

Born 1890, Volyn, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Blacksmith’s helper. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Newark, New Jersey in 1915; became secretary of the URW’s school in Trenton, New Jersey, where he also distributed URW literature. Arrested in during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/220

Pavel Mozuris (Paul; Mozures)

Born 1885, Suwałki, Russia (present-day Poland). Lithuanian. Laborer. Migrated to US 1907. Joined the Communist Party of America in New York in 1919. January 20, 1920 turned himself in to the Department of Justice as a CP member, because he had been blacklisted by employers and wished to return to Russia. After more than six months of detention on Ellis Island, on the night of July 12, 1920 he escaped by leaping from a third-floor window into the water below. Later that year located and arrested in Kalamazoo, Michigan. Deported February 26, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/22; FBI file OG 381458

Joseph Mule

Deported to Yugoslavia, June 19, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Camillo Muñoz (Munos)

Born 1880, Nochistlán, Mexico. Laborer. Migrated to US 1915. Member of anarchist group “Los Errantes” (affiliated with the Partido Liberal Mexicano) in Morenci, Arizona. Arrested September 19, 1919, in Tucson. Wife and three (Mexican-born) children came to Tucson from Morenci “for the purpose of accompanying” him if deported. Deported December 3, 1919. Wife in Arizona. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/70

José Maria Murias

Born 1889, Rosario de Santa Fe, Argentina. Spanish father and Italian mother. Sailor; miner. Migrated to US 1914. Joined the IWW in 1914 in San Francisco and became a delegate and organizer in Arizona. Arrested in Globe, Arizona, September, 1918. Argentina refused to issue passport, claiming he was a Spanish citizen; Spain refused, claiming he was an Argentine citizen. Allowed to “reship as a foreign seaman” to Costa Rica, July 11, 1919. 1920 it was reported that “following his deportation…this alien has made several trips to New York as a seaman, and that he expects to return to the United States some time during the coming summer.” Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54648/32

Vasily Murza (Василий Мурза; Wasily)

Steelworker. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4