Tag Archives: Lithuanian

Faces of the First Red Scare

As part of the ongoing research for my book on the global history of immigrant radicals who were deported during America’s First Red Scare, I have posted brief profiles of 836 (and counting) individual deportees I have identified. This list is a work in progress, and entries are being added updated as I obtain additional information.

Who is included:

This list includes radicals and suspected radicals who were deported between 1918 (following America’s entrance into the First World War) and 1925, when the last of the foreign-born radicals arrested between 1917 and 1920 were expelled, some after serving prison sentences or being interned as “enemy aliens.” It includes both those who were deported by government order and those who were ordered deported but “voluntarily departed” at their own expense with the government’s consent (both categories were included in US government deportation statistics). It does not include those who fled the country to avoid arrest or deportation. It includes both individuals deported for belonging to legally-defined “anarchistic classes,” and others who were suspected of radicalism but deported on other grounds (most commonly for entering the country without inspection or being retroactively deemed “likely to become a public charge” at the time of their entry).

This is not a complete list. In the fiscal years (June-July) 1918-1926, the United States deported 979 aliens as “anarchists,” and an unknown number of additional radical immigrants under other statutes. The largest single group of deportees, composed of 242 alleged radicals (as well as seven unrelated deportees) departed on the USAT Buford on December 21, 1919. However, it appears that no complete list of Red Scare deportees was produced by either the Bureau of Immigration or the Bureau of Investigation. I have instead had to rely on partial lists and mentions of individual cases included in these organizations’ files, congressional testimony, radical publications, newspaper reports, and other sources.

How to use this site:

Profiles have been posted in small batches. They are organized in alphabetical order by last name, followed by alternate spellings and pseudonyms in parentheses. (The Cyrillic spellings of Russian names are generally my best guess; American sources from the era were wildly inconsistent in their spellings of such names. The same is true of the transliteration of Chinese names in the Roman alphabet.) You can also browse the Index of Names.

Birth years are often approximate, usually having been calculated from an individual’s age at the time of their examination by immigration authorities, and some may therefore be off by a year.

You can search by individuals’ nationalities (country of birth and, in some cases, ethnicity [i.e. Jewish, Lithuanian, etc.]) by using the tags above.

Occupations describe the individuals’ employment in the US, not necessarily the work they engaged in before arrival or after their deportation.

Political affiliations represented include the syndicalist Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), the anarcho-syndicalist Union of Russian Workers of the United States and Canada (URW); the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM); anarchists unaffiliated with larger organizations; the Communist Party of America (CP); the Communist Labor Party (CLP); the Socialist Party of America (SP); the Socialist Labor Party (SLP); and unaffiliated socialists. You can search by political affiliation by using the tags above.

You may also use the “Search” box at the top of the page to look for individual names, locations, etc.

The main sources used for compiling these profiles are case files from the Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), Record Group 85, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC; the Old German Files (OG) and Bureau Section Files (BS) of the Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Record Group 65, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD (as digitized at fold3.com); and (for Italians) the Casellario Politico Centrale (CPC), Archivio Centrale dello Stato, Rome, Italy.

A special thanks to Molly Thacker and Brooke Thompson, who photographed hundreds of INS files for me; Malcolm Archibald, who has translated a number of Russian-language sources; D.J. Alperovitz, who has provided photographs of several IWW members; and the dozens of other archivists, translators, activists, and colleagues who have helped me locate, acquire, and read material from across the globe while undertaking this research.

Finally, if you have additional information about any of the deportees, or spot an error, please contact me!

Balick to Baritz

Vasiliy Balik (Василий Балик, Wasily Balick or Bilicki)

Born 1896, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer; migrated to US 1913. Employee of Remington Arms Union Metallic Cartridge Company, Bridgeport, CT. Joined of Union of Russian Workers August 1919; arrested September 1919, Hartford, CT. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/389

Ugo Balzano

Born 1882, Castel di Sangro, Aquila, Italy. Typographer; migrated to US 1903; employed by mainstream Italian-American Cleveland newspaper, La Voce del Popolo Italiano. Anarchist; member Circolo Studi Sociali di Cleveland; distributor of Cronaca Sovversiva; publisher of anarchist paper L’Appello (1916-1917). Deported 1919. Arrested immediately upon return to Italy for avoiding the draft. Died Castel di Sangro, 1926.

INS file 54616/348; CPC busta 298

See also: http://bibliotecaborghi.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Cicolani-La-presenza-anarchica.pdf

Walter Banaczyk

Banaczyk’s Communist Party membership card

Born 1901, Słupia, Russia (present-day Poland). Polish. Auto worker. Migrated to US with mother 1915 to join father already there; employee at Fischer Body. December 1919 joined Branch 37, Polish Section of the Communist Party of America. Arrested Detroit January 1920, age 18. “Voluntarily departed” to Poland October 16, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54859/569; FBI files OG 382042 and BS 202600-768-1

Peter P. Banaitis

Born 1899, Lithuania. Miner, laborer, toolmaker. Migrated to US 1911. Member International Union of Tool, Die, and Mold Makers; member Branch 37, Lithuanian Section of the Communist Party of America. Arrested January 1920, Chicago. When asked if he intended to remain in US, replied “he did intend to remain here but he has no preference, and as people are thrown in jail here for their beliefs he thinks he will enjoy just as much liberty in his native country as he does here.” According to immigration inspector, “Subject appears to be a typical Bolshevik and is more or less intelligent…This individual should be deported by all means as he is manifestly and potentially a bad influence.” Deported December 9, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54811/563; FBI file OG 382041

Daniel Bardaio

Born Russia, year unknown. Member Communist Party of America. Deported February, 1921. No further information.

Included in list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Moses Baritz

Moses Baritz, center

Born 1883, Manchester, England. Jewish. Musician, journalist. Member Socialist Party of Great Britain; renowned (and feared) agitator and debater, able to quote Marx extemporaneously. Music critic for the Manchester Guardian. He “made more than one journey to America,” and in Canada in 1911 helped found the tiny, “impossibilist” Socialist Party of North America. Migrated to US 1915 to avoid conscription; joined Socialist Party of America, then in 1916 in Detroit cofounded the small and more radical breakaway “Socialist Party of the United States” (which later became the Socialist Educational Society, the Workers’ Socialist Party, and finally the World Socialist Party of the United States). Arrested for anti-war speeches Seattle, 1918. “Voluntary departure” September 1918 to Australia, where debated IWW members, then expelled. Went to New Zealand, from which he was the first person expelled under the Undesirable Immigrants Exclusion Act. From there went to South Africa, then returned to England 1920, where resumed SPGB membership; in 1924 also became “Britain’s first radio disc jockey.” Died 1938.

INS file 54408/12

See: http://socialiststandardmyspace.blogspot.com/2014/09/death-of-moses-baritz.html; https://www.solidarityforeverbook.com/book/solidarityforever.pdf; Ian Angus, Canadian Bolsheviks: The Early Years of the Communist Party of Canada (2004); Karla Doris Rab, Role-Modeling Socialist Behavior: The Life and Letters of Isaac Rab (2010)

Barkovsky to Bendik

Samuel (or Semyon) Barkovsky (Сэмюэл or Семён Барковский, Samuel or Samion Barkowsky)

S. Barkovsky’s IWW membership card

Born 1893, Chernihiv, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Machinist. Migrated to US 1913. Member of the Socialist Party of America, the IWW, and the Ansonia, CT branch of the Union of Russian Workers. Chairman of “Luch,” a URW organization disguised as a mutual aid society, delegate to 1919 URW convention. Arrested in Ansonia June 1919 for “breach of the peace” for agitation in connection with URW-organized strike. Arrested Hartford, CT, November 1919; a trove of anarchist literature found in his home. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/405; FBI file OG 8000-364023

Stanislaw Bartesiewics (aka Stanley Barton, aka Joe Rink, aka Joe Rynkiewich)

Born 1888, Lithuania. Laborer. Killed a woman in Russia (circumstances unclear) and fled to US in 1899; extradited back to Russia that year where convicted and served three years and seven months in prison. Migrated to US again 1915. Member Lithuanian Branch of the Communist Party of America. His own wife, as well as his brother (George) and sister-in-law, all gave sworn depositions against him to the Bureau of Investigation. Arrested Detroit, January 1920. Deported 1921.

FBI file OG 382016

Ivan Baskevich (Иван Баскевич; John; Basskevich)

Born 1897, Russia. Immigrated to US 1913, laborer. Held socialist ideas in Russia but not a party member. Joined the Socialist Party within “a few days” of arrival in US, became financial secretary of Cleveland’s Russian Branch No. 1 of the Communist Party. Arrested January 1920. Deported to Russia February 26, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54859/943

Aleksandr Ivanovich Batura (Александр Иванович Батура)

Born Russia, year unknown. Anarchist; IWW member. Deported 1924. In Russia, “openly declared that it is only Commissars and not workers that live well here,” and sentenced to Solovetsky prison camp, then internal exile. Wrote to comrades in US circa 1927: “The main thing is that I have no work and it is so hard to get anything. I have been actually starving here, moreover, I am sick.” Received aid from anarchists abroad 1929-1931.

See: Senya Fleshin Papers, International Institute for Social History; G. P. Maximoff, The Guillotine at Work: Twenty Years of Terror in Russia (Data and Documents) (1940)

Morris Becker

Born 1885, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Migrated to US 1906. Married, wife in US. Anarchist; supporter of Alexander Berkman’s The Blast; member of No-Conscription League. One of the first two people arrested under the Selective Service Act of 1917; sentenced to a year and eight months in Atlanta federal penitentiary for interference in the draft, and repeatedly disciplined for “misconduct.” Admitted he was an anarchist and “a man without a country,” “but I am an advocate of peace and not of force.” Deported on the Buford. After a long period of unemployment secured a factory job in Petrograd, but when he complained of “the unbearably putrid air in the shop where he was working, the unnecessary filth and dirt,” he was told he was “a pampered bourgeois” who “pine[d] for the comforts of capitalist America.” 1931 wrote a coded letter to Alexander Berkman after a decade of silence.

INS file 54235/32

See also: Emma Goldman, Living My Life; Alexander Berkman Papers, IISH

Max Belesky or Belessky

Born 1888, Odessa, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Jewish. Migrated to US 1913; carpenter. Wife and three children in Russia. Joined Russian Branch No. 3 of the Socialist Party in Detroit, which became a branch of the Communist Party. Arrested January 1920. “Voluntary departure” to Russia October 16, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54859/752

Emelyan Belesta (Емельян Белеста, aka Michael Belesta, Andrew Belesta, Andriev Belesta)

Born Russia, 1886. Wife in Russia. Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1912, then US (without inspection) 1916. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Pittsburgh around 1918; took “more or less of a prominent part in meetings of Russian radicals in the district.” Arrested 1919 in possession of “a considerable amount of extremely radical literature.” On bail, arrested again for writing and distributing handbill calling for a general strike of American workers “to enforce the lifting of the blockade against Russia.” Deported on the Buford. Died of typhus in Ufa.

INS file 54616/134

See also: INS file 54616/89; New-York Tribune, October 4, 1919

Bezil Belousov (Бэзил Белоусов, Basil Belusoff, aka Basil Bibusoff)

Born 1881, Russia. Wife and three children in Russia. Joined Union of Russian Workers in 1919. Arrested Fairmont, West Virginia, November 1919. Claimed to have been drunk when joined URW. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/593

Demyan Belowky

Born 1882, Russia. Immigrated to US 1915; laborer. Joined Communist Party in Detroit. Deported March 18, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54850/994; FBI file OG 382092

William Bendik (Бендик, Bendick)

Flier in Bendik’s possession when arrested

Born 1894, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Claimed to have joined Russian Branch No. 2 of Socialist Party of America, Cleveland, January 1919, but in possession of Socialist Labor Party literature when arrested June 1919. Membership in neither qualified as grounds for deportation. Instead, deportation based on the alleged fact that, after he participated in 1919 May Day demonstration broken up by police, he reportedly stated, “We only gave them a demonstration of what we will do July 4th; we will be prepared and have ammunition and everything, and we will show them what we will do.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/235; FBI file OG 372982

Dixon to Dyachuk

Samuel H. Dixon

Born 1877, Sunderland, England. Sailor; baker. Migrated to US 1897. Joined IWW circa 1909; IWW delegate and organizer; secretary of Seattle IWW branch. Arrested “at least five or six times in connection with his I.W.W. activities.” As sailor, shipped to India, China, Japan, Singapore, Samoa, and the Philippines. Arrested Seattle, July 1918. Deported June 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/503

Wincenty Dmowski (Vincenty Druowski)

Born 1885 in Russian Poland. Polish. Migrated to US 1914. Member of the Communist Party of America. Arrested Detroit, January 1920. Initially ordered deported to Poland, then allowed “voluntary departure” to Russia, October 16, 1920. No further information found.

INS file 54709/836

John W. Dobrinich

Born 1892, Austria-Hungary (in present-day Croatia). Croatian. Migrated to US 1910. Laborer. Joined the Socialist Labor Party. Arrested Missouri, 1919 or 1920. Deported to Croatia 1925.

INS file 54861/376

See also: American Labor Year Book, 1926

Peter Dolgay (Dolgag; Dowhay)

Born 1880, Vilnius, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Metal worker. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and three children in Russia. Member of the Union of Russian Workers in Youngstown, Ohio. Arrested August 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/543

Victor Dombrowski (Dombrivski; aka Douglas Dombrowski)

Dombrowski’s Socialist Party membership card

Born 1871, Telsha, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Lithuanian. Laborer. Not radical in Russia. Migrated to US 1900. Arrested in Chicago circa 1914 and served 3 years in prison for “assault with intent to kill.” Joined Socialist Party of America and IWW; left IWW 1918; then joined Communist Party of America in 1919. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920, in Chicago. Deported to Lithuania May 14, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54809/19; FBI files OG 385518 and OG 388575

Harry Dorosh (aka Mike Dorash, Mike Smith)

Deported to Russia January 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS folder 54325/36G

Konstantin Demyanovich Draco (Константин Демьянович Драко)

Born 1888, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and son in Russia. Joined New London, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers, 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/373; FBI file OG 388601

Sidor Drankovich (Cedar)

Born 1880 in Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US in 1913. Autoworker. Lived in Hamtramck. 1919 joined Detroit’s Russian Branch No. 3 of the Socialist Party, which later that year became Russian Branch No. 3 of the Communist Party. Arrested January 1920.; held at Fort Wayne Deported March 18, 1921.

INS file 54589/983

Dionisy Drichetz (Dennis Drichitz)

Member of the Communist Party of America in Bayonne, New Jersey. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported to Russia, December 23, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS folder 54325/36G

See also: The Morning Post (Camden, New Jersey), December 23, 1920

Sergey Drigov (сергей дригов; Drigoff)

Financial secretary of the Seattle branch of the Union of Russian Workers. Deported February 1921. No further information found.

FBI file OG 388594

Alexandr Dubarev (Александр Дубарев, Alexander Dubareff)

Deported to Russia February, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS folder 54325/36G

Ivan Dubov (Иван Дубов, John Duboff)

Born 1885, Feodorovka, Russia. Migrated to US 1912. First joined Union of Russian Workers in McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania, circa 1914; then active in branches in New York and then Detroit. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Told immigration agents, “Of course, I am an anarchist…I do not acknowledge any government.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/97; FBI file OG 381656

Petr Dubovik (Петр Дубовик)

Deported to Russia January 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS folder 54325/36G

Ivan Dudinsky (John Dudinsky)

Dudinsky’s Communist Party membership card

Born 1889, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Date of migration to US unknown. Former member of the Russian branch of the Socialist Party of America, then joined the Communist Party of America. Arrested Newark, New Jersey. Detained for 101 days, while suffering from tuberculosis, and refused to answer any questions without a lawyer, which was not provided. Deported December 23, 1920. 1923 immigrated to Canada and settled in Quebec. In 1935 requested readmission to the US to visit his brother and acquaintances, but denied.

INS file 54810/346

See also: Investigation of Administration of Louis F. Post, Assistant Secretary of Labor: In the Matter of Deportation of Aliens, Hearings, Sixty-sixth Congress, Second Session; Constantine Maria Panunzio, The Deportation Cases of 1919-1920; Beverly Gage, The Day Wall Street Exploded: A Story of America in Its First Age of Terror

Anton Dudka (Антон Дудка; Antonio; Tony)

Born Podolsk, Russia, 1894. Polish. Migrated to Canada 1914, then to US 1918. Blacksmith, handyman. Chairman of Buffalo’s East Side Russian Branch. Arrested January 7, 1920. Denied all allegations. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

INS file 54809/443

Serge Dukhane

Deported to Russia, February 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS folder 54325/36G

Alex Dulchewshi

Deported to Russia March 18, 1921.

INS file 54860/808

Michael Dunetz (Mike)

Born 1885, Vilensky, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1912. Carpenter for the Ford Motor Company in Detroit. Member of Detroit’s Russian Branch No. 3 of the Communist Party. Arrested January 1920; held at Fort Wayne. Deported to Russia March 18, 1921.

INS file 54859/988

Wladyslaw Dwanowsky (Walter Jazonski)

Born c. 1884 in Lublin, Russia (present-day Poland). Polish. Arrested in Russia for going “on a furlough without permission.” Migrated to US 1914. Bricklayer. Member of Communist Party in Hamtramck, Michigan, where arrested January 1920. Arrested previously or handing out May Day flyers. Deported to Russia March 18, 1921.

INS file 54859/610

Paul Dyachuk (aka Pavel Deonesieff)

Born Kiev, Russia (present-day Belarus) c.1882. Migrated to US 1903. Joined the URW in Seattle in 1919. Also a member of the International Brotherhood of Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders and Helpers of America. Arrested January 1920. Deported to Russia, February 1921.

INS file 4860/402

Katzes to Kircher

Arthur Katzes (Katses; Kestes; Ketzus; Katz)

Born 1897, Podolia, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Printer. Had been a student in Russia and apprenticing as a pressman; worked as a sailor to pay for passage to US in 1914 (entered without inspection). Worked as printer in US. Joined Union of Russian Workers circa 1917; member of the editorial board of URW newspaper Khleb i Volia. Arrested March 1919 in New York. Released on bail; collaborated on producing the illegal Anarchist Soviet Bulletin; arrested with Ethel Bernstein in September 1919 for distributing copies of that paper. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/115

See also: Richard Polenberg, Fighting Faiths: The Abrams Case, the Supreme Court, and Free Speech

Joe Kaunas (Bogdanas)

Russian-born coal miner and Communist Party member in Indianapolis. Arrested January 9, 1920. Claimed Lithuanian citizenship, but deported to Russia March 18, 1921.

INS file 54860/713

Teleso Kavalianskas (Stanley; Kavalionskas, Kavalauskas; Talespor Kavalanchas)

Born 1881, Kovno, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Lithuanian. To US 1912. Secretary of Branch No. 43 of the Lithuanian Federation the Communist Party of America in Detroit. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. “Voluntary departure” October 20, 1920 via Canada.

INS file 54709/954; FBI file BS 202600-155-1

Joseph (“Joe”) Kennedy

Born 1885, Belfast, Ireland. Miner. Migrated to US 1905. Joined IWW 1917; became secretary of Metal Mine Workers’ Industrial Union No. 800 in Butte, Montana. Arrested multiple times for IWW activity. Worked with IWW organizer Frank Little before Little was lynched in Butte in 1917. Also “active…in the cause of Irish independence.” Arrested February 1919, in aftermath of miners’ strike. Deported June 1919. Joined Merseyside IWW branch in Liverpool. 1924 reportedly intended to return to US illegally. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/74

See also: Butte Daily Bulletin, June 13, 1919; Socialist Review (London), February 1, 1959

Ilya Kerczuk (Ellis Kerchuk; Navul Kerchuk)

Born c. 1898, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1913. Deported to Russia February 1, 1921. No further information found. Laborer and longshoreman in Camden, New Jersey and New York. Arrested May 1919 in Philadelphia by company guards of Pusey and Jones Shipbuilding Company of Gloucester City, NJ, for distributing “Bolshevik circulars” on company grounds. Deported February 1, 1921.

INS file File 54616/173

Boris Keretchuk

Born 1894, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1916. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Newark. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/358

Nuval Kerget (Nabul; Нувал Кергет)

Lumber worker. Member of the Union of Russian Workers in Seattle.Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

INS file 54860/569; FBI file OG 389514

Ivan Kesevich

Deported to Yugoslavia, September 1, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Olan Killen

IWW member. Deported October 31, 1919. No further information found.

Included on list of deported IWW members in One Big Union Monthly, March 1920

William Kircher

Born 1892, Hesse, Germany. Laborer. Migrated to US 1906. Joined IWW 1917. Arrested May 1918 in Seattle; interned as “enemy alien” at Fort Douglas, Utah. “Voluntary departure” 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54408/512; FBI file OG 193587

Momotuk to Murza

Trofin Momotuk (Трофин Момотук; Mormochuk; Theodore Maumat)

Born 1886, Russia. Steelworker. Migrated to US 1913. Wife in Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Youngstown, Ohio. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/187

Giuseppe Montagni

Born 1890, Riva di Trento (present-day Riva di Garda), Austro-Hungarian Empire (present-day Italy). Electrician. Migrated to US 1911. Lived in Buffalo, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh. Joined the Communist Party of America. Deported June 19, 1920.

Apparently did not join Italian Communist Party. Late 1922 illegally emigrated to Hungary (reportedly hoping to reach Russia); caught in Budapest without proper papers and sent to internment camp at Zalaegerszeg for ten months, then expelled back to Italy, June 1924. Moved around Italy looking for steady work for several years, then settled in his hometown as a farmer. Maintained his radical beliefs and Italian government surveillance until 1941.

FBI file OG 204622; CPC busta 3359

Tugardo Montanari (Montenari)

Born 1886, Orciano di Pesaro, Italy. Metalworker. Migrated to US 1903. Iron molder and member of the International Molders Union. Not radical before arrival; became anarchist and distributed Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva around New England by motorcycle. 1913 arrested in Worchester, Massachusetts for “lewd and lascivious cohabitation” with his companion, fellow anarchist Lucia Mancini, and sentenced to six months. Arrested May 17, 1918, in Mansfield, Massachusetts. Deported June 24, 1919. Mancini and their daughter remained in US.

1923 Montanari emigrated to France, where continued to be active in anarchist and antifascist circles. 1977 still living in France and contributing funds to Italian anarchist publication Volontà.

INS file 54379/374; CPC busta 3366

See also: Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America; Volontà, January-February 1977

Ivan Morgolenkow (aka John Novak)

Born 1891, Russia. Longshoreman. Migrated to US 1911. Union of Russian Workers Baltimore. Arrested December 3, 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/622

Harry Morozoff (Morogoff)

Born c.1894, Vilnius, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Migrated to US 1912. Laborer. Joined the Socialist Party in 1917; in Detroit in 1919 in “regular attendance at meetings held by Russian Branch No. 3, Communist Party of America,” though he denied official membership. Arrested January 1920; held at Fort Wayne. Deported to Russia March 18, 1921.

INS file 54860/54

Grigori Moroz (Григорий Мороз; Gregory; aka Mike Moroz)

Born 1893, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. 1913 migrated to Canada; 1916 migrated to US. April 1919 joined Branch No. 1 of the Union of Russian Workers in Baltimore. Worked for the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Plant; October 1919 a “special officer” of the company reported him to the Department of Justice for wearing a “suspicious black button” bearing the name of the URW newspaper Khleb i Volia. Arrested November 1919. Deported February 1, 1921.

INS file 54709/108

Roman Mosichuk (Роман Мосичук; Mosichok; Mosicshok; Mosithuk)

Born 1890, Volyn, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Blacksmith’s helper. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Newark, New Jersey in 1915; became secretary of the URW’s school in Trenton, New Jersey, where he also distributed URW literature. Arrested in during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/220

Pavel Mozuris (Paul; Mozures)

Born 1885, Suwałki, Russia (present-day Poland). Lithuanian. Laborer. Migrated to US 1907. Joined the Communist Party of America in New York in 1919. January 20, 1920 turned himself in to the Department of Justice as a CP member, because he had been blacklisted by employers and wished to return to Russia. After more than six months of detention on Ellis Island, on the night of July 12, 1920 he escaped by leaping from a third-floor window into the water below. Later that year located and arrested in Kalamazoo, Michigan. Deported February 26, 1921.

INS file 54861/22; FBI file OG 381458

Joseph Mule

Deported to Yugoslavia, June 19, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Camillo Muñoz (Munos)

Born 1880, Nochistlán, Mexico. Laborer. Migrated to US 1915. Member of anarchist group “Los Errantes” (affiliated with the Partido Liberal Mexicano) in Morenci, Arizona. Arrested September 19, 1919, in Tucson. Wife and three (Mexican-born) children came to Tucson from Morenci “for the purpose of accompanying” him if deported. Deported December 3, 1919. Wife in Arizona.

INS file 54709/70

José Maria Murias

Born 1889, Rosario de Santa Fe, Argentina. Spanish father and Italian mother. Sailor; miner. Migrated to US 1914. Joined the IWW in 1914 in San Francisco and became a delegate and organizer in Arizona. Arrested in Globe, Arizona, September, 1918. Argentina refused to issue passport, claiming he was a Spanish citizen; Spain refused, claiming he was an Argentine citizen. Allowed to “reship as a foreign seaman” to Costa Rica, July 11, 1919.

1920 it was reported that “following his deportation…this alien has made several trips to New York as a seaman, and that he expects to return to the United States some time during the coming summer.”

INS file 54648/32

Vasily Murza (Василий Мурза; Wasily; aka Sam Drozda, Sam Murza, Sam Murgu)

Born c. 1897 in Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1912. Steelworker. Joined the Communist Party in Buffalo, November 1919. According to immigration authorities, “He appears to be a dangerous radical and, in addition, he is immoral, as will be seen from the testimony he is living with a woman without being married to her.” (In fact, he and his wife Pauline Brya were legally married, albeit without a religious ceremony.) Arrested January 1920. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

INS file 54809/516

Reid to Rivera

Patrick Reid (aka Larry; Jimmy; Billy; Matt)

Born 1871, Dreary, Ireland. Protestant parents. Laborer. Migrated to US circa 1890s. Itinerant laborer throughout US, Canada, and Mexico. Arrested in Centralia, Washington, November 1919. He was “ashamed to say” that, due to lack of funds, he was not dues paying IWW member, but he believed in its ideology, and stated the only government he supported was that of Soviet Russia. Deported April 2, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/581; FBI file OG 378240

Dimitry Remar

Born 1896, Podolsk, Russia. Migrated to Canada 1915, then to US 1918. Laborer. Member of Detroit’s Russian Branch No. 5 of the Communist Party. Arrested January 1920. Deported to Russia, March 18, 1921.

INS file 54859/796

Benjamin Repsys (Repshys)

Born 1894, Kovno, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Lithuanian. Migrated to US 1913. Autoworker. Employed at Ford. 1918 joined Detroit’s Branch No. 116 of the Lithuanian Socialist Federation, then transferred into Communist Party. Arrested November 15, 1919 for receiving radical literature, but released. Arrested again January 1920; deported to Russia March 18, 1921.

INS file 54859/658

Manuel Rey y García (Manuel Rey; aka Louis G. Raymond)

Born 1888, Castrofoya, Spain. Galician. Sailor; union organizer; house painter. Father killed in the Cuban War of Independence. 1905 migrated to Cuba; 1909 to 1914 worked as sailor throughout Atlantic Ocean; 1914 migrated to US (without inspection; jumped ship). Anarchist. Joined the IWW circa 1914 and became secretary of the IWW’s Marine Transport Workers Industrial Union in Philadelphia; April 1917 moved to Niagara Falls, New York, and elected secretary of the local IWW organization. Arrested three times over the next six months for failure to register for the draft and for speaking against the war. Defendant at mass IWW trial 1917-18; sentenced to twenty years and a $20,000 fine. During his incarceration corresponded with Jewish anarchist Lilly Sarnoff, who became his lifelong companion. Sentence commuted December 1922 on condition of deportation; deported March 22, 1923. Illegally returned; again deported 1926. Returned again under the name “Louis G. Raymond.” Continued to be active in the anarchist movement; lived in the anarchist community of Stelton, New Jersey; coedited the newspaper Freedom (1933-34). Died in New York in 1990 at age 101.

INS file 54297/18; FBI file OG 8000-160053

See also: Industrial Workers of the World Collection, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University; Peter Cole, Wobblies on the Waterfront: Interracial Unionism in Progressive-Era Philadelphia; Bieito Alonso, “Spanish Anarchists and Maritime Workers in the IWW,” in Wobblies of the World: A Global History of the IWW; Bieito Alonso, Anarquistas galegos en América; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America

Federico Ricci (aka D. Federico Ricci)

Born 1887, Cesenatico, Italy. Shoemaker. In Italy was a socialist. Migrated to US 1905; became anarchist circa 1910; returned to Italy 1911; migrated to US agains 1913. Arrested in Haverhill, Massachusetts in January, 1918, for failure to register for the draft; sentenced to a year in prison. Stated, “I do not believe in any form of government, because the people have no liberty.” Deported May 22, 1919. 1920 arrested in Naples for desertion; released on probation. Moved back to Cesenatico, “where he lives a solitary life.” 1925 emigrated to France; returned to Italy 1929. Under surveillance until 1941, but no radical activity noted.

INS files 54379/2 and 54379/3; CPC busta 4302

Daniel Rice (Reisch; Risch)

Born 1885, Tolkova (Grodno), Russia (present-day Belarus?). Laborer. Migrated to US 1909. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in 1919 in Newark. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Stated, “I was so much dissatisfied with the Russian Government as I knew it, that I am since that time reluctant to believe that any government is good…I am not satisfied with the United Sates Gov’t and do not believe it is acting as a free government.” Deported on the Buford. Wife and child in Newark. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/340

Augusto Rigoni (August)

Born 1893, Afiago (Vicenza), Italy. Laborer. Not radical in Italy. Year of migration unknown. In Kensington, Illinois joined the anarchist Circolo Studi Sociali; supported Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva. Deported December 20, 1919. After his return, according to Italian authorities, he “demonstrated sympathy with socialism” but withdrew from political activity and “was not considered a politically dangerous element.” Married, had children, and “devoted himself exclusively to the work of the fields of his property together with his brothers.” 1932 developed “symptoms of mental alienation” and confined to provincial psychiatric hospital in Vicenza, where he died that same year.

CPC busta 4329

See also: Cronaca Sovversiva, July 15, 1916

Thomas Rimmer

Born 1886, England. Sailor; miner. Migrated to Canada 1912; from there migrated to US 1914 (without inspection). Radicalized in US; joined the Socialist Party of America and the Western Federation of Miners; then joined the IWW circa 1914. One of the organizers of the 1917 miners’ strike in Butte, Montana; elected to the strikers’ publicity Committee; spoke at funeral of IWW organizer Frank Little. 1918 became IWW delegate. Arrested May 6, 1918, on police raid of IWW hall in Seattle. While detained in Seattle, befriended fellow deportee Moses Baritz, beginning a lifelong “political and personal friendship.” Deported March 9, 1919, as “likely to become a public charge” at the time of his entry because “a man of the character and disposition he clearly was [sic] would almost certain sometime to come into conflict with the laws of any country like the United States and get into jail.” In Liverpool, joined the Merseyside IWW branch. 1921 joined the small, breakaway Socialist Party of Great Britain, of which Baritz was already a member. That same year he was “believed to be traveling frequently between England and Canada.” After a period of lapsed membership, rejoined the SPGB in 1933. Died 1952.

INS file 54379/417; FBI file

See also: The Butte Miner, July 11 and July 29, 1917; San Francisco Examiner, August 6, 1917; Socialist Review (London), February 1, 1959; http://socialiststandardmyspace.blogspot.com/2014/09/death-of-moses-baritz.html

Louis Ristick (Luis)

Born 1896, Volynia, Russia. Machinist. Migrated to US 1913. Employed at the Singer Sewing Machine Company in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Joined the Union of Russian Workers 1919. Arrested in New York during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/457

Librado Rivera

Born 1864, Rayón, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Teacher; laborer; journalist. 1888 became teacher in Mexico. 1900 cofounded a “liberal” group in San Luis Potosí to combat Catholic influence on government. Arrested 1902 for political activities and imprisoned for a year. 1903 collaborated with Enrique and Ricardo Flores Magón on the paper El hijo del Ahuizote and arrested for “ridiculing public officials.” Migrated to US 1905. That same year cofounded the Partido Liberal Mexicano; around this time became an anarchist. 1906 arrested in St. Louis and US government attempted to illegally extradite him to Mexico, but eventually released. 1907 moved to Los Angeles, where arrested without warrant, along with other PLM leaders, by agents of the Furlong Detective Agency on behalf of the Mexican government; convicted of violating US neutrality laws but then released. 1910 a founding editor of the PLM newspaper Regeneración. 1911 arrested with other PLM leaders, again charged and convicted for violating neutrality laws for organizing and supplying PLM fighters in the Mexican Revolution. 1914 released from McNeil Island Prison. 1918 arrested and convicted for violating the Espionage Act with material published in Regeneración; sentenced to 15 years. 1920 transferred from McNeil Island to Leavenworth Penitentiary. 1923 his sentence was commuted on condition of deportation to Mexico. Offered positions in the government of San Luis Potosí, which he declined. Founded and edited a succession of anarchist newspapers. 1927 arrested and sentenced to 6 months for “insulting the president” and “inciting the public to anarchy.” 1932 died after being hit by a car in Mexico City.

See: Alicia Perez Salazar, Librado Rivera, un soñador en llamas; Ricardo Flores Magón, Dreams of Freedom: A Ricardo Flores Magón Reader; Donald C. Hodges, Mexican Anarchism after the Revolution; Aurora Mónica Alcayaga Sasso, “Librado Rivera y los hermanos rojos en el movimiento social y cultural anarquista en Villa Cecilia y Tampico, Tamaulipas, 1915-1931” (PhD diss., Universidad Iberoamericano); http://www.libradorivera.com/; http://www.antorcha.net/biblioteca_virtual/politica/viva_tierra/libradoindice.html

Zharko to ______

Nikifor Zharko (Никифор Жарко; Zarko)

Born 1894, Grodno region, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. May 1918 joined Branch No. 1 of the Union of Russian Workers in Baltimore. Arrested November 26, 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/484

Lukian Viktolorovich Zibula (Лукиан Виктолорович Зибула; Luka; Victolorovish; Sebull; Tsibuliev)

Born 1892, Volhynia, Russia. Weaver. Migrated to US 1912. Joined the Socialist Party of America in Philadelphia; subsequently joined the Philadelphia branch of the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested December 30, 1919. Deported to Russia, February 1, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54809/900

Bertha Zimmerman (Берта Цимерман; née Masdawid or Masdawit)

Born 1885, Riga, Russia (present-day Latvia). Latvian. Housewife; garment worker. Migrated to US 1907. Married fellow deportee David Zimmerman in Boston that same year. Literate in Russian, Lettish, German, and some English. Joined the National Lettish Organization of the Socialist Party of America. 1908 son Erick born. Circa 1908 moved to Chicago, where involved in the IWW. Circa 1918 moved to Baltimore. September 1919 charter member of the Lettish Federation of the Communist Party of America; member of the party’s Baltimore Central Committee and distributor of its publication The Communist. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 2, 1920. Deported February 1, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54859/549; FBI file OG 391151

See also: Vernon L. Pedersen, The Communist Party in Maryland, 1919-57

David Davidovich Zimmerman (Давид Давидович Цимерман)

Born 1875, Riga, Russia (present-day Latvia). Latvian. Carpenter. Circa 1904 joined the Latvian Social Democratic Workers’ Party. Migrated to US 1906. Joined the National Lettish Organization of the Socialist Party of America. Married fellow deportee Bertha Zimmerman in Boston 1907. 1908 son Erick born. Circa 1908 moved to Chicago, where involved in the IWW. Circa 1918 moved to Baltimore. September 1919 charter member of the Lettish Federation of the Communist Party of America; member of the party’s Baltimore Central Committee and distributor of its publication The Communist. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 2, 1920. Deported February 1, 1921. Joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union that same year. Lived in Leningrad. Arrested June 1938 for espionage during Stalin’s purges. Executed October 10, 1938.

FBI file OG 46773

See also: Vernon L. Pedersen, The Communist Party in Maryland, 1919-57; https://ru.openlist.wiki/%D0%A6%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BC%D0%B0%D0%BD_%D0%94%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%B4_%D0%94%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%B4%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87_(1875)

Victor Zubkiadich (Виктор Зубкиадич; Jubkiavich)

Born 1885, Vilna, Russia (present-day Vilnius, Lithuania). Laborer. Migrated to US 1911. Circa 1917 joined Russian Branch No. 3 of the Socialist Party of America; 1919 transferred into Russian Branch No. 3 of the Communist Party in Detroit. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 6, 1920, at the House of the Masses. “Voluntary departure” to Russia via Montreal, October 16, 1920.

INS file 54859/982; FBI file OG 8000-391223

Nestor Zubko (Нестор Зубко; aka Walter)

Zubko’s Socialist Party membership card

Born 1895, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. 1918 joined the Russian Branch of the Socialist Party of America in Bridgeport, Connecticut; 1919 joined the Bridgeport branch of the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 12, 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/400

Simeon Zuk (Симеон Цук; Sam; Zuek; Suek)

Born 1885, Grodno region, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913 (via Canada). Wife and children in Russia. Joined the Socialist Party of America in Detroit; 1919 transferred into Branch No. 1 of the Communist Party of America. Arrested February 1920. “Voluntarily departed” October 30, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54859/799

Jonas Zakauski (Zukauskas)

Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Talki Zukauski (Zukauskas)

Housewife. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Salvatore Zumpano

Born 1888, San Nicola dell’Alto, Calabria, Italy. Laborer; teacher; bookseller. Graduated from an industrial school in Cosenza and trained as an electrician. Migrated to US 1914. Settled in Old Forge, Pennsylvania, where worked as a laborer and Italian language teacher. 1914 joined IWW and became organizer for it among local miners. 1916 moved to Youngstown, Ohio, and active in defense campaign for Carlo Tresca during the Mesabi Iron Range Strike; quit the IWW along with Tresca following internal controversy over Tresca’s actions during the strike. Returned to Old Forge and opened a small bookstore in “a shack,” selling both radical and non-radical literature. Arrested June 4, 1917 for anti-conscription activities, and “about one hundred and fifty pounds of anarchistic literature,” as well as an envelope containing a portion of executed IWW member Joe Hill’s ashes, were confiscated by police, who also allegedly stole more than $20 from his store. Sentenced to a year in Lackawanna County Jail for failing to register for the draft. He explained his actions: “I cherish and believe in international brotherhood of the workers–of mankind.” Subsequently indicted under the Espionage Act in the federal IWW trial in Chicago and moved to Cook County Jail, but the indictment against him was dropped after six months because he was no longer a member of the IWW at the time of America’s entrance into it. Released from jail August 15, 1918; immediately arrested by immigration authorities and held for deportation. Deported July 3, 1919. No political activity noted by Italian authorities, who in 1937 removed him from the Italian government’s list of “subversives” after reporting that he “no longer professes subversive ideas” and instead “takes an active part in all patriotic and [Fascist] Party ceremonies.”

INS file 54235/39; FBI file OG 21993; CPC busta 5611

See also: Harrisburg Telegraph (Harrisburg PA), June 9, 1917; Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University

Anton ______

Deported to Lithuania, October 22, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G