Tag Archives: PLM

Faces of the First Red Scare

As part of the ongoing research for my book on the global history of immigrant radicals who were deported during America’s First Red Scare, I have posted brief profiles of 761 (and counting) individual deportees I have identified. This list is a work in progress, and some entries will be updated as I obtain additional sources.

Who is included:

This list includes radicals and suspected radicals who were deported between 1918 (following America’s entrance into the First World War) and 1925, when the last of the foreign-born radicals arrested between 1917 and 1920 were expelled, some after serving prison sentences. It includes both those who were deported by government order and those who were ordered deported but “voluntarily departed” at their own expense with the government’s consent (both categories were included together in US government deportation statistics). It does not include those who fled the country to avoid arrest or deportation. It includes both individuals deported for belonging to legally-defined “anarchistic classes,” and others who were suspected of radicalism but deported on other grounds (most commonly for entering the country without inspection or being retroactively deemed “likely to become a public charge” at the time of their entry).

This is not a complete list. In the fiscal years (June-July) 1918-1926, the United States deported 979 aliens as “anarchists,” and an unknown number of additional radical immigrants under other statutes. The largest single group of deportees, composed of 242 alleged radicals (as well as seven unrelated deportees) departed on the USAT Buford on December 21, 1919. However, it appears that no complete list of Red Scare deportees was produced by either the Bureau of Immigration or the Bureau of Investigation. I have instead had to rely on partial lists and mentions of individual cases included in these organizations’ files, congressional testimony, radical publications, newspaper reports, and other sources.

How to use this site:

Profiles have been posted in small batches. They are organized in alphabetical order by last name, followed by alternate spellings and pseudonyms in parentheses. (The Cyrillic spellings of Russian names are generally my best guess; American sources from the era were wildly inconsistent in their spellings of such names. The same is true of the transliteration of Chinese names in the Roman alphabet.) You can also browse the Index of Names.

Birth years are often approximate, usually having been calculated from an individual’s age at the time of their examination by immigration authorities, and some may therefore be off by a year.

You can search by individuals’ nationalities (country of birth and, in some cases, ethnicity [i.e. Jewish, Lithuanian, etc.]) by using the tags above.

Occupations describe the individuals’ employment in the US, not necessarily the work they engaged in before arrival or after their deportation.

Political affiliations represented include the syndicalist Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), the anarcho-syndicalist Union of Russian Workers of the United States and Canada (URW); the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM); anarchists unaffiliated with larger organizations; the Communist Party of America (CP); the Communist Labor Party (CLP); the Socialist Party of America (SP); the Socialist Labor Party (SLP); and unaffiliated socialists. You can search by political affiliation by using the tags above.

You may also use the “Search” box at the top of the page to look for individual names, locations, etc.

The main sources used for compiling these profiles are case files from the Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), Record Group 85, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC; the Old German Files (OG) and Bureau Section Files (BS) of the Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Record Group 65, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD (as digitized at fold3.com); and (for Italians) the Casellario Politico Centrale (CPC), Archivio Centrale dello Stato, Rome, Italy.

A special thanks to Molly Thacker, who photographed dozens of INS files for me; Malcolm Archibald, who has translated a number of Russian-language sources; D.J. Alperovitz, who has provided photographs of several IWW members; and the dozens of other archivists, translators, activists, and colleagues who have helped me locate, acquire, and read material from across the globe while undertaking this research.

Finally, if you have additional information about any of the deportees, or spot an error, please contact me!

Abate to Aguilera

Erasmo Abate (aka Hugo Roland)

Born 1895, Formia, Italy. Construction worker, house painter. Immigrated to US in 1912. Anarchist; in Philadelphia secretary of anarcho-syndicalist Union of Italian Workers and edited La Comune (1911-1915) and La Conquista (1920-1921). Deported 1922; wife and child remained in US. In Italy, sent by Errico Malatesta to aid antifascist movement in Ancona, where helped lead local section of the armed antifascist organization Arditi del Popolo. Arrested and fled to Paris, where member of the exiled Italian antifascist Comitato di Azione and key figure in the “Garibaldi Affair,” a plot to assassinate Mussolini and invade Italy led by Ricciotti Garibaldi, but Abate withdrew in 1925, shortly before Garibaldi was revealed to by an agent of Mussolini. In 1926 Abate illegally returned to the US under the name Hugo Roland and rejoined his family; in Chicago edited Germinal (1926), then settled in Michigan. Remained an active anarchist in the US until his death in 1977.

INS file 55009/80; CPC busta 1

See also Hugo Rolland Papers, International Institute for Social History

Jacob Abrams (Yankel Abramovsky; Jack Abrams)

Born 1883, Uman, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Bookbinder. Immigrated to US in 1908. Anarchist; union militant; member of New York Jewish anarchist groups Shturem and Frayhayt. Wife Mary Domsky, fellow anarchist and survivor of the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. Arrested with other group members in 1918 for writing and distributing fliers opposing US intervention in Russian Civil War. Deported 1921 after losing landmark Supreme Court free-speech case Abrams v. United States. In Russia, opened a steam laundry (a skill he had learned in US federal prison ) and worked for anarcho-syndicalist publishing house Golos Truda, but quickly became disillusioned and left for Paris with Mary in 1925, then the couple moved to Mexico City in 1926, where they joined the Spanish anarchist exiled group Tierra y Libertad, and also befriended Leon Trotsky. 1939 cofounded Yiddish newspaper Di Shtime in Mexico City. Contracted cancer in 1945 and in 1952 allowed to temporarily enter US for medical treatment under FBI supervision. Died 1953 in Mexico.

INS file 54517/79

See also Richard Polenberg, Fighting Faiths: The Abrams Case, the Supreme Court, and Free Speech; The J. Abrams Book: The Life and Work of an Exceptional Personality, trans. Ruth Murphy, ed. Brian Moen

Mikhail Abrosimov (Михаил Абросимов; Michael Abrossemoff)

Born 1901, Petrograd, Russia. Polish. Seaman, laborer. In Russia, had been a socialist and served four years in prison for “wrecking a house of prostitution.” Immigrated to US 1916. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in New York. Arrested and beaten during November 1919 Palmer Raids. Deported 1919 on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/453

Veniamin Afanasevich (Вениамин Афанасьевич; Benjamin; Afansievich; aka Benjamin Ptashetchnik)

Born 1897, Vilna, Russia (present-day Vilnius, Lithuania). Carpenter. Immigrated to US 1916. Polish. Member of the Union of Russian Workers in New York, as was his brother. Arrested and beaten during November 1919 Palmer Raids. Deported 1919 on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/277

Crescencio Lopez Aguilera

Born 1889, Mexico. Miner. Immigrated to US 1907. Divorced, one daughter. Anarchist, member of Partido Liberal Mexicano. Treasurer of anarchist group “Los Errantes” (affiliated with the Partido Liberal Mexicano) in Morenci, Arizona; corresponded with Maria Magón. Deported 1919. Still contributing funds to anarchist publications in Mexico as of 1929.

INS file 54709/70; FBI file OG 360538

Mansevich to Martinovsky

Nikolai Mansevich (Николай Мансевич)

Political cartoon about Mansevich’s case, 1926

Born 1886, Biaroza, Russia (present-day Belarus). Autoworker. Migrated to US circa 1911. An employee of the Ford Motor Company, with a wife and four American-born daughters in Hamtramck, Michigan. A member of Branch 3 of Union of Russian Workers in Detroit; distributor of URW newspaper Volna. Arrested September, 1921. Despite large-scale defense campaign and national press coverage of his case, deported June 7, 1924 to Poland. Letters to his wife in 1926 “tell of intense suffering…Last winter his feet were frozen in a lumber camp where he found work.” His wife meanwhile was in ill health and dependent on the Department of Welfare. He migrated to Canada circa 1940 and worked as a farmer. Died Windsor, Ontario, 1960.

INS file 55119/18

Agnes Inglis Papers, Joseph A. Labadie Collection, University of Michigan; The New Republic, September 17, 1924; The Windsor Star, March 10, 1960

Philip Marchuk

Deported to Russia February 2, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Vito Mariani (Mariano)

Born 1882, Morra Irpina (present-day Marra de Sanctis), Italy. Migrated to US as a young man. Became prominent anarchist in Lynn, Massachusetts, and then Bridgeport, Connecticut, closely associated with Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva. May 30, 1914 arrested for giving a radical speech in El Paso, Texas during a lecture tour and held for deportation, but then released. Circa 1917-1919 moved to New York, where he became editor of Il Refrattario and coeditor of Il Diritto (along with Raffaele Schiavina), both short-lived successors to Cronaca Sovversiva. Arrested February 1920 under New York’s “criminal anarchy” law. Deported June 29, 1920. In Italy in 1921, sentenced to two years in prison for resisting the draft. Subsequent government reports recorded “good conduct” and no political activity, and he was removed from the list of “subversives” in 1932; however, locally in Morra Irpina he was remembered as an unwavering antifascist and militant who patiently lectured peasants as they exited church and “is now unanimously considered the civil and moral point of reference for an entire generation.” In the first free municipal elections after the fascist period, in 1946, Mariani was elected to the town government and spearheaded the effort to open its first middle school. He died in 1964.

FBI file OG 8000-385978; CPC busta 3061

See also: Un trentennio di attività anarchica (1915-1945); Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University; Francesco de Rogatis, Rocco di Santo, and Francesco Grippo, eds., Morra de Sanctis: Tra cronaca e storia ad un anno del terremoto

Vakula Markovets

“Voluntary departure” to Russia, September 26, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Sam Markowich

Deported to Russia January 22, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Ludwig C.A.K. Martens (Людвиг Карлович Мартенс)

Born 1875, Bachmut, Russia (present-day Ukriane). Engineer; diplomat. German factory owner father. Became friends with Vladimir Lenin and Julius Martov at university and joined their League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class. Arrested 1896 and deported 1899 to Germany, where joined the Social Democratic Party of Germany. 1906 migrated to England; 1916 migrated to the US. Vice-president of an engineering firm in New York. 1917 returned to Russia after February Revolution with Leon Trotsky and others, joined Russian Communist Party. March 1919 returned to US as official representative of the Soviet government, which the US government refused to recognize. Established Russian Soviet Government Bureau in New York (funded in part by diamonds smuggled by Communist curriers), published the magazine Soviet Russia and other radical literature, recruited skilled Russian immigrants to return to Russia, and attempted to negotiate contracts with American businesses. 1920 ordered deported; “voluntary departure” January 22, 1921. In the Soviet Union, became member of the Supreme Soviet of the National Economy, then a head of research and development for diesel engines. Retired in 1941 and died in 1948.

INS file 55079/76 (file missing); FBI file OG 8000-377098

See also: Frederick C. Giffin, “The Martens Mission,” International Social Science Review 73, no. 3/4 (1998); Todd J. Pfannestiel, Rethinking the Red Scare: The Lusk Committee and New York’s Crusade Against Radicalism, 1919-1923; New York Times, October 22, 1948; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_Martens

John Martin

Born 1885, Hørsholm, Denmark. Laborer; union organizer. Migrated to US 1910. Joined the IWW in 1916 in Seattle; became branch secretary in Raymond, Washington, then elected district secretary for IWW’s Lumber Workers’ Industrial Union No. 500; helped lead 1917 general lumber strike in the Northwest. Defendant at federal IWW trial 1917-1918; sentenced to ten years and $30,000 fine. Sentence commuted on condition of deportation; deported December 7, 1922. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/57

See also: Industrial Workers of the World Collection, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University; Stephen M. Kohn, American Political Prisoners: Prosecutions under the Espionage and Sedition Acts

Tomás Martínez (Thomas Martinez)

Born 1893, Mexico. Miner. 1905, a founding member of La Unión Liberal Humanidad in Cananea, which was affiliated with the new Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM) and helped lead the 1906 Cananea miners’ strike. Member of several more PLM-affiliated groups. Migrated to the US circa 1907; active in Morenci, Arizona; helped plan and joined the PLM’s cross-border invasion of Baja California in 1910. Taken prisoner by Carranza’s forces and ordered executed, but escaped. 1914 organizing miners in Cananea; denounced and expelled as a “Huerta supporter,” leading to a strike of 2,500-3,000 miners until he was allowed to return. 1915-1918 active in IWW and PLM activities in Arizona and Los Angeles. Wrote numerous articles for the IWW’s paper El Rebelde (1915-1917). Arrested Miami, Arizona, March 1918; convicted to two years in Leavenworth Penitentiary and a $500 fine for violation of the Espionage Act. Contracted tuberculosis while in prison, and a botched operation resulted in septicemia. Upon his release, detained for deportation but he petitioned to be allowed to leave what he called “the Jail of Free America” to another country at his own expense for fear that he would be executed for his past revolutionary activities if returned to Mexico; his petition was denied and he was deported in 1921; according to one report, “When he was finally shipped across the border he was more dead than alive.” Furthermore, he wrote to a friend in the US, “When I arrived at the border, they left me naked, they burned my clothes and shoes.” He never recovered, and died in Guadalajara, October 23, 1921. Comrades buried him with a headstone reading: ¡Nunca olvidamos! (We Never Forget!).

INS file 54412/47 (file missing)

See also: Florencio Barrera Fuentes, Historia de la Revolución Mexicana: la etapa precursora; http://archivomagon.net/diccionario/m/; Tucson Citizen, April 15, 1914; Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University; Elizabeth Gurley Flynn Papers, Wisconsin Historical Society; Erie Labor Press, December 3, 1921; America: Numero Unico (Boston), January 1922

Ivan Martinovsky (Иван Мартиновский; John Martinowski)

Born 1887, Cherga, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1909. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Rockville, Connecticut, September 1919 and became its secretary. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/260; FBI file OG 253632

Momotuk to Murza

Trofin Momotuk (Трофин Момотук; Mormochuk; Theodore Maumat)

Born 1886, Russia. Steelworker. Migrated to US 1913. Wife in Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Youngstown, Ohio. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/187

Giuseppe Montagni

Born 1890, Riva di Trento (present-day Riva di Garda), Austro-Hungarian Empire (present-day Italy). Electrician. Migrated to US 1911. Lived in Buffalo, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh. Joined the Communist Party of America. Deported June 19, 1920. Apparently did not join Italian Communist Party. Late 1922 illegally emigrated to Hungary (reportedly hoping to reach Russia); caught in Budapest without proper papers and sent to internment camp at Zalaegerszeg for ten months, then expelled back to Italy, June 1924. Moved around Italy looking for steady work for several years, then settled in his hometown as a farmer. Maintained his radical beliefs and Italian government surveillance until 1941.

FBI file OG 204622; CPC busta 3359

Tugardo Montanari (Montenari)

Born 1886, Orciano di Pesaro, Italy. Metalworker. Migrated to US 1903. Iron molder and member of the International Molders Union. Not radical before arrival; became anarchist and distributed Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva around New England by motorcycle. 1913 arrested in Worchester, Massachusetts for “lewd and lascivious cohabitation” with his companion, fellow anarchist Lucia Mancini, and sentenced to six months. Arrested May 17, 1918, in Mansfield, Massachusetts. Deported June 24, 1919. Mancini and their daughter remained in US. 1923 Montanari emigrated to France, where continued to be active in anarchist and antifascist circles. 1977 still living in France and contributing funds to Italian anarchist publication Volontà.

INS file 54379/374; CPC busta 3366

See also: Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America; Volontà, January-February 1977

Ivan Morgolenkow (aka John Novak)

Born 1891, Russia. Longshoreman. Migrated to US 1911. Union of Russian Workers Baltimore. Arrested December 3, 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/622

Grigori Moroz (Григорий Мороз; Gregory; aka Mike Moroz)

Born 1893, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. 1913 migrated to Canada; 1916 migrated to US. April 1919 joined Branch No. 1 of the Union of Russian Workers in Baltimore. Worked for the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Plant; October 1919 a “special officer” of the company reported him to the Department of Justice for wearing a “suspicious black button” bearing the name of the URW newspaper Khleb i Volia. Arrested November 1919. Deported February 1, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/108

Roman Mosichuk (Роман Мосичук; Mosichok; Mosicshok; Mosithuk)

Born 1890, Volyn, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Blacksmith’s helper. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Newark, New Jersey in 1915; became secretary of the URW’s school in Trenton, New Jersey, where he also distributed URW literature. Arrested in during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/220

Pavel Mozuris (Paul; Mozures)

Born 1885, Suwałki, Russia (present-day Poland). Lithuanian. Laborer. Migrated to US 1907. Joined the Communist Party of America in New York in 1919. January 20, 1920 turned himself in to the Department of Justice as a CP member, because he had been blacklisted by employers and wished to return to Russia. After more than six months of detention on Ellis Island, on the night of July 12, 1920 he escaped by leaping from a third-floor window into the water below. Later that year located and arrested in Kalamazoo, Michigan. Deported February 26, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/22; FBI file OG 381458

Joseph Mule

Deported to Yugoslavia, June 19, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Camillo Muñoz (Munos)

Born 1880, Nochistlán, Mexico. Laborer. Migrated to US 1915. Member of anarchist group “Los Errantes” (affiliated with the Partido Liberal Mexicano) in Morenci, Arizona. Arrested September 19, 1919, in Tucson. Wife and three (Mexican-born) children came to Tucson from Morenci “for the purpose of accompanying” him if deported. Deported December 3, 1919. Wife in Arizona. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/70

José Maria Murias

Born 1889, Rosario de Santa Fe, Argentina. Spanish father and Italian mother. Sailor; miner. Migrated to US 1914. Joined the IWW in 1914 in San Francisco and became a delegate and organizer in Arizona. Arrested in Globe, Arizona, September, 1918. Argentina refused to issue passport, claiming he was a Spanish citizen; Spain refused, claiming he was an Argentine citizen. Allowed to “reship as a foreign seaman” to Costa Rica, July 11, 1919. 1920 it was reported that “following his deportation…this alien has made several trips to New York as a seaman, and that he expects to return to the United States some time during the coming summer.” Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54648/32

Vasily Murza (Василий Мурза; Wasily)

Steelworker. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Reid to Rivera

Patrick Reid (aka Larry; Jimmy; Billy; Matt)

Born 1871, Dreary, Ireland. Protestant parents. Laborer. Migrated to US circa 1890s. Itinerant laborer throughout US, Canada, and Mexico. Arrested in Centralia, Washington, November 1919. He was “ashamed to say” that, due to lack of funds, he was not dues paying IWW member, but he believed in its ideology, and stated the only government he supported was that of Soviet Russia. Deported April 2, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/581; FBI file OG 378240

Manuel Rey y García (Manuel Rey; aka Louis G. Raymond)

Born 1888, Castrofoya, Spain. Galician. Sailor; union organizer; house painter. Father killed in the Cuban War of Independence. 1905 migrated to Cuba; 1909 to 1914 worked as sailor throughout Atlantic Ocean; 1914 migrated to US (without inspection; jumped ship). Anarchist. Joined the IWW circa 1914 and became secretary of the IWW’s Marine Transport Workers Industrial Union in Philadelphia; April 1917 moved to Niagara Falls, New York, and elected secretary of the local IWW organization. Arrested three times over the next six months for failure to register for the draft and for speaking against the war. Defendant at mass IWW trial 1917-18; sentenced to twenty years and a $20,000 fine. During his incarceration corresponded with Jewish anarchist Lilly Sarnoff, who became his lifelong companion. Sentence commuted December 1922 on condition of deportation; deported March 22, 1923. Illegally returned; again deported 1926. Returned again under the name “Louis G. Raymond.” Continued to be active in the anarchist movement; lived in the anarchist community of Stelton, New Jersey; coedited the newspaper Freedom (1933-34). Died in New York in 1990 at age 101.

INS file 54297/18; FBI file OG 8000-160053

See also: Industrial Workers of the World Collection, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University; Peter Cole, Wobblies on the Waterfront: Interracial Unionism in Progressive-Era Philadelphia; Bieito Alonso, “Spanish Anarchists and Maritime Workers in the IWW,” in Wobblies of the World: A Global History of the IWW; Bieito Alonso, Anarquistas galegos en América; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America

Federico Ricci (aka D. Federico Ricci)

Born 1887, Cesenatico, Italy. Shoemaker. In Italy was a socialist. Migrated to US 1905; became anarchist circa 1910; returned to Italy 1911; migrated to US agains 1913. Arrested in Haverhill, Massachusetts in January, 1918, for failure to register for the draft; sentenced to a year in prison. Stated, “I do not believe in any form of government, because the people have no liberty.” Deported May 22, 1919. 1920 arrested in Naples for desertion; released on probation. Moved back to Cesenatico, “where he lives a solitary life.” 1925 emigrated to France; returned to Italy 1929. Under surveillance until 1941, but no radical activity noted.

INS files 54379/2 and 54379/3; CPC busta 4302

Daniel Rice (Reisch; Risch)

Born 1885, Tolkova (Grodno), Russia (present-day Belarus?). Laborer. Migrated to US 1909. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in 1919 in Newark. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Stated, “I was so much dissatisfied with the Russian Government as I knew it, that I am since that time reluctant to believe that any government is good…I am not satisfied with the United Sates Gov’t and do not believe it is acting as a free government.” Deported on the Buford. Wife and child in Newark. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/340

Augusto Rigoni (August)

Born 1893, Afiago (Vicenza), Italy. Laborer. Not radical in Italy. Year of migration unknown. In Kensington, Illinois joined the anarchist Circolo Studi Sociali; supported Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva. Deported December 20, 1919. After his return, according to Italian authorities, he “demonstrated sympathy with socialism” but withdrew from political activity and “was not considered a politically dangerous element.” Married, had children, and “devoted himself exclusively to the work of the fields of his property together with his brothers.” 1932 developed “symptoms of mental alienation” and confined to provincial psychiatric hospital in Vicenza, where he died that same year.

CPC busta 4329

See also: Cronaca Sovversiva, July 15, 1916

Thomas Rimmer

Born 1886, England. Sailor; miner. Migrated to Canada 1912; from there migrated to US 1914 (without inspection). Radicalized in US; joined the Socialist Party of America and the Western Federation of Miners; then joined the IWW circa 1914. One of the organizers of the 1917 miners’ strike in Butte, Montana; elected to the strikers’ publicity Committee; spoke at funeral of IWW organizer Frank Little. 1918 became IWW delegate. Arrested May 6, 1918, on police raid of IWW hall in Seattle. While detained in Seattle, befriended fellow deportee Moses Baritz, beginning a lifelong “political and personal friendship.” Deported March 9, 1919, as “likely to become a public charge” at the time of his entry because “a man of the character and disposition he clearly was [sic] would almost certain sometime to come into conflict with the laws of any country like the United States and get into jail.” In Liverpool, joined the Merseyside IWW branch. 1921 joined the small, breakaway Socialist Party of Great Britain, of which Baritz was already a member. That same year he was “believed to be traveling frequently between England and Canada.” After a period of lapsed membership, rejoined the SPGB in 1933. Died 1952.

INS file 54379/417; FBI file

See also: The Butte Miner, July 11 and July 29, 1917; San Francisco Examiner, August 6, 1917; Socialist Review (London), February 1, 1959; http://socialiststandardmyspace.blogspot.com/2014/09/death-of-moses-baritz.html

Louis Ristick (Luis)

Born 1896, Volynia, Russia. Machinist. Migrated to US 1913. Employed at the Singer Sewing Machine Company in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Joined the Union of Russian Workers 1919. Arrested in New York during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/457

Librado Rivera

Born 1864, Rayón, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Teacher; laborer; journalist. 1888 became teacher in Mexico. 1900 cofounded a “liberal” group in San Luis Potosí to combat Catholic influence on government. Arrested 1902 for political activities and imprisoned for a year. 1903 collaborated with Enrique and Ricardo Flores Magón on the paper El hijo del Ahuizote and arrested for “ridiculing public officials.” Migrated to US 1905. That same year cofounded the Partido Liberal Mexicano; around this time became an anarchist. 1906 arrested in St. Louis and US government attempted to illegally extradite him to Mexico, but eventually released. 1907 moved to Los Angeles, where arrested without warrant, along with other PLM leaders, by agents of the Furlong Detective Agency on behalf of the Mexican government; convicted of violating US neutrality laws but then released. 1910 a founding editor of the PLM newspaper Regeneración. 1911 arrested with other PLM leaders, again charged and convicted for violating neutrality laws for organizing and supplying PLM fighters in the Mexican Revolution. 1914 released from McNeil Island Prison. 1918 arrested and convicted for violating the Espionage Act with material published in Regeneración; sentenced to 15 years. 1920 transferred from McNeil Island to Leavenworth Penitentiary. 1923 his sentence was commuted on condition of deportation to Mexico. Offered positions in the government of San Luis Potosí, which he declined. Founded and edited a succession of anarchist newspapers. 1927 arrested and sentenced to 6 months for “insulting the president” and “inciting the public to anarchy.” 1932 died after being hit by a car in Mexico City.

See: Alicia Perez Salazar, Librado Rivera, un soñador en llamas; Ricardo Flores Magón, Dreams of Freedom: A Ricardo Flores Magón Reader; Donald C. Hodges, Mexican Anarchism after the Revolution; Aurora Mónica Alcayaga Sasso, “Librado Rivera y los hermanos rojos en el movimiento social y cultural anarquista en Villa Cecilia y Tampico, Tamaulipas, 1915-1931” (PhD diss., Universidad Iberoamericano); http://www.libradorivera.com/; http://www.antorcha.net/biblioteca_virtual/politica/viva_tierra/libradoindice.html

Veremiuk to Volk

Ivan Veremiuk (Иван Веремюк; Iwan; John; Vermenuk; Veramanuk; Veremink)

Born 1893, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1911. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Maspeth, Long Island circa 1916; became branch secretary, but apparently left the organization circa 1918. Also a member of the independent Brotherhood of Metal Workers. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 5, 1919, at his workplace in New York. Claimed he was “beaten up” and “treated barbarously.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/117

Juan Villanueva

Born 1889, Paso de Sotos (present-day Villa Hidalgo), Mexico. Train brakeman. Migrated repeatedly between Mexico and the US beginning at least as early at 1913. Wife and son in Mexico. A founding member of anarchist group “Los Errantes” (affiliated with the Partido Liberal Mexicano) in 1913 in Morenci, Arizona. Contributed funds to the PLM newspaper Regeneración. Arrested September 19, 1919, in Tucson. Told authorities: “I do not wish to be deported; I have committed no crime. I am obliged to work to support my family.” Deported December 3, 1919. Crossed back into the US at least twice (in October 1926 and June 1928) seemingly without incident. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/70

See also: Regeneración, April 5, 1913; Ancestry.com

Alexander Vinik (Александр Виник; Alex; Alec)

Born 1887, Udel, Russia. Laborer; miner. 1915 attempted to migrate to US but held at Ellis Island and returned to England due to an eye ailment; later that year migrated to Canada; from there migrated to US in 1916. Wife and child in Russia. Miner at the Bertha Coal Company mine near Morgantown, West Virginia. Joined the IWW there in 1919 and distributed IWW literature. Arrested December 1, 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/584; FBI file OG 383880

Demian Vlasov (Демьян Власов; Vlasoff; Wlasof; aka John Vlasoff)

Organizer and “the moving spirit” of the Newark branch of the Union of Russian Workers. 1919 appointed to editorial board of the URW newspaper Rabochy i Krestyanin. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 8, 1919. He was supposed to have been deported on the Buford, but was not due to an error. Deported to Russia, January 22, 1921. No further information found.

FBI file OG 369065

Maysey Voleshynyuk

Born 1880, Russia. Ukrainian. Miner. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and children in Russia. Member of the United Mine Workers. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Fairmont, West Virginia. Arrested December 3, 1919. Although the Immigration Inspector in Charge was “inclined to think that the case made out against the alien is somewhat weak,” he was deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/604

Georgiy Volk (Георгий Волк; George; Wolk; aka Wolf or Wolfe)

Born 1886, Grodno region, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913 (via Canada). Self-admitted anarchist and proponent of armed revolution. Began attending meetings of the Union of Russian Workers in East Youngstown in January 1918, though he claimed to never have officially joined. Fired from the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company “because he got into a fight through upholding the Bolshevik Government of Russia.” 1919 arrested in East Youngstown for stealing “shirts and other wearing apparel” from a store; sentenced to 30 days and a $50 fine for petty larceny. Police discovered “quantities of radical and anarchist literature” while searching his house. Deported February 26, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 335403