Tag Archives: anarchist

Coacci to Dardzinski

Ferruccio Coacci

Born 1892, Ancona, Italy. Shoemaker. Migrated to US 1911. Anarchist militant associated with Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva. Wife and two children in Bridgewater, Massachusetts. Arrested 1918. Subsequently suspected by police (but not most historians) of involvement in the robberies and murder for which Sacco and Vanzetti were arrested. Deported April 18, 1920; joined by family in Italy. According to Eugene Lyons, Coacci’s “yellow-haired wife wept for the vanished glories of life in a New England shoe town,” and “The man’s shelves were lined with brochures on the home manufacture of bombs and he professed himself a terrorist of the Galleani school.” October 1921 migrated to Argentina, where involved in anarchist “expropriations” and bombings, associated with Severino Di Giovanni. Arrested Buenos Aires 1930 with two other Italian anarchists in connection with robbery of a bus company.

INS file 54379/396; FBI file OG 387205; CPC busta 1382

See also: Eugene Lyons, Assignment in Utopia; Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background

Umberto Colarossi

Born 1894, Carpineto, Italy. Bookkeeper. Migrated to US 1913. Became anarchist “After a few months I arrived in this country.” Associated with Luigi Galleani and Cronaca Sovversiva. In Mexico 1917-1919 to avoid US draft. Arrested Chicago, May 1919. Deported July 1920. September 1921, wrote letter to Italian government repenting and renouncing his pas radicalism. 1922 inducted into Italian military. In Italy became manager for the Singer Corporation. 1929 fascist government reported that “he has maintained a sincere attitude of sympathy towards the current regime, also showing loyalty to the current institutions, thus giving evident proof of repentance.”

INS file 54616/214; CPC busta 1400

See also: Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background

Sam Colbus (aka Colbas, Colbun, Kolbun)

Born 1879, Russia. Minder. Migrated to US 1910. Wife and two children in Russia. Joined Union of Russian Workers 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919, in Fairmont, West Virginia. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/592

Amy Colyer (née Withall)

Born 1881, London, England. Housewife. Joined the Independent Labour Party. 1915 married William Thomas Colyer. Migrated to US 1915 with husband. 1916 joined the Socialist Party of America in Boston, 1917 became branch secretary; joined the Communist Party of America in 1919; secretary of Boston CPA branch. Arrested with husband during second Palmer Raids, January 1920; arrested again in 1922 and detained at Deer Island Prison; formed a prisoners’ “soviet.” Told immigration agents, “As a communist I am opposed to all capitalist governments.” When asked “Do you understand the form of government that you are enjoying in the United States?” she replied, “I am not enjoying it, but I think I understand it.” Appealed their case to the US Court of Appeals for the First Circuit but lost; both deported April 11, 1922. Joined the Communist Party of Great Britain and the Labour Party; then became active in the Independent Labour Party again.

INS file 54810/162

See also: https://books.google.com/books?id=jUPJAl4AAYcC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false; Deirdre M. Moloney, National Insecurities: Immigrants and U.S. Deportation Policy since 1882

William Thomas Colyer (aka Tom Colyer)

Born 1883, London, England. Civil servant. Opposed the First World War; joined the Independent Labour Party. Migrated to US 1915 with his new wife, Amy Colyer. 1916 joined the Socialist Party of America in Boston; became a leading figure in the Massachusetts branch of the SPA, which he helped transfer into the Communist Party of America 1919. Wrote for several radical publications, and on the editorial staff of The Communist. Made a declaration of intent to naturalize in 1916, but abandoned plans to become a US citizen “Because of the treatment I have received and because I have discovered that the Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence and the historic speeches of Lincoln are interpreted entirely different by the authorities from any way which I could possibly imagine by reading those documents.” Arrested with Amy during second Palmer Raids, January 1920; arrested again in 1922 and detained at Deer Island Prison; formed a prisoners’ “soviet.” Appealed their case to the US Court of Appeals for the First Circuit but lost; both deported April 11, 1922. Later that year he published a scathing critique of the US titled Americanism: A World Menace. Joined the Communist Party of Great Britain and the Labour Party. 1926 became secretary of the Greater London Left-Wing Movement (an organization created to expand Communist influence within the Labour Party), then secretary of the National Left-Wing Movement, but resigned from the CPGB around this same time and forced to resign from the NLWM after less than a year for resisting CPGB control of the organization. Became chair of the Kent Federation of Labour Parties; ran unsuccessfully for Parliament in 1931 and 1935 as a Labour Party candidate. 1942 resigned from Labour Party and rejoined the Independent Labour Party, for which he eventually served on the National Administrative Council. Died 1956.

INS file 54810/209

See also: https://books.google.com/books?id=jUPJAl4AAYcC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_Colyer; Lawrence Parker, Communists and Labour: The National Left-Wing Movement, 1925-1929

James Cully (Jimmy; Culley)

IWW member; led group of 200 draft resisters in Rockford, Illinois, where all were arrested and 112 convicted. Deported to England sometime before October 1919. Continued as street speaker for the Merseyside IWW branch in Liverpool.

Included on list of deported IWW members in One Big Union Monthly, October 1919

See also Gerald E. Shenk, “Work or Fight!”: Race, Gender, and the Draft in World War One; Socialist Review (London), February 1, 1959

George Cyzyk (Cysyk, Cyzik, Chizhik, aka Paul Gigalko; Paul Zygaloff)

Born 1896, Vilnius, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Member of and lecturer for Union of Russian Workers. Arrested Cleveland, February 1918, then New York during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Anarchist literature, including copies The Anarchist Soviet Bulletin, found in his home. Suspected involvement in a counterfeiting scheme. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/125; FBI file OG 375385

Jan Dalkovksy (Ян Далковский; Dalkowsky)

Born 1896, Plotsk Governate, Russia (present-day Poland). Polish. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Joined Polish Local No. 28 of Socialist Party of America in Erie, Pennsylvania in January 1918; transferred into Communist Party in 1919. Also a member of the IWW. Arrested January 1920. Deported to Poland, February 26, 1921.

INS file 54809/280

Ivan Danilovich (Иван Данилович, John Danilovich)

Born 1895, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1914. Wife in Russia. Member of the Union of Russian Workers in Bridgeport, Connecticut. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown

INS file 54709/390; FBI file OG 388677

John Dardzinski

Born c.1905, Russia. Polish. Migrated to US 1912; shade maker. Member of the Communist Party. Arrested in Hamtramck, Michigan, January 1920. Deported March 18, 1921.

INS file 54859/574

Daskevitch to Diarkovsky

Moron Daskevitch

Deported to Russia February 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

William Daynega (Wasily; Denega)

Born Volodymyr-Volynskyi, Russia (present-day Ukraine), 1893. Migrated to US 1913; tire maker. Joined the Communist Party in Detroit, December 1919. Arrested January 1920; deported to Russia February 26, 1921.

INS file 54859/576

Vincenzo de Lecce (aka Ebreo Errante)

Born 1882, Italy. Laborer. Only two years of formal schooling in Italy, but taught himself to read. Migrated to US 1905. Joined Federazione Socialista Italiana (Italian Socialist Federation) some time after its formation in 1906, and left it in 1911. By 1909 contributing money to Cronaca Sovversiva, and became a founding member of the anarchist Gruppo Autonomo of East Boston (along with Sacco and Vanzetti); distributor of Cronaca Sovversiva. Arrested at home in Athol, Massachusetts. Authorities found “several hundred dollars worth of drills which the alien had stolen form his employers, together with a quantity of dum dum bullets and 38 caliber cartridges,” a copy of Luigi Galleani’s bomb-making manual, La Salute è in voi!, and correspondence with many members of Galleani’s inner circle. Deported with Galleani in June 1919. Not placed under surveillance by Italian authorities; subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/403; FBI file OG 266288

See also: Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background

Andrey Dediushka (Andrew; Andy; Giguska; Diguska)

Born 1899, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and two children in Russia. Joined Union of Russian Workers in 1919. Youngstown, Ohio. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/203

Mikhail Degtyarev (Михаил Дегтярев, Michael Deitktirow; Diaktarow)

Born 1889, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Joined Socialist Party of America in Pittsburgh, then joined Union of Russian Workers branch in Universal, Pennsylvania, in 1917. Acting secretary of his URW branch, and in possession of a large amount of anarchist literature. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Told authorities he wished to return to Soviet Russia because “The work is exceptionally hard here and we are not given the opportunity to learn the English language and customs and therefore I find myself very inconvenient in this country.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/217

Kalistrat Demco (Калистрат Демко; Demes)

Born Brest, Russia (present-day Belarus), 1892. Migrated to US 1914; waiter. Joined the Communist Party in Detroit. Arrested January 1920. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

INS file 54859/560

Ivan Denczyk (John)

Born 1884, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1912 (via Canada). Wife and child in Russia. Member of the Union of Russian Workers in Philadelphia, then in Ansonia, Connecticut. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/325; FBI file OG 8000-383591

Yakim Denisyuk (Яким Денисюк; Yakim Denisuk; Jack Denison)

Born 1896, Russia. Toolmaker; weaver. Wife and three children in Russia. Joined the Chester, Pennsylvania branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1918. Appointed the branch’s delegate to “Soviet of Deputies” in Philadelphia. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Wished to remain in US; said of Russian government, “before it was dominated by the Germans and now it is ruled by the Jews.” Provided information on other members of the URW to authorities in hopes of leniency; nevertheless deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/451

Alexandr Derkach (Александр Деркач; Alexander Derkatch)

Born 1885, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Printer. In Russia, arrested for belonging to the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (unclear if Bolsheviks or Mensheviks); became anarchist in 1911; migrated to Austria where arrested for unspecified reasons; migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers 1915; arrested 1918 for publishing Russian anarchist newspaper Kolokol, edited by Adolf Schnabel. Quit URW in 1918, but still outspoken anarchist in 1919, when arrested in New York. Told authorities “all governments are based on violence, and supported by an institution of slavery and bayonets.” Deported on the Buford.

1920 joined Union of Russian Anarchist Workers Repatriated from America, formed by Hyman Perkus, which critically supported the Bolshevik dictatorship as a temporary necessity.

INS file 54709/674

See also: Victor Serge, Anarchists Never Surrender: Essays, Polemics, and Correspondence on Anarchism, 1908–1938

Nello di Ciuccio (Nalia Desiuccio)

Born 1892, Italy. Migrated to US 1912. Tailor. Anarchist; IWW member. Arrested San Francisco, 1919. Deported May 5, 1920.

In 1941, Italian authorities noted no political activities since his return.

INS file 54379/517; CPC busta 1778

Frank Diarkovsky (Franz Dzerkovskie)

A member of the revolutionary movement in Russia. Migrated to US 1904, then to Canada, 1912, then back to US c.1915. Laborer. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Seattle. When asked his nationality, replied: “I belong to the world. I deny all nationality.” Also declared: “Only ignorant people don’t believe in anarchy…I believe in taking a big cannon and busting up all governments. They are no good.” Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

INS file 54860/406

Elak-Berman to Faggi

David Maksimovich Elak-Berman (David Ilak; David Eelak; aka A. Emelianoff)

Born 1891, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1908 or 1909. Joined Union of Russian Workers branch in McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania; became branch’s treasurer. Deported on the Buford.

Settled in Petrograd, but then fled to Poland. 1923 migrated to Montevideo, Uruguay; joined anarchist Delo Truda Group there and active anarchist until his death in 1941.

INS file 54616/221; FBI file OG 368087

See also: https://www.katesharpleylibrary.net/4f4rz9

Roberto Elia

Born 1871, Catanzaro, Italy. Laborer; printer. A socialist in Italy beginning 1898, for which arrested numerous times. Migrated to US 1906. became “fanatic anarchist and propagandist” in US. New York. Worked as typesetter for Carlo Tresca’s La Plebe in Pittsburgh, then 1910 worked on Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva in Barre, Vermont, before moving to Boston and then New York in 1914. Member of anarchist Gruppo Gaetano Bresci in East Harlem. Published anarchist magazines Domani (1919) and L’Ordine (1919-1920). Arrested February 1920 under suspicion of printing leaflets left at the sites of 1919 anarchist bombings throughout US. Held incommunicado, along with friend and coworker Andrea Salsedo, in twelfth-floor Manhattan offices of Bureau of Investigation, where the pair admitted to printing the leaflets and supplied testimony implicating alleged members of the bomb plot. Salsedo was, according to Elia, beaten while interrogated, and was distressed at informing on his comrades; on night of May 1 Salsedo jumped (or some claimed was thrown) to his death from the window. Elia deported August 1920.

Active in Italian anarchist movement, though this went largely unnoticed by Italian government surveillance. Selected at January 1921 conference to co-edit a proposed new anarchist newspaper, but the project was delayed and Elia died of tuberculosis before the new publication appeared in 1924.

INS file 54861/280 (file missing); CPC busta 1879

See also: Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background; Charles Howard McCormick, Hopeless Cases: The Hunt for the Red Scare Terrorist Bombers; Beverly Gage, The Day Wall Street Exploded: A Story of America in Its First Age of Terror; Maurizio Antonioli et al., Dizionario biografico degli anarchici italiani; Aldo G. Ventrici, Roberto Elia. L’anarchismo antiorganizzatore negli Stati Uniti di primo ‘900; http://www.calabriaonweb.it/index.php/news3/primo-piano/6391-vita-e-morte-di-roberto-elia-l-anarchico-catanzarese-compagno-di-sacco-e-vanzetti

Nikolai Elkevich (Николай Элькевич; Nicholas; Mike)

Elkevich’s Communist Party membership card

Born Vilna, Russia, c. 1891. Polish. Migrated to US 1913. Laborer. Member of Socialist Party, then of Detroit’s Russian Branch No. 4 of the Communist Party. Arrested January 1920. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

INS file 54709/710

Ivan Elko (Evan; Velko)

Born 1895, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Miner. Migrated to US 1914. Worked at Dakota Mines in Fairmont, West Virginia. Joined both the Union of Russian Workers and the United Mine Workers; elected secretary of Farmington, West Virginia URW branch. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Stated, “I don’t want to be deported. I want to remain here. I want to work here and I might stay here throughout my life.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/602

Robert Elstin (aka Robert Kisten)

Elstin’s application and membership card for the Communist Party

Born 1884, Russia. Latvian. Carpenter. Migrated to Canada in 1913 as the “man servant” of Russian Consul General Basek, then to US in 1914. Former member of the Russian branch of the Socialist Party of America, transferred to Baltimore’s Lettish Branch of the Communist Party of America in 1919. Wife, Evelyn, in the US. Arrested in Baltimore during second Palmer Raids, January 2, 1920. Deported February 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54859/535; FBI file OG 388790

Ivan Ermola (John Yarmola, Ivan Yermola, Иван Ермола)

Born 1895, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1913. Joined Newark branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1918. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/350

Adolph Ersson

Born 1890, Karlskrona, Sweden. Sailor; laborer. Migrated to Australia 1905, where involved in union and strike activity. Migrated to US 1912. Joined IWW 1914 in Denver. Survivor of 1916 Everett Massacre, for which he was arrested until charges dropped in 1917. Arrested Seattle, October 1918, and again in Los Angeles May 1919; deported June 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 315813

See also: Industrial Worker, March 3, 1916

Jakim Eschuk (Jack Esczuk; Escuk)

Born c.1891, Volhynia, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Joined Detroit’s Russian Branch No. 3 of the Communist Party. Arrested January 1920; held at Fort Wane. Deported to Russia, March 3, 1921.

INS file 54860/362

Nikita Eskimashko (aka Nikita Ikmasko)

Born 1894, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Carpenter. Migrated to US 1913. Member of Philadelphia branch no. 1 of the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/331

Fred Evanow (Theo; Evanov; Evanof)

Born 1896, Russia. Migrated to US 1913. Plumber. Illiterate. Member of the Communist Party in Detroit. Arrested January 2, 1920. Deported March 18, 1921.

INS file 54859/5

Angelo Faggi

Born 1885, Brozzi, Italy. Laborer; journalist. Anarcho-syndicalist; IWW member. Socialist parents; joined Italian Socialist Party at age 15; active in Genoa’s Chamber of Labor (Camera del Lavoro). Journalist for socialist and syndicalist newspapers. By 1907 he was a revolutionary syndicalist, and left the PSI. 1909 moved to Piacenza, where secretary of the Chamber and Labor. Arrested several times for labor and anti-war activism. 1912 migrated to Lugano, Switzerland to avoid prison; expelled 1914 and migrated to Paris, and 1915 migrated to US. In Barre, Vermont, published local labor paper Lo Scalpellino. Joined IWW as lecturer and in 1916 became editor of IWW newspaper Il Proletario, while drawing closer to the anarchists. Arrested multiple times for IWW agitation; final arrest in Chicago in May 1919; deported August 1919.

In Piacenza again elected secretary of the Chamber and Labor and formed the local branch of the paramilitary anti-fascist organization Arditi del Popolo. 1920 helped lead factory takeovers in Sestri Ponente, and became acting secretary of the anarcho-syndicalist Unione Sindacale Italiana (USI). Arrested 1921 in on suspicion of involvement with bombing of the Teatro Diana, intended to pressure authorities to release Errico Malatesta and other imprisoned anarchists, prompting a general strike of workers in Piacenza. While in prison, elected to parliament as a protest candidate for the Italian Socialist Party (prompting heated debate among anarchist comrades). Released from prison but repeatedly assaulted by fascists; migrated to Nice, France with his family in 1923. Involved in antifascist exile organizations and advocated a Popular Front with Communists. By 1937 he had joined the Partito Socialista Unitario. When WWII broke out, he joined the French military. After the war he returned to Piacenza and participated in socialist politics, and in 1956 elected mayor of Piacenza as a member of the Italian Social Democratic Party; died 1957.

INS file 53895/198; CPC busta 1925

See also: Vincenzo Mantovani, Anarchici alla sbarra: la strage del Diana tra primo dopoguerra e fascismo; Sandro Antonini, Storia della Liguria durante il fascismo; http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/angelo-virgilio-faggi_(Dizionario-Biografico)

Fagotti to Fengol

Alfonso Fagotti

Born 1895, Teramo, Italy. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Anarchist; subscriber to Cronaca Sovversiva. December 1916 arrested in West Rutland, Massachusetts, for stabbing a police officer in the hand during police melee at anarchist anti-preparedness event. (In retaliation a bomb was detonated at the police station, without injury.) Held for deportation upon his release in May 1918; deported June 1919.

INS file 54379/394

See also: Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background

Anton Federako (Tony Federaco)

Born 1891, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. 1919 joined Union of Russian Workers in Harrison, New Jersey. Arrested in Newark during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. When questioned denied URW and claimed he just stopped by its offices for a glass of tea, but an undercover federal informant identified him as a lecturer for the organization. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/339; FBI file OG 379806

Nick Federov

Born 1884, Samara, Russia. Migrated to US 1907. Machinist. Wife and daughter in Milwaukee. Member of Milwaukee’s Russian Branch No. 1 of the Communist Party; previously a member of the Socialist Party. Wife Titena Federov, as well as her mother Olga and stepfather Mike Kruk, all Communist Party members. Arrested January 1920. When asked about the possibility of being deported without his wife, he replied: “I can’t live without my wife; maybe I going to get crazy, or something like that.” Deported March 18, 1921.

INS file 54859/149

Maxim Fedorash (Максим Федораш)

Born Kamianets-Podilskyi, Russia (present-day Ukraine), 1884. Migrated to US 1914. Laborer. In 1915 injured while working on railroad in Canada and hospitalized for two months. Attended Communist-run night school in Detroit and supported Communist ideas, but never joined the party. Arrested January 1920. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

INS file 54859/770

Ivan Fedosky (John Fedosky, Iwan Fesosky; Fidosky)

Born 1889, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1914 and US 1916 (via Canada, without inspection). Member of the Russian branch of the Socialist Party of America in Detroit (not a deportable offense). April 1919 turned into Detroit police by employer, Great Lakes Engineering Co., for “spreading Boslheviki propaganda among the employees of their plants.” Deported on the Buford as “likely to become a public charge” and for entering without inspection. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/170

Kirio Fedyk (Кирио Федык)

Fedyk’s URW membership card

Born 1894, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913 (via Canada). Joined Hartford, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1918. Arrested during first Palmer Raids in November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown

INS file 54709/379; FBI file OG 271860

Ivan Felchuk (Иван Фельчук; John; Filchuk; Wilchuk; Nilchuk)

Born 1893 in Skobelka, Volyn, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Migrated to US 1913. Autoworker. Summer 1919 joined Detroit’s Russian Branch No. 3 of the Communist Party. Deported February 26, 1921.

INS file 54859/9

Emil Feltman (Emile)

Born 1881 or 1882, Berlin, Germany. Miner. Mother died shortly after his birth; migrated with his father to US when just four months old. Father died in mining accident in Butte, Montana, when he was six years old. 1898 joined US Army; fought in Spanish-American War and Philippine-American War; honorably discharged 1900. Joined IWW 1913 and became organizer for it 1918. Married wife, fellow IWW member Fannie Martinez, in Bisbee, Arizona in 1916. February 1919 sent to in Jerome, Arizona, to organize miners, and arrested during strike. Stated his opposition to war and his support for the Bolsheviks; according to arresting police officer “he also said that it didn’t make any difference where he was deported to, whether it was Germany or China, he would continue his present agitation as organizer of the I.W.W.s.” Described as “not anxious to leave here,” and his mental and physical health suffered while detained. Deported May 1920.

Briefly stayed with fellow IWW deportee Karl Voss, then went to work as a coal miner in Westphalia. Migrated to Soviet Russia, where one of the first “Americans” to join Kuzbass Autonomous Industrial Colony in Kuznets, Siberia. No further information found.

INS file 54616/140; FBI file OG 194288

See also: Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University Library; J. P. Morray, Project Kuzbas: American Workers in Siberia (1921-1926)

Kiril Fengol ( or Kirin; Kirin Pinhol)

Fengol’s URW membership card

Born 1896, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Dishwasher. Migrated to US 1912. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Hartford, Connecticut in 1919. Arrested November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/526; see also FBI file OG 213090

Fernández to Foli

Josef Ramón Fernández (José Ramón Fernández; José Fernández; Fernande)

Members of Spanish-speaking Los Corsarios Group, including Fernandez, 1919

Born 1898, Oviedo, Spain. Laborer. Became an anarchist at age sixteen, migrated to Cuba circa 1914. Migrated from Cuba to US 1917. Member of Los Corsarios Group which published anarchist paper El Corsario. One of 14 members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped, but several members, including Fernandez, held for deportation as anarchists. Deported to Spain May 5, 1919. No further information found.

INS file 54616/79

Ramón Fernández (Raymond Fernandez)

Born in Cuba. Anarchist and likely IWW member. Arrested 1918 in Seattle and convicted of Criminal Syndicalism; pardoned by the governor after three months so that he could be deported. Held in Seattle immigration station until March 1920, then transferred to Ellis Island. November 1921 deported to Spain, but refused admission due to his Cuban birth. Returned to Ellis Island, and March 1922 deported to Cuba, but refused admission on the grounds that he forfeited his Cuban citizenship by avoiding military service in WWI. July 22, 1922 allowed to “voluntarily depart” at his own expense to Russia (via Rotterdam). Joined the Kuzbass Autonomous Industrial Colony in Kuznets until its dissolution in 1926, writing occasional reports for the paper Cultura Obrera.

See: Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University Library; Elizabeth Gurley Flynn Papers, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Egor Matveevich Feskov (Грегори Матвеевич Фесков; Egor Feskow; Harry Feskow; Grigory Feskov)

Born Stepok, Russia, 1885. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Joined Hartford, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. 1935, via Russian Consul in New York, employed attorney Aaron Banenson to recover bank savings lost due to deportation, totaling $2,404 ($983.50 plus compound interest); 1943 a judge ruled in Feskov’s favor.

INS files 54709/524 and 56167/137

See also: Hartford Courant, December 23, 1943

William Fields (Field)

Born 1880, London, England. Lumber worker. Migrated to US 1905. Joined IWW 1917. Arrested Seattle, May 1918. Deported February 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/416 (file missing); FBI file OG 194446

Ivan Filisofov (Иван Философов; John Philisoph)

Born 1877, Volynia, Russia (present-day Poland). Laborer. Migrated to Argentina circa 1914; from there migrated to US circa 1915. Wife and three children in Russia. Allegedly a member of the Union of Russian Workers branch in Thomaston, Connecticut; however, he claimed he only belonged to the non-partisan Union of Russian Citizens (an umbrella organization for Russian progressives). Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. A large amount of anarchist, IWW, and Communist literature was confiscated from his room, some of which he claimed belonged to a roommate. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/166; FBI file OG 355772

Olaf Finnestad (Finnstad)

Flier protesting arrests of Finnestad and fellow IWW member Adolph Errson

Born 1894, Stavanger, Norway. Laborer. Migrated to US 1910. Joined IWW in Los Angeles, 1916; 1918 secretary of Minneapolis IWW branch. Arrested Seattle, October 1918. Deported March 1919. In Norway, immediately joined the Norsk Syndikalistik Federation (Norwegian Syndicalist Federation) and the anarchist Norges Ungsocialistiske Forbund (Norwegian Youth’s Socialist League), and lectured “on conditions in the United States.” August 1920 immigrated to Canada. At some point prior to 1951 he illegally returned to the US and gained US citizenship. Died Portland, Oregon, 1974.

INS file 54517/68

See also: The Workers’ World (Kansas City), August 1, 1919; Ancestry.com

Friedrich Fischer (Fred Fischer/Fisher; aka Charles Williams and Charles William Fischer)

Born 1877, Germany. Sailor; lumber worker; laborer. Migrated to US 1896; sailed all over the world from US ports. Joined IWW 1916. Arrested December 1917 as “enemy alien” working on waterfront; released; arrested January 1918, Walla Walla, Washington for IWW membership. Interned as “enemy alien” as Fort Douglas, Utah (even though he declared, “We don’t believe in the German Kaiser ourself [sic]. I have no love for any king or kaiser; makes no difference where he is….I wish the German Kaiser went to hell a long time ago.” “Voluntary departure” June 1919 in exchange for release. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/61

Enrique Flores Magón

Enrique Flores Magón (standing center left, without a had) with family and supporters in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, March 4, 1923, following his deportation

Born Mexico, 1877. Millwright, journalist. Opponent, along with brother Ricard Flores Magón, of Mexican president Porfirio Díaz, leading to arrest in 1903. Both brothers immigrated to the US later that year, founding the anti-Díaz Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM) and its newspaper Regeneración. The Flores Magón borthers, and hence the PLM, became increasingly radical, eventually embracing anarchism and supporting the syndicalist IWW. The brothers were repeatedly arrested up until 1917, when Enrique left the PLM. 1918 Enrique began sentence for “mailing un-mailable matter”; released from Leavenworth 1920. 1923 “voluntary departure” to Mexico. Active in Mexico’s anarchist movement for many years, but became less radical over time. Died 1954.

INS file 54861/116

Ignacz Fogler

Deported May 1920 to Austria. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Virgilio Foli

Born 1886, Fanano, Italy. Miner. Migrated to US 1902. Became anarchist circa 1916. Arrested in Spring Valley, Illinois, December 1920. Deported March 1921. Briefly migrated from Italy to Belgium in 1923 looking for work. In Italy, became farmer. Italian authorities noted no radical activity, an in 19137 removed him from the list of subversives. However, after his death in 1969, his comrades wrote in the anarchist newspaper L’Internazionale that his was “a life lived intensely for the affirmation of anarchist ideas the affirmation of anarchist ideas for which he suffered persecution and exile.”

INS file 54885/19; CPC busta 2101

See also: True Republican (Syncamore, IL), March 30, 1921; Andrea Pirondini, Anarchici a Modena: Dizionario biografico.

Fraser to Furs

Donald McPherson Fraser

Born 1888, Edinburgh, Scotland. Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1908, spent time in US and Mexico before migrated to US (via Canada, without inspection) 1915. Joined IWW 1909; became secretary of Astoria, Washington IWW local. Wrote on his 1917 draft registration card, “Don’t believe [in] militarism.” Arrested February 1919, Portland. Deported March 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/2

See also: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/6482/005243374_01000?pid=71224592

Adolfo Frattesi (Adolph Fratese)

Born 1893, Pergola, Italy. Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Anarchist. Member, Circolo Studi Sociali of Milwaukee. Brother Vincenzo Frattesi, sister Maria Nardini, and brother-in-law Pasquale Nardini also members. Arrested 1917 after Italian anarchist “riot.” Sentenced to 25 years as accessory to attempted murder of police, but sentence reversed by state supreme court. Then arrested for “teaching or advocating anarchy.” Deported July 1920. Italian authorities appear to have not placed him under surveillance. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54235/70

See also: Robert Tanzilo, The Milwaukee Police Station Bomb of 1917; Dean A. Strang, Worse than the Devil: Anarchists, Clarence Darrow, and Justice in a Time of Terror

Giuseppe Frattesi (Joe, Joseph)

Born 1894, Pergola, Italy. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Brother of Adolfo and Vincenzo Frattersi and Maria Nardini. Had a “sweetheart” in France. While living in Racine, Wisconsin, involved in defense campaign for his siblings following 1917 Milwaukee “riot”; radicalized and became anarchist as a result. Moved to Chicago, where arrested May 1919, and again August 1919. Deported December 1919. His trunk containing his possessions was lost by immigration authorities. June 1920 migrated to France, where lived with brother Teodolfo, returned to Italy after a short while. Under Italian government surveillance throughout 1930s; reported to still hold anarchist and antifascist ideas, but not to be politically active.

INS file 54616/182; FBI file OG 8000-177156; CPC busta 2172

Vincenzo Frattesi (Vincent Fratese)

Born 1886, Pergola, Italy. Laborer. Migrated to Agignon, France at unknown date, where fined for assault in 1908 and served 8 days in jail for the same in 1910. Migrated to US 1913. Anarchist. Member, Circolo Studi Sociali of Milwaukee. Brother Adolfo Frattesi, sister Maria Nardini, and brother-in-law Pasquale Nardini also members. Arrested 1917 after Italian anarchist “riot.” Sentenced to 25 years as accessory to attempted murder of police, sentence sustained by state supreme court. In prison, repeatedly cited and punished for infractions, and 1920 declared “insane” and moved to mental hospital. Pardoned 1922 on condition of deportation and deported February 1922. Upon his arrival, institutionalized in Naples as “paranoid”; discharged November 1924. Settled in Fossombrone, where continued to be under surveillance and to hold anarchist ideas. July 1928 recommitted to psychiatric hospital in Pesaro, where diagnosed with “paranoid early dementia.” Still institutionalized as of 1940.

INS file 54235/69; CPC busta 2172

See also: Robert Tanzilo, The Milwaukee Police Station Bomb of 1917; Dean A. Strang, Worse than the Devil: Anarchists, Clarence Darrow, and Justice in a Time of Terror

Giovanni Fruzzetti (Frizzetti, aka Balloni; Gianni Lupo)

Born 1865, Carrara, Italy. Granite cutter; farmer. Migrated to US 1892. Anarchist. Lived in Barre, Vermont (where friend of Luigi Galleani and helped found Cronaca Sovversiva) until 1905, then Quincy, Massachusetts until 1910; when bought a 60-acre farm in Bridgewater, Massachusetts. Wife and ten children in US; also supporting six nieces and nephews since his sister-in-law’s death. Health problems due to appendicitis operation. Arrested May 1918; stated belief “in the overthrow of any government by force.” Also told authorities, “My youngest child is feebleminded. My wife cannot leave that child, and she would not be allowed to land in Italy with that child. Therefore, unless I am permitted to return, my wife and I can never see one another again.” Deported June 1919. In Massa Carrara worked a small plot of land and “maintained good conduct,” according to Italian authorities, who also believed (incorrectly) that he was illiterate, and who in 1943 (when he was 74 years old) removed him from their list of subversives.

INS file 54379/351; CPC busta 2192

Timofey Furs (Thomas)

Furs’ URW membership book

Born 1896, Russia. Machinist. Migrated to US 1913. Member of the Union of Russian Workers branch in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/365; FBI file OG 379709

Galeotti to Gazeyog

Alba Galeotti (born Giuseppina Genisio; Galleoti)

Born 1867, Canischio, Italy. Housewife; laborer. Migrated to US circa 1902. April 1902 married coal miner Killo Gotti in Lafayette, Missouri. She adopted the common anarchist name Alba (“Dawn”), and named her children Idea (i.e. “L’Idea” of anarchism) and Ravachol (after the French anarchist of the same name). By 1908 she was contributing funds and writings to the Italian-American anarchist newspapers Cronaca Sovversiva and La Questione Sociale. Also in contact with anarchists in Italy, including Aldino Felicani (future treasurer of the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee), and raised funs for the antimilitarist anarchist newspaper Rompete le file! (Break Ranks!) in Milan. Separated from Gotti (who died in 1913); in 1909 married anarchist coal miner Guglielmo Galeotti (“William Galleoti”). Lived in various mining towns in Kansas and Illinois. Named their children Ferrer (after martyred Spanish anarchist educator Francisco Ferrer) and Germinal (after Émile Zola’s radical novel about French coal miners, Germinal). Reportedly deported as an anarchist in 1916 but returned illegally to the US. Arrested 1920 with Guglielmo Galeotti; she escaped custody while he was deported. 1921 she collected money for the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee. Arrested 1923 in Schulter, Oklahoma. Ill and fasting when detained, she refused to eat for 33 days and was declared “insane” and force-fed. Deported January 10, 1924. Her youngest two children were left in the care of their sister, Ida (Idea) Gotti, now age 21 and a teacher.

Died 1940 in Turin.

See also: Ancestry.com; Cronaca Sovversiva, May 31, 1913; Financial Report of the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee (1925); Jennifer Guglielmo, Living the Revolution: Italian Women’s Resistance and Radicalism in New York City, 1880-1945; Caroline Waldron Merithew, “Anarchist Motherhood: Toward the Making of a Revolutionary Proletariat in Illinois Coal Towns,” in Women, Gender, and Transnational Lives: Italian Workers of the World; Henryetta Daily Stanard (Henryetta OK), January 1 and 2, 1924; Henryetta Standard (Henryetta OK), January 3 and January 7, 1924

Guglielmo Galeotti (aka William Galleoti)

Born 1871, Santa Sofia, Italy. Miner. Anarchist by late 1880s. Considered by Italian authorities to be “extremely dangerous” and “one of the most actives subversives of S. Sofia, capable of fomenting disorder.” Arrested and imprisoned repeatedly between 1888 and 1902. 1898 fled to Switzerland, but deported in 1901 and arrested on (unfounded) suspicion of being an accomplice to the assassination of King Umberto I. Briefly emigrated to Trieste, but expelled. Migrated to US 1902. Lived in various mining towns in Pennsylvania, Kansas, and Illinois; leading figure in Kansas anarchist Gruppo 11 Novembre. 1909 married fellow anarchist and deportee Alba Genisio, with whom he had two children named Ferrer (after martyred Spanish anarchist educator Francisco Ferrer) and Germinal (after Émile Zola’s radical novel about French coal miners, Germinal). 1911 left with other members of the Gruppo 11 Novembre to join forces of the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano in the Mexican Revolution, but quickly disillusioned with the PLM and returned to US. Deported February 19, 1920.

Under surveillance in Italy, but in 1935 reported to have “left politics” and “oriented himself towards the regime for which he now shows sympathy.”

CPC busta 2236

See also: Ancestry.com; Michele Presutto, La rivoluzione dietro l’angolo: Gli anarchici italiani e la Rivoluzione messicana, 1910-1914; Henryetta Daily Stanard (Henryetta OK), January 1, 1924

Luigi Galleani

Born 1861, Vercelli, Italy. Editor. Became anarchist while studying law at the University of Turin; left before finishing degree. Fled police to France in 1880; migrated to Switzerland where worked for anarchist geographer Élisée Reclus on his La Nouvelle Géographie universelle. Arrested and expelled; returned to France; deported to Italy. 1894 arrested for anarchist activities and served five years in prison and internal exile. While confined to island of Pantelleria met his wife, Maria. Escaped Pantellaria in 1900 and fled to Egypt, then England. Migrated to US in 1901 with an invitation to edit the anarchist newspaper La Questione Sociale in Paterson, New Jersey. Leader of 1902 general strike of silk workers in Paterson, where indicted for inciting riot and fled to Canada, then Barre, Vermont, where founded newspaper Cronaca Sovversiva. Moved paper to Lynn, Massachusetts; Galleani became the leading Italian anarchist proponent of violent acts of insurrection and revolt. Deported June 1919, leaving wife and six children in the US (only his daughter Cossyra would later rejoin him in Italy).

Immediately arrested upon arrival in Italy, but released a day later after maritime workers’ union threatened to strike on his behalf. Relaunched Cronaca Sovversiva in Turin in 1920. Involved in armed resistance movement and evaded warrant for his arrest for two years; turned himself in 1922 and sentenced to 14 months imprisonment for sedition. Maintained contact with comrades in US and fellow deportees, but suffered increasingly from diabetes. 1926 arrested again and sentenced to two years in prison, followed by two years of internal exile. Allowed to return to mainland, but under surveillance until his death in 1931.

INS file 54235/33; CPC busta 2241

See also: Ugo Fedeli, Luigi Galleani: quarant’anni di lotte rivoluzionarie (1891 –1931); Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background; Roberto Gremmo, “La ‘Cronaca Sovversiva’ di Galleani, le ‘bande armate’ di Raffaele Schiavina e la bomba del giovane anarchico Musso,” Storia ribelle 18 (2005): 1657-67; Antonio Senta, Luigi Galleani: The Most Dangerous Anarchist in America

Alexander Gallod (Alex; Golod)

Gallod’s Communist Party membership card

Born 1888, Grodno region, Russia (present-day Belarus). Polish. Migrated to US 1914. Machinist. Wife in Russia. Joined the Socialist Party, then “a very active member of the United Communist Party” in Camden, New Jersey, and Phildelphia. Arrested Philadelphia, January 7, 1920. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

INS file 54811/973

Laureano García

Born Spain. In the United States, became miner. Anarchist and IWW member. Arrested in Jerome, Arizona, February 1919, and deported.

1931 still donating funds to Cultura Proletaria from Spain (see issue of April 18, 1931).

Regelio García (Roglio)

Members of Spanish-speaking Los Corsarios Group, including Garcia, 1919

Born 1894, Quibicano, Cuba. Cigar maker. Migrated to US 1903; became anarchist circa 1917. Member of Los Corsarios Group which published anarchist paper El Corsario. One of 14 members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped, but several members, including García, held for deportation as anarchists. When asked why he had failed to apply for naturalization in the US, he replied, “I do not even believe in my own country.” US-born wife, Blanca Fernandez, and 9-month-old child. Deported April 1919.

INS file 54616/79

Isso Gartner (aka Imre Geery or Geerry)

Born 1895, Kassa, Hungary (present-day Košice, Slovakia). Jewish. Jeweler. Migrated to US 1911. A socialist in Hungary, he joined the Socialist Party of America in Baltimore; did not align with either side in 1919 split between Left and Right. Conscientious objector and opposed WWI draft. Attempted to unionize Baltimore jewelry workers in International Jewelry Workers Union (AFL), then arrested May 1918 for allegedly “stealing a number of gold rings” from a former employer and sentenced to six months imprisonment. Subsequently Interned at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, as an “enemy alien.” Suffered from “tuberculosis of the hip and is on crutches.” Deported May 1920 upon release of internees on basis “That he believes in the overthrow by force or violence of the Government of the United States” (a patently unsubstantiated charge).

INS file 54709/38

See also: Baltimore Sun, May 23, 1918; Jewelers’ Circular-Weekly, July 10, 1918

Jack Gaveel (J. G. Gaveel; aka Jackotonsky, Jacknowsky, Jakov Zukatansky)

Born 1889, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Migrated to England 1905; returned to Netherlands 1910 and migrated to Canada that same year. Joined IWW 1913 in Canada. 1914 secretary of IWW Local no. 339, Edmonton, Canada. Migrated to US 1915. 1917 included in federal indictment of IWW leaders, but dropped before case went to trial. IWW delegate in Los Angeles, where “active in organizing the Austrian and Croatian fishermen.” Arrested April 1921 and sentenced to 1-4 years under California’s criminal syndicalism law. In San Quentin, refused to work in prison jute mill, declaring: “I have never scabbed on my class outside of prison, and I won’t do it inside.” Sent to solitary confinement, sparking sympathy strike of thirteen other imprisoned IWW members. Deported to Canada 1924.

Subsequently deported from Canada to The Netherlands. 1925 in Hamburg, Germany, where became supporter of the Soviet Union and the Red International of Labor Unions (RILU). Living in Amsterdam in 1926. After WWII worked for Stichting Pelita, a foundation dedicated to aiding migrants from the former Dutch East Indies in The Netherlands. In 1951, receiving IWW literature from US and supporting the Dutch anarchist movement. 1960 (at age 71) wrote to the Industrial Worker and recalled he could still sing most of the songs from the union’s Little Red Song Book; also wrote: “I wish I were in America. I’d join you in the fight then.”

FBI file BS 186701-240

See also: Industrial Worker, June 11, 1921 and August 5, 1922; San Francisco Examiner, August 2, 1922; Daily Worker, February 23, 1925; Daily Worker (special magazine supplement), February 28, 1925; http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/rapportencentraleinlichtingendienst/data/IndexResultaten/IndexVensterResultaat?persoon=Gaveel%2C+J.G.; Jack Gaveel Correspondence, Industrial Workers of the World Collection, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University.

Fred Gazeyog (Gazeyek, Gazeycg)

Born 1895, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to the US 1911. Employee at B. F. Goodrich. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Akron in 1916; became secretary of that branch. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/535

Geray to Giusto

Andrey Geray (Andrew)

Born 1879, Mogilev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Miner. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and two children in Russia. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Greensburg, Pennsylvania July 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/477; FBI file OG 388189

Grigory Gerish (Григорий Гериш, Harry Gerrish)

Born 1896, Russia. Student; laborer. Migrated to US 1913 with childhood sweetheart, Tillie Karetsky, who married him after their arrival. Attended University of Pennsylvania for one year before he had to find work for financial reasons. The couple became radicalized and joined first the Socialist Party and then the United Communist Party in Philadelphia. Both deported February 1921. In Russia, Grigory became a member of the Executive Committee of the Communist International. In 1937 accused of holding Trotskyist sympathies, expelled from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, arrested, and shot.

See: Philadelphia Inquirer, February 1, 1921; Fridrikh Igorevich Firsov, Harvey Klehr, and John Earl Haynes, Secret Cables of the Comintern, 1933-1943

Tilly Gerish (née Karetsky or Katetsky; Tillie Gerrish)

Born 1899, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Jewish. Dressmaker, singer. Migrated to US 1913 with childhood sweetheart, Grigory Gerish, who married her in 1918 . Member of the Ladies’ Waistmakers’ Union. The couple became radicalized and joined first the Socialist Party and then the Communist Party in Philadelphia. Tilly a member of the Central Jewish Branch. Arrested January 1920. Both deported February 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54859/126

See also: Philadelphia Inquirer, February 1, 1921

Mikhail Gernet (Михаил Гернет, Michael Gernet, Geronet)

Born 1898, Arkhangelsk, Russia. Lathe operator. Migrated to US 1916 (without inspection). Member Russian Branch no. 3, Socialist Party of America. Detroit. Arrested April 1919 for causing “disturbance” during a talk by Catherina Breshovsky that was critical of the Bolsheviks. When arrested, “The Police beat me up until I was unconscious…I cannot raise my arms, and I can’t eat—I east now a little but with pain.” Deported on the Buford (as “likely to become a public charge” because ” the alien is an agitator and trouble maker and therefore one likely to come in conflict with our laws” and end up in prison!). Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/172

Natale Girolimetti

Born 1899, Ancona, Italy. Anarchist. Year of migration to US unknown. Deported to Italy some time before 1921. An individualist anarchists, described by Italian government as “an individual of impulsive and violent character,” with a “violent, irreducible” opposition to fascism. Badly beaten by Fascists, in 1921 emigrated to France, then Luxembourg, then Germany, then back to France, where active in Italian exile radical groups. Returned to Italy 1926 to seek medical treatment related to head injuries sustain in his earlier beating and immediately arrested for possession of antifascist literature. Released on parole and assaulted by fascists. 1927 arrested while attempted to return to France. 1928 confined to mental institution due to deteriorating mental state (attributed to his head injuries), where died in 1932.

CPC busta 2446

See also: Fabrizio Giulietti, Il movimento anarchico italiano nella lotta contro il fascismo, 1927-1945

Bonaiuto Giusto (Buonianto; Bonaiuti)

Born 1888, Castel di Casio, Italy. Shoemaker; miner. Anarchist. Migrated to US 1909. Member of Circolo dei Studi Sociali, Kensington, Illinois. 1917 migrated to Mexico to avoid registering for the draft; returned to the US ( without inspection) 1918. Arrested May 1918 in raid on the Circolo, subsequently arrested in Chicago “on the grounds that he entered this country without inspection.” Deported December 1919. Involved in anarchist activities back in Castel di Casio. Arrested 1923 for opposing the Fascist government, but acquitted. January 1926 arrested for resisting the draft, and again acquitted. Under government surveillance until at least 1940.

INS file 54616/213; CPC busta 711

Goldman to Grau i Jassans

Emma Goldman

File:Emma Goldman's deportation photo, 1919.jpg

Born 1869, Kovno, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Jewish. Garment worker; nurse; editor. Migrated to US 1885. Became anarchist in US due to Haymarket Affair; soon one of the leading anarchist propagandists in US. Arrested at least thirteen times in US for her activities. Founder and publisher of Mother Earth (1906-1917). Cofounded the Conscription League in 1917, and arrested with Alexander Berkman in June that year under the Espionage Act for interfering in the draft. Sentenced to two years imprisonment and $10,000 fine. After her release, deported on the Buford.

In Russia, she and Berkman collected materials for a Museum of the Revolution. Broke with Bolsheviks after 1921 Kronstadt Rebellion; left Russia December 1921 with Berkman. Lived in Germany, France, England, and Canada, continuing her activism and also campaigning against the Soviet dictatorship. 1934 allowed to return to US for a few months for a lecture tour. 1936 traveled to Barcelona during Spanish Civil War, and traveled Europe on behalf of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT. Died in Toronto February 1940.

INS file 52410/43

See also: Emma Goldman, Living My Life; Emma Goldman, My Disillusionment in Russia; Paul Avrich and Karen Avrich, Sasha and Emma: The Anarchist Odyssey of Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman

Philip Golishko (Felip, Filip)

Born 1894, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1914. Member of both the IWW and Union of Russian Workers. Arrested Seattle, February 1920. Deported January 1921.

FBI file OG 381765

José González 

Deported IWW member. No further information found.

Grigory Varfolomeevich Gorbich (Григорий Варфоломеевич Горбич; Gregory; Gorbitch)

Born 1896, Brest or Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Metalworker. Date of migration to US unknown. Anarchist since 1916 and a member of the Union of Russian Workers.

Deported February 1921. Arrested 1922 “for crossing the border from Poland.” Settled in Petrograd. Arrested again July 1923 and sentenced to two years internal exile away from Russia’s major cities or border areas. Arrested again 1925 and again sentenced to internal exile for three years. No further information found.

See: International Committee for Political Prisoners, Letters from Russian Prisons; G. P. Maximoff, The Guillotine at Work: Twenty Years of Terror in Russia (Data and Documents); http://visz.nlr.ru/person/book/vi/4/130

Nikolay Gorin (Николай Горин; Nick; Nicholai; Nickolai)

Born 1895, Tverskoy, Russia. Migrated to US 1912. Machinist. Migrated to US 1912. In Bridgeport, Connecticut joined the Russian branch of the Socialist Party of America, then joined the local branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1919 and became its secretary. Arrested February, 1920. Deported January 1921.

FBI file OG 381756

Ivan Gornovsky (John; Gornobsky)

Born 1886, Selets, Russia (present-day Belarus). Brother of Vasil Gornovsky. Active in the radical movement in Russia. Migrated to US 1913. Laborer. Wife and child in Russia. Member of the Union of Russian Workers and the IWW. Secretary of Seattle URW Branch. Arrested October 16, 1919 and charged with criminal syndicalism. Arrested again January 1920. Deported to Russia February 1921.

INS file 54860/407

Vasil Gornovsky (Василь Горновский; Vasel; Gornovisky)

Born 1895, Grodno region, Russia (present-day Belarus). Brother of Ivan Gornovsky. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Member of the Union of Russian Workers and the IWW. Arrested Seattle, November 1919. Deported February 1921.

INS file 54860/427; FBI file OG 388242

George Goroshkov (Гарошков or Горошков, Garoshkow, Gorshkov, aka Ivan Balui)

Born 1880, Mogilev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Wife and child in Russia. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Monessen, Pennsylvania, in early 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/214; FBI file OG 383004

Samuel Goz (Самуил Гоз; Samuil; Sam Gordon)

Born 1903, Vilna, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Jewish. Claimed, “I was a member of the Bolshevik Party in Russia and Trotsky read for me the Manifesto and Programs…I wanted to join the [Red] army but they would not take me because I was only fifteen years old.” Migrated to US with mother and younger brother 1918. Laborer. Arrested Buffalo, January 1920, at age seventeen. Declared, “I do believe in assassinating any public official who opposes the will of the working people. In fact, I would kill them myself if I had a chance.” Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

INS file 54859/906

Ivan Gramatsky

Born 1895, Russia. Migrated to US 1914. Joined Communist Party of America December 1919. Arrested Newark January 1920. Deported December 1920.

FBI file OG 384985

Josep Grau i Jassans (José Grau Jassans; Jose Grau; Jessans; Jensans; aka Arnaldo Sopelana/Sopelano, Adolfo Apelle)

Born 1899, Barcelona, Spain. Sailor (oiler and fireman). Anarchist; member of Spanish anarcho-syndicalist CNT. Migrated to US 1917. Immediately joined IWW after arrival and became organizer for it. Member of Los Corsarios Group which published anarchist paper El Corsario, of which Grau i Jassans edited the first three issues before quitted due to disagreements with the group. One of 14 group members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped. Arrested again May 1919 while a delegate to a convention of the IWW’s Marine Transport Workers in Philadelphia. Denied being an anarchist, but admitted IWW membership. Deported December 1919.

In Spain joined the anarcho-syndicalist CNT and became a leader of its transportation workers’ union in Barcelona; involved in relaunched CNT paper Solidaridad Obrera. Joined the pro-Communist minority Comités Sindicalistas Revolucionarios within the CNT, and in this capacity attended the Third Congress of Profintern in Moscow in 1924. When the Second Spanish Republic was declared in 1931, he joined the Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC, or Republican Left of Catalonia), a social-democratic, pro-Catalan independence party, and was appointed the private secretary of ERC leader Lluís Companys i Jover. In July 1931 Grau i Jassans was elected to Spanish parliament as an ERC representative, and in that role focused on defending workers and Catalan autonomy. Re-elected in 1933, but expelled in 1934 for allegedly attempting to discredit opponents within the ERC; in 1936 he was “rehabilitated” within the ERC. During the Spanish Civil War, appointed inspector of the state-run petroleum company and of municipal commissioners. 1939 fled to France, and 1942 migrated to Mexico, where joined by wife and two daughters. Worked as a salesman in Mexico, where died in 1965.

INS file 5461/211; FBI file BS 40-9016-1

See also: Arnaldo Sopelana [Josep Grau i Jassans], Lo que yo he visto en Norte-América; Arnau Gonzàlez i Vilalta, Els diputats catalans a les Corts constituents republicanes, 1931-1933 : nacionalisme, possibilisme i reformisme social; https://memoriaesquerra.cat/biografies/grau-jassans-josep; https://ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josep_Grau_i_Jassans

Graves to Gusko

Thomas Graves

Born Haverigg, England. Miner. Migrated to US 1913. One of the striking miners “deported” from Bisbee, Arizona to the New Mexico desert, July 1917. Joined IWW’s Metal Mine Workers Branch 65, Local No. 800, Bisbee, January 1918; became organizer for IWW and returned to Bisbee to reestablish IWW branch. Arrested May 1918 for “vagrancy.” Arrested 1918 in Globe, Arizona, for violating the Espionage Act. Again arrested Globe in April 1919. Deported June 1919.

In a confiscated letter, Graves wrote to a friend, “I have been trying to figure our this democracy for a long time but the only answer that I can come to is if you don’t do as I tell you, you must go to the can, therefore I don’t want any more of it, and the sooner they send me back to the lands of the Kings the better.” Continued working as a miner in England, then circa 1929 migrated to colonial Rhodesia (present-day Zambia), where he “acquired a reputation as a gun-totting firebrand” and was a founding member and shop steward of a whites-only miners’ union. Migrated back to England in 1939 after “after being sacked for attempting to instigate a wildcat strike, threatening the mine manager and brutally assaulting an African miner (all in the same week).” Died 1966. 

INS file 54616/87

Additional information supplied by Duncan Money.

Pavel Grib (Paul; Gribb; Greb)

Born 1887, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Machinist, laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Wife and two children in Russia. 1919 joined the IWW and the Union of Russian Workers branch in Seattle; became URW branch financial secretary. Arrested February 7, 1920, as lumber camp near Ashford, Washington. Deported to Russia February 1921.

INS file 54860/444; FBI file OG 372555

Seodor Grigoreko or Grigorenko

Born 1895, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Migrated to US 1913. Joined Russian Branch No. 3 of Socialist Party of America in Detroit 1918, which then transferred into the Communist Party of America. Arrested Detroit during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported January 1921.

FBI file OG 385764

Nikolai Grishko (Grishco; Nicholas Hrishco)

Born 1898, Minsk, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Steel worker. Migrated to US 1914. 1918 joined Russian Branch no. 1 of the Socialist Party of America in Baltimore; transferred into Communist Party of America, of which he became recording secretary. Arrested January 1920. Deported February 1, 1921.

INS file 54809/655; FBI files OG 8000-383428 and 377436

Alfred Groener

Born Germany 1898. Laborer. Migrated to US 1914. Arrested Portland, Oregon, January 1918. Had two IWW pamphlets in his possession, but no evidence that he was a member. Interned as an “enemy alien.” “Voluntary departure” in exchange for release, June 1919.

INS file 54379/80

Adolph Gross

Born 1860, Mainz, Germany. Jewish. Farmer; teamster; news vendor. Migrated to US 1882. Wife (Carrie Gross), seven children, two grandchildren in US. Anarchist; family lived at anarchist Home Colony in Washington since 1903. Opened a newsstand in Tacoma, Washington, circa 1918. Arrested late 1919; sentenced to 28 months in McNeil Island federal prison under Espionage Act for selling “seditious” literature (even though the war had already ended). Deported December 1921 (the oldest known Red Scare deportee), without being allowed to contact family or bring any money or belongings.

Settled in Hamburg. His daughter reported in 1922: “it is killing him to live in idleness over there and he says unless he has a few hundred dollars he cannot do anything.” Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/406; FBI file OG 8000-381731

See also: Elizabeth Gurley Papers, Wisconsin Historical Society; The Nation, October 19, 1921

John Grunzweig (Janos)

John Grunzweig

Born 1900, Schöndorf, Austria-Hungary (present-day Frumușeni, Romania). German speaker. Cabinetmaker. Migrated with parents and siblings to US 1920 to join father already there. Joined Communist Party of America; father kicked him out of the house in Tonawanda, New York. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported May 1920.

However, when disembarked in Athens, Greece, arrested and put in jail for two weeks; Romanian consul refused him entry because his place of birth was not part of Romania at that time, and Hungary also denied he was a citizen. Released and worked odd jobs in Greece for three months, then stowed away on a Canadian-bound ship in Greece; jumped ship and traveled from Montreal to Tonawanda, where he lived with his father and was arrested May 1921. March 1922 ordered free on bail due to government’s inability to deport him. Labeled “A Man Without a Country” by the American press. By 1940 was a naturalized citizen. Died Buffalo, New York, 1984.

INS file 54811/755; FBI files OG 388225 and BS 202600-1932

See also: Buffalo Times, December 13, 1922; https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/106691432/person/200183622090/story

Ivan Gushchia (Иван Гущя; John; Gushchla)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Ivan Gushchia (John; Gushchany; Gushia)

Gushchia’s URW membership card

Born 1897, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Joined Bridgeport, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers September 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/380

William Gusko (Jusko)

Born Grodno region, Russia (present-day Belarus), 1894. Migrated to US 1914. Wife in Russia. Punch press operator. Joined the Communist Party in Detroit, December 1919. Arrested January 1920. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

INS file 54859/968