Tag Archives: SP

Faces of the First Red Scare

As part of the ongoing research for my book on the global history of immigrant radicals who were deported during America’s First Red Scare, I have posted brief profiles of 761 (and counting) individual deportees I have identified. This list is a work in progress, and some entries will be updated as I obtain additional sources.

Who is included:

This list includes radicals and suspected radicals who were deported between 1918 (following America’s entrance into the First World War) and 1925, when the last of the foreign-born radicals arrested between 1917 and 1920 were expelled, some after serving prison sentences. It includes both those who were deported by government order and those who were ordered deported but “voluntarily departed” at their own expense with the government’s consent (both categories were included together in US government deportation statistics). It does not include those who fled the country to avoid arrest or deportation. It includes both individuals deported for belonging to legally-defined “anarchistic classes,” and others who were suspected of radicalism but deported on other grounds (most commonly for entering the country without inspection or being retroactively deemed “likely to become a public charge” at the time of their entry).

This is not a complete list. In the fiscal years (June-July) 1918-1926, the United States deported 979 aliens as “anarchists,” and an unknown number of additional radical immigrants under other statutes. The largest single group of deportees, composed of 242 alleged radicals (as well as seven unrelated deportees) departed on the USAT Buford on December 21, 1919. However, it appears that no complete list of Red Scare deportees was produced by either the Bureau of Immigration or the Bureau of Investigation. I have instead had to rely on partial lists and mentions of individual cases included in these organizations’ files, congressional testimony, radical publications, newspaper reports, and other sources.

How to use this site:

Profiles have been posted in small batches. They are organized in alphabetical order by last name, followed by alternate spellings and pseudonyms in parentheses. (The Cyrillic spellings of Russian names are generally my best guess; American sources from the era were wildly inconsistent in their spellings of such names. The same is true of the transliteration of Chinese names in the Roman alphabet.) You can also browse the Index of Names.

Birth years are often approximate, usually having been calculated from an individual’s age at the time of their examination by immigration authorities, and some may therefore be off by a year.

You can search by individuals’ nationalities (country of birth and, in some cases, ethnicity [i.e. Jewish, Lithuanian, etc.]) by using the tags above.

Occupations describe the individuals’ employment in the US, not necessarily the work they engaged in before arrival or after their deportation.

Political affiliations represented include the syndicalist Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), the anarcho-syndicalist Union of Russian Workers of the United States and Canada (URW); the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM); anarchists unaffiliated with larger organizations; the Communist Party of America (CP); the Communist Labor Party (CLP); the Socialist Party of America (SP); the Socialist Labor Party (SLP); and unaffiliated socialists. You can search by political affiliation by using the tags above.

You may also use the “Search” box at the top of the page to look for individual names, locations, etc.

The main sources used for compiling these profiles are case files from the Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), Record Group 85, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC; the Old German Files (OG) and Bureau Section Files (BS) of the Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Record Group 65, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD (as digitized at fold3.com); and (for Italians) the Casellario Politico Centrale (CPC), Archivio Centrale dello Stato, Rome, Italy.

A special thanks to Molly Thacker, who photographed dozens of INS files for me; Malcolm Archibald, who has translated a number of Russian-language sources; D.J. Alperovitz, who has provided photographs of several IWW members; and the dozens of other archivists, translators, activists, and colleagues who have helped me locate, acquire, and read material from across the globe while undertaking this research.

Finally, if you have additional information about any of the deportees, or spot an error, please contact me!

Balick to Baritz

Vasiliy Balik (Василий Балик, Wasily Balick or Bilicki)

Born 1896, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer; migrated to US 1913. Employee of Remington Arms Union Metallic Cartridge Company, Bridgeport, CT. Joined of Union of Russian Workers August 1919; arrested September 1919, Hartford, CT. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/389

Ugo Balzano

Born 1882, Castel di Sangro, Aquila, Italy. Typographer; migrated to US 1903; employed by mainstream Italian-American Cleveland newspaper, La Voce del Popolo Italiano. Anarchist; member Circolo Studi Sociali di Cleveland; distributor of Cronaca Sovversiva; publisher of anarchist paper L’Appello (1916-1917). Deported 1919. Arrested immediately upon return to Italy for avoiding the draft. Died Castel di Sangro, 1926.

INS file 54616/348; CPC busta 298

See also: http://bibliotecaborghi.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Cicolani-La-presenza-anarchica.pdf

Walter Banaczyk

Born 1901, Russia (likely in present-day Poland). Auto worker. Migrated to US with parents 1909; employee at Fischer Body. December 1919 joined Branch 37, Polish Section of the Communist Party of America. Arrested Detroit January 1920. Claimed Polish citizenship, but “voluntarily departed” to Russia 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI files OG 382042 and BS 202600-768-1

Peter P. Banaitis

Born 1899, Lithuania. Miner, laborer, toolmaker. Migrated to US 1911. Member International Union of Tool, Die, and Mold Makers; member Branch 37, Lithuanian Section of the Communist Party of America. Arrested January 1920, Chicago. Deported 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 382041

Daniel Bardaio

Born Russia, year unknown. Member Communist Party of America. Deported February, 1921. No further information.

Included in list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Moses Baritz

Moses Baritz, center

Born 1884, Manchester, England. Musician, journalist. Member Socialist Party of Great Britain; renowned (and feared) agitator and debater, able to quote Marx extemporaneously. He “made more than one journey to America,” and in Canada in 1911 helped found the tiny, “impossibilist” Socialist Party of North America. Migrated to US 1915 to avoid conscription; joined Socialist Party of America, then in 1916 in Detroit cofounded the small and more radical breakaway “Socialist Party of the United States” (which later became the Socialist Educational Society, the Workers’ Socialist Party, and finally the World Socialist Party of the United States). Arrested for anti-war speeches Seattle, 1918. “Voluntary departure” September 1918 to Australia, where debated IWW members, then expelled. Went to New Zealand, from which he was the first person expelled under the Undesirable Immigrants Exclusion Act. From there went to South Africa, then returned to England 1920, where resumed SPGB membership and became music critic for the Manchester Guardian; in 1924 also became “Britain’s first radio disc jockey.” Died 1938.

See: http://socialiststandardmyspace.blogspot.com/2014/09/death-of-moses-baritz.html; https://www.solidarityforeverbook.com/book/solidarityforever.pdf; Ian Angus, Canadian Bolsheviks: The Early Years of the Communist Party of Canada (2004); Karla Doris Rab, Role-Modeling Socialist Behavior: The Life and Letters of Isaac Rab (2010)

Barkovsky to Bendik

Samuel (or Semyon) Barkovsky (Сэмюэл or Семён Барковский, Samuel or Samion Barkowsky)

S. Barkovsky’s IWW membership card

Born 1893, Chernihiv, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Machinist. Migrated to US 1913. Member of the Socialist Party of America, the IWW, and the Ansonia, CT branch of the Union of Russian Workers. Chairman of “Luch,” a URW organization disguised as a mutual aid society, delegate to 1919 URW convention. Arrested in Ansonia June 1919 for “breach of the peace” for agitation in connection with URW-organized strike. Arrested Hartford, CT, November 1919; a trove of anarchist literature found in his home. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/405; FBI file OG 8000-364023

Stanislaw Bartesiewics (aka Stanley Barton, aka Joe Rink, aka Joe Rynkiewich)

Born 1888, Lithuania. Laborer. Killed a woman in Russia (circumstances unclear) and fled to US in 1899; extradited back to Russia that year where convicted and served three years and seven months in prison. Migrated to US again 1915. Member Lithuanian Branch of the Communist Party of America. His own wife, as well as his brother (George) and sister-in-law, all gave sworn depositions against him to the Bureau of Investigation. Arrested Detroit, January 1920. Deported 1921.

FBI file OG 382016

Ivan Baskevich (Иван Баскевич; John; Basskevich)

Deported to Russia February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Aleksandr Ivanovich Batura (Александр Иванович Батура)

Born Russia, year unknown. Anarchist; IWW member. Deported 1924. In Russia, “openly declared that it is only Commissars and not workers that live well here,” and sentenced to Solovetsky prison camp, then internal exile. Wrote to comrades in US circa 1927: “The main thing is that I have no work and it is so hard to get anything. I have been actually starving here, moreover, I am sick.” Received aid from anarchists abroad 1929-1931.

See: Senya Fleshin Papers, International Institute for Social History; G. P. Maximoff, The Guillotine at Work: Twenty Years of Terror in Russia (Data and Documents) (1940)

Morris Becker

Born 1885, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Migrated to US 1906. Married, wife in US. Anarchist; supporter of Alexander Berkman’s The Blast; member of No-Conscription League. One of the first two people arrested under the Selective Service Act of 1917; sentenced to a year and eight months in Atlanta federal penitentiary for interference in the draft, and repeatedly disciplined for “misconduct.” Admitted he was an anarchist and “a man without a country,” “but I am an advocate of peace and not of force.” Deported on the Buford. After a long period of unemployment secured a factory job in Petrograd, but when he complained of “the unbearably putrid air in the shop where he was working, the unnecessary filth and dirt,” he was told he was “a pampered bourgeois” who “pine[d] for the comforts of capitalist America.” No further information.

INS file 54235/32

See also: Emma Goldman, Living My Life

Max Belesky or Belessky

Deported to Russia. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Emelyan Belesta (Емельян Белеста, aka Michael Belesta, Andrew Belesta, Andriev Belesta)

Born Russia, 1886. Wife in Russia. Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1912, then US (without inspection) 1916. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Pittsburgh around 1918; took “more or less of a prominent part in meetings of Russian radicals in the district.” Arrested 1919 in possession of “a considerable amount of extremely radical literature.” On bail, arrested again for writing and distributing handbill calling for a general strike of American workers “to enforce the lifting of the blockade against Russia.” Deported on the Buford. Died of typhus in Ufa.

INS file 54616/134

See also: INS file 54616/89; New-York Tribune, October 4, 1919

Bezil Belousov (Бэзил Белоусов, Basil Belusoff, aka Basil Bibusoff)

Born 1881, Russia. Wife and three children in Russia. Joined Union of Russian Workers in 1919. Arrested Fairmont, West Virginia, November 1919. Claimed to have been drunk when joined URW. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/593

William Bendik (Бендик, Bendick)

Flier in Bendik’s possession when arrested

Born 1894, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Claimed to have joined Russian Branch No. 2 of Socialist Party of America, Cleveland, January 1919, but in possession of Socialist Labor Party literature when arrested June 1919. Membership in neither qualified as grounds for deportation. Instead, deportation based on the alleged fact that, after he participated in 1919 May Day demonstration broken up by police, he reportedly stated, “We only gave them a demonstration of what we will do July 4th; we will be prepared and have ammunition and everything, and we will show them what we will do.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/235; FBI file OG 372982

Beniecewich to Berg

Kazimir Benicewich (or Benicowich)

Born circa 1880, Vilna, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Tailor. Migrated to US circa 1902; opened his own tailor shop in Baltimore 1919. Joined IWW circa 1914, but left circa 1916; joined Baltimore Branch No. 1 of Union of Russian Workers in 1917; active in national URW affairs. Arrested November 1919. Deported 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/419

Tom Benich

Born 1895, Slavonia, Austro-Hungarian Empire (present-day Croatia). Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Member, Socialist Labor Party; 1919 joined South Slavic Branch no. 75, Communist Party of America. Claims he joined CP “in order to get the members to come over to the Socialist Labor Party.” Arrested Youngstown, Ohio 1920. Stated, “I believe that the working men should run this country.” Deported to Yugoslavia, September 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 384859

Philip Berezka (or Beresko)

Born 1896, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913 via Canada. Employed by Pullman Coach Company. Joined Socialist Party in Rockford, Illinois, in 1918; joined Communist Party of America, November, 1919. Arrested Chicago, January 1920, during second Palmer Raids; declared “I do not believe in organized government.” Arrested again while on bail August 1920, with Kondrate Serovatke, while posting pro-Soviet posters on telephone poles. “Voluntary departure” to Russia, October 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54808/7; FBI files OG 811, OG 386686, and BS 202600-152-1

Philip Berezovsky (aka Philip Borodsky)

Deported to Russia 1921. No further information available.

Included on list of deported radicals in FBI file BS 202600-33

Edward Berg

Edward Berg’s IWW credentials

Born 1880, Sweden. Laborer. Migrated to US 1905. Joined IWW 1906; paid organizer and delegate for Lumber Workers Industrial Union no. 500. Arrested Spokane, Washington, April 1918. Deported November 1918. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/240

Chestyakov to Chuprina

S. G. Chestyakov (С. Г. Честяков, Gregory Chestikoff)

Born Russia, year unknown. Member of Union of Russian Workers in Donoroa, Pennsylvania. Reportedly betrayed to police, along with John Sergeyenko, by fellow URW member Stefan Zhuk, who was arrested stealing chickens. Chestyakov and Sergeyenko “beaten half to death” by police. Deported February 26, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 389087

See also: Volna (New York), May 1921 (with thank to Malcolm Archibald)

Andrey Chigraev (Андрей Чиграев, Andy Chigraeff)

Chigraev’s membership cards for the SPA and URW

Born 1891, Russia. Miner, laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Wife in Russia. In Russia had belonged to Greek Orthodox Church. In US, joined Ukrainian Branch of the Socialist Party of America in 1918, then joined Monessen, Pennsylvania branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1919. According to an undercover officer, “the alien always took part in debates and the subjects discussed were generally socialism and anarchism” and admitted he was an anarchist. On strike at mill where employed when arrested. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/478

Leon Chikalyuk (Леон Чикалюк, Leo Chrikaluik, Chikaliuk)

Born 1890, Russia (in present-day Ukraine). Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1914, then US 1915. Wife and son in Russia. Joined Monesson, Pennsylvania branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November, 1919, while on strike at tool mill. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/516

Stepan Chinevich (or Stephen; Hinievich)

Born 1886, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Involved in radical movement in Russia. Migrated to US 1907; migrated between US and Canada for work. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Seattle in 1917; also joined the IWW in Seattle in 1919. Arrested several times for radical activity, beginning 1917. Deported February 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54235/94

Maksim Chineyko (Maxim Chinejko)

Born 1890, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1914. Member Union of Russian Workers branch no. 10, Brooklyn. Arrested at Guggenheim Copper Company, Perth Amboy, New Jersey, during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/117

Lev Ilyich Chizhevsky (Лев Ильич Чижевский, Leo Chijefsky)

Born 1896, Konotop, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Jewish. Laborer. Migrated to US 1917. Member, Buffalo branch of the Union of Russian Workers, for which he was “the librarian distributor of the literature.” Brother of fellow URW member and deportee Stanislav Chizhevsky. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. In Russia, continued education and became engineer at a paper mill; joined Communist Party. Arrested April 1937 on charges of belonging to a “counter-revolutionary organization”; executed September 1938.

INS file 54709/140

See also https://ru.openlist.wiki/%D0%A7%D0%B8%D0%B6%D0%B5%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%9B%D0%B5%D0%B2_%D0%98%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%B8%D1%87_(1896)

Stanislav Chizhevsky (Станислав Чижевский, Stanislaus Chijevsky)

Born 1874, Russia. Jewish. Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Member of the Buffalo branch of the Union of Russian Workers. Brother of fellow URW member and deportee Lev Ilyich Chizhevsky. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/141

Andrey Chuprina (Андрей Чуприна; Andrew; Chaprina; Czupryna)

Born 1881, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer. Migrated to US 1916 (via Canada). Wife and three children in Detroit. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919, on suspicion of belonging to Union of Russian Workers, although may only have attended a few meetings. “Voluntary departure” September 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/551; FBI file OG 385742

See also: United States Congress, Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, Charges of Illegal Practices of the Department of Justice

Dixon to Dyachuk

Samuel H. Dixon

Born 1877, Sunderland, England. Sailor; baker. Migrated to US 1897. Joined IWW circa 1909; IWW delegate and organizer; secretary of Seattle IWW branch. Arrested “at least five or six times in connection with his I.W.W. activities.” As sailor, shipped to India, China, Japan, Singapore, Samoa, and the Philippines. Arrested Seattle, July 1918. Deported June 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/503

Wincenty Dmowski

Member of the Communist Party of America. “Voluntary departure” to Russia, 1920 or 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Peter Dolgay (Dolgag; Dowhay)

Born 1880, Vilnius, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Metal worker. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and three children in Russia. Member of the Union of Russian Workers in Youngstown, Ohio. Arrested August 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/543

Victor Dombrowski (Dombrivski; aka Douglas Dombrowski)

Born 1871, Telsha, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Laborer. Not radical in Russia. Migrated to US 1900. Arrested in Chicago circa 1914 and served 3 years in prison. Joined Socialist Party of America and IWW; left IWW 1918; then joined Communist Party of America in 1919. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920, in Chicago. Deported to Lithuania May 14, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI files OG 385518 and OG 388575

Harry Dorosh (aka Mike Dorash, Mike Smith)

Deported to Russia January 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS folder 54325/36G

Konstantin Demyanovich Draco (Константин Демьянович Драко)

Born 1888, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and son in Russia. Joined New London, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers, 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/373; FBI file OG 388601

Dionisy Drichetz (Dennis Drichitz)

Member of the Communist Party of America in Bayonne, New Jersey. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported to Russia, December 23, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS folder 54325/36G

See also: The Morning Post (Camden, New Jersey), December 23, 1920

Sergey Drigov (сергей дригов; Drigoff)

Financial secretary of the Seattle branch of the Union of Russian Workers. Deported February 1921. No further information found.

FBI file OG 388594

Alexandr Dubarev (Александр Дубарев, Alexander Dubareff)

Deported to Russia February, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS folder 54325/36G

Ivan Dubov (Иван Дубов, John Duboff)

Born 1885, Feodorovka, Russia. Migrated to US 1912. First joined Union of Russian Workers in McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania, circa 1914; then active in branches in New York and then Detroit. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Told immigration agents, “Of course, I am an anarchist…I do not acknowledge any government.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/97; FBI file OG 381656

Petr Dubovik (Петр Дубовик)

Deported to Russia January 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS folder 54325/36G

Ivan Dudinsky (John Dudinsky)

Born 1889, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Date of migration to US unknown. Former member of the Russian branch of the Socialist Party of America, then joined the Communist Party of America. Arrested Newark, New Jersey. Detained for 101 days, while suffering from tuberculosis. Deported December 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54810/346

See also: Investigation of Administration of Louis F. Post, Assistant Secretary of Labor: In the Matter of Deportation of Aliens, Hearings, Sixty-sixth Congress, Second Session; Constantine Maria Panunzio, The Deportation Cases of 1919-1920; Beverly Gage, The Day Wall Street Exploded: A Story of America in Its First Age of Terror

Anton Dudka (Антон Дудка; Antonio; Tony)

Blacksmith. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Serge Dukhane

Deported to Russia, February 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS folder 54325/36G

Paul Dyachuk (aka Pavel Deonesieff)

Deported to Russia, February 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS folder 54325/36G

Fagotti to Fengol

Alfonso Fagotti

Born 1895, Teramo, Italy. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Anarchist; subscriber to Cronaca Sovversiva. December 1916 arrested in West Rutland, Massachusetts, for stabbing a police officer in the hand during police melee at anarchist anti-preparedness event. (In retaliation a bomb was detonated at the police station, without injury.) Held for deportation upon his release in May 1918; deported June 1919.

INS file 54379/394

See also: Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background

Anton Federako (Tony Federaco)

Born 1891, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. 1919 joined Union of Russian Workers in Harrison, New Jersey. Arrested in Newark during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. When questioned denied URW and claimed he just stopped by its offices for a glass of tea, but an undercover federal informant identified him as a lecturer for the organization. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/339; FBI file OG 379806

Maxim Fedorash (Максим Федораш)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Ivan Fedosky (John Fedosky, Iwan Fesosky; Fidosky)

Born 1889, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1914 and US 1916 (via Canada, without inspection). Member of the Russian branch of the Socialist Party of America in Detroit (not a deportable offense). April 1919 turned into Detroit police by employer, Great Lakes Engineering Co., for “spreading Boslheviki propaganda among the employees of their plants.” Deported on the Buford as “likely to become a public charge” and for entering without inspection. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/170

Kirio Fedyk (Кирио Федык)

Fedyk’s URW membership card

Born 1894, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913 (via Canada). Joined Hartford, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1918. Arrested during first Palmer Raids in November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown

INS file 54709/379; FBI file OG 271860

Ivan Felchuk (Иван Фельчук; John; Filchuk; Wilchuk)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Emil Feltman (Emile)

Born 1881 or 1882, Berlin, Germany. Miner. Mother died shortly after his birth; migrated with his father to US when just four months old. Father died in mining accident in Butte, Montana, when he was six years old. 1898 joined US Army; fought in Spanish-American War and Philippine-American War; honorably discharged 1900. Joined IWW 1913 and became organizer for it 1918. Married wife, fellow IWW member Fannie Martinez, in Bisbee, Arizona in 1916. February 1919 sent to in Jerome, Arizona, to organize miners, and arrested during strike. Stated his opposition to war and his support for the Bolsheviks; according to arresting police officer “he also said that it didn’t make any difference where he was deported to, whether it was Germany or China, he would continue his present agitation as organizer of the I.W.W.s.” Described as “not anxious to leave here,” and his mental and physical health suffered while detained. Deported May 1920. Briefly stayed with fellow IWW deportee Karl Voss, then went to work as a coal miner in Westphalia. Migrated to Soviet Russia, where one of the first “Americans” to join Kuzbass Autonomous Industrial Colony in Kuznets, Siberia. No further information found.

INS file 54616/140; FBI file OG 194288

See also: Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University Library; J. P. Morray, Project Kuzbas: American Workers in Siberia (1921-1926)

Kiril Fengol ( or Kirin; Kirin Pinhol)

Fengol’s URW membership card

Born 1896, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Dishwasher. Migrated to US 1912. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Hartford, Connecticut in 1919. Arrested November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/526; see also FBI file OG 213090

Geray to Giusto

Andrey Geray (Andrew)

Born 1879, Mogilev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Miner. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and two children in Russia. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Greensburg, Pennsylvania July 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/477; FBI file OG 388189

Grigory Gerish (Григорий Гериш, Harry Gerrish)

Born 1896, Russia. Student; laborer. Migrated to US 1913 with childhood sweetheart, Tillie Karetsky, who married him after their arrival. Attended University of Pennsylvania for one year before he had to find work for financial reasons. The couple became radicalized and joined first the Socialist Party and then the United Communist Party in Philadelphia. Both deported February 1921. In Russia, Grigory became a member of the Executive Committee of the Communist International. In 1937 accused of holding Trotskyist sympathies, expelled from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, arrested, and shot.

See: Philadelphia Inquirer, February 1, 1921; Fridrikh Igorevich Firsov, Harvey Klehr, and John Earl Haynes, Secret Cables of the Comintern, 1933-1943

Tilly Gerish (née Katetsky; Tillie Gerrish)

Born 1899, Russia. Singer. Migrated to US 1913 with childhood sweetheart, Grigory Gerish, who married her after their arrival. The couple became radicalized and joined first the Socialist Party and then the United Communist Party in Philadelphia. Both deported February 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54859/126

See also: Philadelphia Inquirer, February 1, 1921

Mikhail Gernet (Михаил Гернет, Michael Gernet, Geronet)

Born 1898, Arkhangelsk, Russia. Lathe operator. Migrated to US 1916 (without inspection). Member Russian Branch no. 3, Socialist Party of America. Detroit. Arrested April 1919 for causing “disturbance” during a talk by Catherina Breshovsky that was critical of the Bolsheviks. When arrested, “The Police beat me up until I was unconscious…I cannot raise my arms, and I can’t eat—I east now a little but with pain.” Deported on the Buford (as “likely to become a public charge” because ” the alien is an agitator and trouble maker and therefore one likely to come in conflict with our laws” and end up in prison!). Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/172

Natale Girolimetti

Born 1899, Ancona, Italy. Anarchist. Year of migration to US unknown. Deported to Italy some time before 1921. An individualist anarchists, described by Italian government as “an individual of impulsive and violent character,” with a “violent, irreducible” opposition to fascism. Badly beaten by Fascists, in 1921 emigrated to France, then Luxembourg, then Germany, then back to France, where active in Italian exile radical groups. Returned to Italy 1926 to seek medical treatment related to head injuries sustain in his earlier beating and immediately arrested for possession of antifascist literature. Released on parole and assaulted by fascists. 1927 arrested while attempted to return to France. 1928 confined to mental institution due to deteriorating mental state (attributed to his head injuries), where died in 1932.

CPC busta 2446

See also: Fabrizio Giulietti, Il movimento anarchico italiano nella lotta contro il fascismo, 1927-1945

Bonaiuto Giusto (Buonianto; Bonaiuti)

Born 1888, Castel di Casio, Italy. Shoemaker; miner. Anarchist. Migrated to US 1909. Member of Circolo dei Studi Sociali, Kensington, Illinois. 1917 migrated to Mexico to avoid registering for the draft; returned to the US ( without inspection) 1918. Arrested May 1918 in raid on the Circolo, subsequently arrested in Chicago “on the grounds that he entered this country without inspection.” Deported December 1919. Involved in anarchist activities back in Castel di Casio. Arrested 1923 for opposing the Fascist government, but acquitted. January 1926 arrested for resisting the draft, and again acquitted. Under government surveillance until at least 1940.

INS file 54616/213; CPC busta 711

Jankovich to Justkavich

Jerto Jankovich

Born 1896, Bosnia, Austria-Hungary (present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina). Migrated to US 1913. Joined Socialist Party of America in Pittsburgh, and transferred into Communist Party of America in 1919. Arrested March 1920. Deported to Yugoslavia, June 1920.

FBI file OG 387576

John Janson (Johnson; Jensen; aka Earnest/Ernest Laukivors/Laukivirs/Laukioirs)

Janson’s Socialist Party membership card, under the name Ernest Loukivirs

Born 1886, Libau, Russia (present-day Latvia). Sailor; wrestler; model. Latvian. Migrated to US 1916. Joined Lettish Branch of the Socialist Party of America in Boston in March 1917 (not a deportable offense). 1918 left Boston to make his way to Russia via the West Coast. Arrested Denver for allegedly “advocating anarchy.” Arrested again in Wyoming June 1918. According to immigration authorities, “The alien is highly educated, having written considerable fiction, and is therefore, holding the views that he does, a dangerous person to have in the country.” Hoped to return to Latvia (“Lettland”) to fight for its independence. Deported on the Buford. Appears to be “the Boston deportee” (as he was the only Buford deportee from Boston) mentioned by Alexander Berkman, who Berkman described as a former sailor and former employee of a detective firm who in Russia quickly joined the Cheka.

INS file 54379/534

See also: Alexander Berkman, The Bolshevik Myth (Diary 1920-1922)

George Jerevich

Deported to Yugoslavia, September 1, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Johan Johanson (John Johnson; real name Jonas Back)

Born 1874, Finland. Laborer. Migrated to US 1901. Wife and two children in Finland. Joined IWW circa 1917. Twice confined to an insane asylum in Idaho, in 1915 and 1918. Arrested September 1919 in Spokane, initially under state’s criminal syndicalism law. Deported August 14, 1920. September 1920 reported to have left for Soviet Russia. September 1921 rumored to to be en route to the US. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/81; FBI file BS 186701-200

Ragnar Johanson (Johannson)

Born 1887, Stockholm, Sweden. Painter; union organizer. Joined the syndicalist Young Socialist League circa 1900, also joined the painters union. 1910 participated in the founding congress of the syndicalist Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation (Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden, or SAC), for which he became an organizer and gifted speaker. Migrated to US 1912. Joined IWW and became one of its best-known Swedish organizers. Was aiding IWW organizer Frank Little in Butte copper strike in 1917 where Little was lynched; received identical threats against his own life. Defendant in federal IWW trial in 1917-18, where sentenced to ten years in prison and a $30,000 fine. Sentenced commuted in exchange for deportation; deported January 1, 1923. Immediately resumed activity on behalf of the SAC; became manager of the SAC’s publishing house, Federativs förlag, from 1929 to 1954. 1940 briefly imprisoned for writing a pamphlet condemning the Hitler-Stalin Pact. 1942-1954 served as treasurer of the anarcho-syndicalist International Working Men’s Association. Died 1959.

INS file 54616/58

See also: https://www.sac.se/Om-SAC/Historik/Biografier/Johanson,-Ragnar-1887-1959; Henry Bengston, On the Left in America: Memoirs of the Scandinavian-American Labor Movement

David E. Johnson

Born 1883, Sweden. Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1900; migrated to US (from Canada) 1903; moved back and forth between US and Canada several times. Joined IWW 1916. Arrested March 1918, St. Maries, Idaho. Deported November 4, 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/197

Oscar Johnson (aka Arthur Ludwig Holden)

Born 1893, Gottenburg, Sweden. Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Joined IWW 1916. Survivor of 1916 Everett Massacre, for which he was arrested until charges dropped in 1917. Arrested Seattle, January 17, 1918. Described by immigration officials as “quite intelligent,” and “a very undesirable acquisition to the population of the United States.” Deported November 30, 1918. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/9

Victor Jubkiavich

“Voluntary departure” to Russia, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

John Justkavich (aka Sam Ushkovich)

Member of the Communist Party of America in Bayonne, New Jersey. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported to Russia on December 23, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

See also: The Morning Post (Camden, New Jersey), December 23, 1920

Kabas-Tarasyuk to Karniski

Ivan Kabas-Tarasyuk (Иван Кабас-Тарасюк; John Tarasuk, Tarasyk, Tarasiuk; Vanaya Kabas-Tarasyuk; aka John T. Rasky, John Tarasky)

Born 1893 or 1897, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Ukrainian. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in 1916. Arrested December, 1917 in Akron, Ohio, for attempting to organize a strike of rubber workers; released on bail. Became secretary of Baltimore URW branch. Arrested again March 1919. Deported on the Buford. In Russia, became active in anarchist Nabat Federation in Kharkov; arrested and imprisoned November 1920. Arrested again October 1921 and sentenced to 2 years for anarchist activities; transferred to Ryazan labor camp. Escaped via the Black Sea (possibly to Crimea), but returned to Russia 1922. Arrested 1925 for organizing an illegal anarchist group and sent to internal exile in Arkhangelsk. 1926 exiled to Petropavlovsk for 3 years for corresponding with anarchists abroad. 1929 exiled to Tashkent for 3 years.

INS file 54235/157

See also: G. P. Maximoff, The Guillotine at Work: Twenty Years of Terror in Russia (Data and Documents); Boris Yelensky, In sotsialn shturem: zikhroynes fun der rusisher revolutsie; http://lists.memo.ru/d14/f460.htm; https://ru.openlist.wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B0%D0%B1%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%8C-%D0%A2%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%8E%D0%BA_%D0%98%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD_%D0%92%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%B8%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87_(1893)

Luka Kachanov (Лука Качанов, Katchanov, Kachanow, Katchanos)

Born 1899, Gukovo, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1917 (jumped ship). Joined Bristol, Connecticut branch of the Socialist Party of America; joined Union of Russian Workers in Hartford, Connecticut. Arrested December 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/614

Samuel Kadatsky or Kodatsky

Member of the Communist Party of America. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported to Russia December 23, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

See also: Butte Daily Bulletin, December 29, 1920

Paul Kalach

Member of the Communist Party of America in Detroit. Deported to Russia January 6, 1921. No further information found.

FBI file OG 388114; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Josef Kalenezcicz (Kalenczicz)

Upholsterer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Ivan Kalenov (Иван Каленов, John Kaleanoff, John Chaljin)

Born 1897, Kubasovo, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. 1917 joined the Union of Russian Workers, for which he was a “volunteer organizer” and frequent chairman of, and delegate to, organizational meetings. Member of the Workers’ Defense League. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/231

George Kaltejika

Born 1890, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Wife in Russia. Member of the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919, in Youngstown, Ohio. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/199

Stepan Kaminsky (Степан Каминский, Steve Kaminsky)

Kaminsky’s URW membership card

Born 1896, Podolia, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Machinist. Migrated to US 1914. Joined the Elizabeth, New Jersey branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1919; taught arithmetic classes for URW; also joined the IWW October 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/158

Ivan Kamisoruk (John; Komisaruk)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Samuel Kanovich or Kanonovich (Сэмюэл Канович or Канонович, Kanowich)

Born 1891, Vilna, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Migrated to US 1911. Member and secretary of the Perth Amboy, New Jersey branch of the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested New York, December 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/649

John Kanter

Deported to Hungary, May 8, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Gust Karniski (Густ Карниски)

Born 1886, Vilna, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Polish. Laborer. Migrated to US 1906. Married and had child in Chicago. Joined Socialist Party of America; likely later transferred to Communist Party (though he denied this). Arrested April 1921 by “two citizens” for distributing “anarchistic literature” (May Day circulars published by the Communist Party of America). “Voluntary departure” May 4, 1923. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 55009/73