Tag Archives: German

Faces of the First Red Scare

As part of the ongoing research for my book on the global history of immigrant radicals who were deported during America’s First Red Scare, I have posted brief profiles of 835 (and counting) individual deportees I have identified. This list is a work in progress, and entries are being added and updated as I obtain additional information.

Who is included:

This list includes radicals and suspected radicals who were deported between 19187(following America’s entrance into the First World War) and 1925, when the last of the foreign-born radicals arrested between 1917 and 1920 were expelled, some after serving prison sentences or being interned as “enemy aliens.” It includes both those who were deported by government order and those who were ordered deported but “voluntarily departed” at their own expense with the government’s consent (both categories were included in US government deportation statistics). It does not include those who fled the country to avoid arrest or deportation. It includes both individuals deported for belonging to legally-defined “anarchistic classes,” and others who were suspected of radicalism but deported on other grounds (most commonly for entering the country without inspection or being retroactively deemed “likely to become a public charge” at the time of their entry).

This is not a complete list. In the fiscal years (June-July) 1918-1926, the United States deported 979 aliens as “anarchists,” and an unknown number of additional radical immigrants under other statutes. The largest single group of deportees, composed of 242 alleged radicals (as well as seven unrelated deportees) departed on the USAT Buford on December 21, 1919. However, it appears that no complete list of Red Scare deportees was produced by either the Bureau of Immigration or the Bureau of Investigation. I have instead had to rely on partial lists and mentions of individual cases included in these organizations’ files, congressional testimony, radical publications, newspaper reports, and other sources.

How to use this site:

Profiles have been posted in small batches. They are organized in alphabetical order by last name, followed by alternate spellings and pseudonyms in parentheses. (The Cyrillic spellings of Russian names are generally my best guess; American sources from the era were wildly inconsistent in their spellings of such names. The same is true of the transliteration of Chinese names in the Roman alphabet.) You can also browse the Index of Names.

Birth years are often approximate, usually having been calculated from an individual’s age at the time of their examination by immigration authorities, and some may therefore be off by a year.

You can search by individuals’ nationalities (country of birth and, in some cases, ethnicity [i.e. Jewish, Lithuanian, etc.]) by using the tags above.

Occupations describe the individuals’ employment in the US, not necessarily the work they engaged in before arrival or after their deportation.

Political affiliations represented include the syndicalist Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), the anarcho-syndicalist Union of Russian Workers of the United States and Canada (URW); the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM); anarchists unaffiliated with larger organizations; the Communist Party of America (CP); the Communist Labor Party (CLP); the Socialist Party of America (SP); the Socialist Labor Party (SLP); and unaffiliated socialists. You can search by political affiliation by using the tags above.

You may also use the “Search” box at the top of the page to look for individual names, locations, etc.

The main sources used for compiling these profiles are case files from the Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), Record Group 85, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC; the Old German Files (OG) and Bureau Section Files (BS) of the Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Record Group 65, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD (as digitized at fold3.com); and (for Italians) the Casellario Politico Centrale (CPC), Archivio Centrale dello Stato, Rome, Italy.

A special thanks to Molly Thacker, Brooke Thompson, and Nargis Azaryun, who photographed hundreds of INS files for me; Malcolm Archibald, who has translated a number of Russian-language sources; D.J. Alperovitz, who has provided sources on IWW members; and the dozens of other archivists, translators, activists, and colleagues who have helped me locate, acquire, and read material from across the globe while undertaking this research.

Finally, if you have additional information about any of the deportees, or spot an error, please contact me!

Ahlteen to Anderson

Carl Ahlteen (Carl Althén, aka Carl Johansson)

Born 1888, Sweden. Laborer. Migrated to US 1911. IWW member, began editing Swedish IWW paper Allarm 1915. Arrested Minneapolis 1917 and defendant in federal IWW trial; in 1918 sentenced to twenty years in prison and fined $20,000. 1923 released from Leavenworth on condition of deportation. 1924 spoke at Stockholm memorial meeting for Joe Hill, whom he had known in the US. Son Carl Y. Ahlteen born that same year. Withdrew from labor activism and opened a homeopathy practice in Stockholm. In 1931, sentenced to 75 days imprisonment and 3 kroner fine for medical malpractice after a patient died under his care, and subsequently moved his family to Colombia and the Panama Canal Zone, where he continued his homeopathic practice and died in 1953. In 1957 his son, a licensed chiropractor, became a naturalized citizen of the US.

INS file 54235/62 (file missing); FBI Miscellaneous Files, file 13031

Clement Alexanderovitch

Born 1893, Vilna, Russia (present-day Vilnius, Lithuania). Laborer, steelworker; migrated to US 1914 and settled in Pittsburgh, where joined Communist Party of America in 1919 shortly after its founding. Arrested November 1919; deported 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54860/337; FBI file OG 382279

August Allman (Allmann)

Born 1870, Obereisenbach, Germany. Agricultural worker; migrated to US 1887. IWW member since at least 1917; arrested 1918 in Walla Walla, Washington. Like all IWW members arrested in Washington, charged with promoting illegal destruction of property and as “likely to become a public charge”–despite $528 in savings. Due to German nationality, interned as an “enemy alien” at Ford Douglas, Utah. Deported 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/36

Lars Anderson (Andersson)

IWW stickers in Anderson’s possession

Born 1881, Sweden. Laborer, immigrated without inspection to US via Canada 1904; crossed between US and Canada several times for work. Joined IWW 1916. Arrested Spokane, WA, 1918; in possession of a number of IWW stickers (or “silent agitators”); deported November 4, 1918. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/241

Peter Anderson (Andersson; aka Peter Martel)

Born 1885, Sweden. Laborer; immigrated to Canada 1908 and US 1910. Joined IWW 1917 in Montana; later member of Rockford, IL IWW’s Literature Committee; arrested 1918 for distributing IWW literature; deported 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/532; FBI file OG 8000-212463

Henning Anderson (Andersson)

Henning Anderson’s IWW delegate credentials

Born 1884, Sweden. Sailor, laborer; immigrated to US 1908, worked between US and Canada until 1915. Joined IWW 1912; union organizer and delegate for Lumber Workers Industrial Union. Arrested Spokane, WA, March 1918; deported November 4, 1918. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/196

Arndt to Bagatchuk

Fred Arndt

Born Germany, year unknown. Construction worker; year of migration unknown. IWW organizer and delegate for Local No. 573 of Construction Workers’ Industrial Union, Seattle. Refused to register for the draft. Arrested during raid on Seattle IWW in February 1919; charged with “criminal anarchy.” Refused to answer questions. Interned at Fort Douglas, Utah as “enemy alien”; released on condition of “voluntary repatriation” and departed June 1919.

INS file 54616/32, FBI file OG 347754

Charles Ashleigh

Born 1888 or 1889, London, England. Clerk, laborer, union organizer, journalist. Middle-class upbringing; joined Independent Labour Party age 15, then Fabian Society and Social Democratic Federation; became a secretary for the Fabian Society 1908 and active in socialist Clarion Scouts movement. 1908-9 sent by ILP to agitate among coal miners in South Wales. 1909 migrated Buenos Aires for clerk position with Central Argentine Railroad; established Socialist Club and wrote for Buenos Aires Herald. Hiked from Argentina to Chile and Peru, then 1912 sailed as crew member from Peru to Portland where jumped ship (with collusion of captain) and regularized his status by crossing into Canada and back. Immediately employed as a paid speaker for Socialist Party of America, but soon left it for IWW, for which became a paid organizer. Traveled as migrant laborer, or “hobo,” throughout US and wrote poetry on behalf of IWW; involved in Rangel-Cline and Everett defense campaigns. Openly queer, he had a romantic relationship with African American radical poet Claude McKay. Arrested 1917 and defendant at federal IWW trial; sentenced to 10 years and $30,000 fine. Joined Communist Party in prison; 1921 sentence commuted on condition of “voluntary departure” in early 1922.

In London transferred to Communist Party of Great Britain and on staff of Sunday Worker and Daily Worker, as well as TASS. September 1922 traveled to India to deliver invitations to Fourth Congress of the Comintern; detained and expelled by British authorities but managed to complete his mission. November 1922 in Moscow (with McKay) where worked as translator for Fourth Comintern Congress, then asked to start an “American information section in the RILU,” which transferred to Berlin 1923. Soon arrested in Berlin and expelled. 1930 published semi-autobiographical novel about IWW, The Rambling Kid. 1931 sent to Moscow to write for The Moscow News/Moscow Daily News; 1934 denounced by roommate as homosexual and expelled from USSR. Remained member of CPGB until his death in 1974, but on the margins of local party activity.

INS file 54235/39-A

See also: Steve Kellerman, “Introduction,” Charles Ashleigh, The Rambling Kid (2004); Kevin Morgan, Gidon Cohen, and Andrew Flinn, Communists and British Society, 1920-1991 (2007); Lisa A. Kirschenbaum, International Communism and the Spanish Civil War: Solidarity and Suspicion (2015)

Joseph Kyauskas Aukstuolis

Born Bartninkai, Russia (present-day Lithuania), c.1896. Lithuanian. Migrated to US 1913. Deliveryman. Member of the Lithuanian Federation of the Socialist Party of America from December 1913 to September 1919, and secretary of its Cleveland branch for seven months. Claimed Russian citizenship, but deportation warrant issued for Lithuania. Deported February 26, 1921.

INS file 54860/795

Aurelio Vincente Azuara (Vicente Azuara)

Born Spain, 1884. Laborer, miner, editor. Migrated to Mexico 1907, then to US 1912. Joined IWW 1913, became unofficial organizer for it. In Los Angeles, edited unofficial Spanish-language IWW paper El Rebelde (1916-17). Arrested Los Angeles September 1917; defendant at federal IWW trial; sentenced to 20 years and $10,000 fine. Sentence commuted on condition of deportation to Spain 1923.

INS file 54616/48

See also David Struthers, The World in a City: Multiethnic Radicalism in Early Twentieth-Century Los Angeles (2019)

Alfredo Bagaglino

Born 1868, Turin, Italy. Orphaned. Miner. Anarchist. 1904 expelled from France (reason unclear). Migrated to US 1907; miner in Spring Valley, Illinois, where lived with wife Domenica Cariglio and their adopted son. Supporter of Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva, Umanità Nova (Milan), and Alleanza Libertaria (Rome), and active in mining strikes. According to Chicago Immigration Inspector George E. Schubert, Bagaglino “is the actual leader and the most outspoken” of the Spring Valley anarchists, and “a forcible speaker and has command of the language and the high sounding phrases used by the present radical demagogues.” Deported March 1921; wife planned to sell home and join him in Italy.

Maintained correspondence with Italian anarchists in US; 1926 arrested by fascist authorities and sentenced to several years “mandato al Confino” (confinement to a prison colony). Died Turin 1936.

INS file 54885/18; CPC busta 239

See also: Un trentennio di attività anarchica (1915-1945) (1953)

Simon Bagatchuk (aka Sam Bush)

Born 1888, Podolsk, Russia. Laborer; migrated to US 1913 (via Canada). April 1919 joined the Seattle branch of Union of Russian Workers. Arrested Seattle, January 17, 1919, then again November 17, 1919. Deported February 1921.

INS file 54860/453; FBI file OG 388850

Bukhanov to Butskevich

Timofey Pavlovich Bukhanov (Тимофей Павлович Буханов, Thomas P. Bukhanov, Buchanov or Bukanoff, aka “Tommy the Kid”)

Born 1902, Volyn, Russia (present-day Ukraine). In 1909 he and his sister joined their mother, Alexandra Nikiforovna Bukhanova, in US. Graduated high school in Manhattan in 1918; laborer. Nephew of Union of Russian Workers activist (and fellow deportee) Peter Bianki. Secretary of the Greenpoint, Brooklyn branch of the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919, and again December 1919. Deported on the Buford; youngest deportee aboard (just seventeen years old). On voyage contracted a fever that resulted in temporary deafness. 1920 joined Union of Russian Anarchist Workers Repatriated from America, formed by Hyman Perkus, which critically supported the Bolshevik dictatorship as a temporary necessity. Arrested 1923 during a crackdown on anarchists. Married 1930s. 1937 graduated from Leningrad Industrial Institute with a degree in metallurgy. Assigned to a factory in Voronezh, where joined by mother, wife, and children. Arrested July 1938 and sentenced to five years in a forced labor camp, where he died November 1942.

INS file 54709/647; FBI file OG 382170

See also: Alexander Berkman, “The Log of the Transport Buford,” Liberator, April 1920; Victor Serge, Anarchists Never Surrender: Essays, Polemics, and Correspondence on Anarchism, 1908–1938; http://visz.nlr.ru/person/show/264430; http://visz.nlr.ru/person/book/t12/0/350

Alexander Bukhovetsky (Александра Буховецкого, Alexander Bukovetsky, aka Felix/Feliks Konosevich/Konossevich, Феликс Коносевич)

Born 1886, Ekaterinoslav, Russia (present-day Dnipro, Ukraine). etalworker. Joined Socialist-Revolutionary Party as a youth; involved in 1905 revolution. Married (wife named Frances [Frantsyska?]) with daughter. Migrated with family to Canada 1908, where son born. Family lived and moved between US and Canada repeatedly. Became anarchist in Ontario. Arrested March 1918 after giving radical speech in Timmins, Ontario, but charges dropped. 1919 migrated to US with family. Machinist at Ford Motor Company. Member of Union of Russian Workers in Detroit (in interrogation denied membership, but admitted to organizing URW branches in Jackson and Kalamazoo, Michigan, and lecturing for other branches). Arrested Detroit. During his detainment, Frances diagnosed with tuberculosis and family “Was dependent upon the charity of friends for support.” At family’s request, deported February 26, 1921 with wife and two children, William and Violet/Valentina (as immigrants who entered the US illegally from Canada and were “likely to become a public charge”). Upon arrival in Moscow with his family, arrested and imprisoned as a supporter of Nestor Makhno; released 1921. Frances, with the aid of Emma Goldman and others, obtained permission for the family to emigrate to Germany “[a]fter beating on many doors for six months”; they subsequently migrated to Canada again and settled in Windsor, and remained active in the Russia-speaking anarchist movement. Frances died 1935; Alexander (under the name “Felix Konosevich”) died 1954.

INS file 54709/467

See also: Suzanne Elizabeth Orr, “Deporting the Red Menace: Russian Immigrants, Progressive Reformers, and the First Red Scare in Chicago, 1917-1920” (PhD diss., University of Notre Dame, 2010); National Popular Government League, To the American People: Report Upon the Illegal Practices of the United States Department of Justice; Vadim Kukushkin, From Peasants to Labourers: Ukrainian and Belarusan Immigration from the Russian Empire to Canada; Emma Goldman, Living My Life; http://monde-nouveau.net/IMG/pdf/Repression_de_l_anarchisme_en_Russie_mis_en_page.pdf; Delo Truda-Probuzhdenie, January-April 1954 (with thanks to Malcolm Archibald for finding and translating this source)

Mikhail Bushanowits (Michael)

Deported to Russia, January 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Ivan J. Busija (aka John J. Busija)

Busija’s Communist Party membership card

Born 1888, Austria-Hungary (in present-day Croatia); Italian speaker. Migrated to US 1908. Machinist at Westinghouse. Joined East Pittsburgh’s South Slavic Branch No. 5 of the Communist Party of America in October 1919. Arrested Decembrer 27, 1919, January 1920. Deported to Yugoslavia via Greece June 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54908/279; FBI file OG 387246

Paul Bussert

Born 1885, Germany. Sailor; laborer. Migrated to US 1906. Joined IWW 1916. Arrested Walla Walla, Washington; trove of IWW literature found in his room. Deemed “above the average in intelligence”; interned as an “enemy alien” at Fort Douglas, Utah. “Voluntary departure” September 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/52

William Butrimuk (aka Basil Warseleideuk, aka William Novick)

Born 1894, Russia. Autoworker. Migrated to US 1913. Member, Communist Party of America in Detroit. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. “Voluntary departure” via Canada, October 1920.

FBI file BS 202600-1379-1

Mikhail Demyanovich Butskevich (Михаил Демьянович Буцкевич, Michael Deminavich Butzkevich)

Butskevich’s URW membership card

Born 1893, Russia. Migrated to US 1913. Joined Bridgeport, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/382

Fagotti to Fengol

Alfonso Fagotti

Born 1894, Teramo, Italy. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Anarchist; subscriber to Cronaca Sovversiva. December 1916 arrested in West Rutland, Massachusetts, for stabbing a police officer in the hand during police melee at anarchist anti-preparedness event. (In retaliation a bomb was detonated at the police station, without injury.) Held for deportation upon his release in May 1918; deported June 1919.

Arrested upon his return to Italy for “desertion” during the war. Remained under state surveillance, which reported “good political conduct” from the time of his arrival through 1941.

INS file 54379/394; CPC busta 1928

See also: Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background

Anton Federako (Tony Federaco)

Born 1891, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. 1919 joined Union of Russian Workers in Harrison, New Jersey. Arrested in Newark during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. When questioned denied URW and claimed he just stopped by its offices for a glass of tea, but an undercover federal informant identified him as a lecturer for the organization. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/339; FBI file OG 379806

Nick Federov

Born 1884, Samara, Russia. Migrated to US 1907. Machinist. Wife and daughter in Milwaukee. Member of Milwaukee’s Russian Branch No. 1 of the Communist Party; previously a member of the Socialist Party. Wife Titena Federov, as well as her mother Olga and stepfather Mike Kruk, all Communist Party members. Arrested January 1920. When asked about the possibility of being deported without his wife, he replied: “I can’t live without my wife; maybe I going to get crazy, or something like that.” Deported March 18, 1921, accompanied by wife and child.

INS file 54859/149

Maxim Fedorash (Максим Федораш)

Born Kamianets-Podilskyi, Russia (present-day Ukraine), 1884. Migrated to US 1914. Laborer. In 1915 injured while working on railroad in Canada and hospitalized for two months. Attended Communist-run night school in Detroit and supported Communist ideas, but never joined the party. Arrested January 1920. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

INS file 54859/770

Ivan Fedosky (John Fedosky, Iwan Fesosky; Fidosky)

Born 1889, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1914 and US 1916 (via Canada, without inspection). Member of the Russian branch of the Socialist Party of America in Detroit (not a deportable offense). April 1919 turned into Detroit police by employer, Great Lakes Engineering Co., for “spreading Boslheviki propaganda among the employees of their plants.” Deported on the Buford as “likely to become a public charge” and for entering without inspection. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/170

Kirio Fedyk (Кирио Федык)

Fedyk’s URW membership card

Born 1894, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913 (via Canada). Joined Hartford, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1918. Arrested during first Palmer Raids in November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown

INS file 54709/379; FBI file OG 271860

Ivan Felchuk (Иван Фельчук; John; Filchuk; Wilchuk; Nilchuk)

Born 1893 in Skobelka, Volyn, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Migrated to US 1913. Autoworker. Summer 1919 joined Detroit’s Russian Branch No. 3 of the Communist Party. Deported February 26, 1921.

INS file 54859/9

Emil Feltman (Emile)

Born 1881 or 1882, Berlin, Germany. Miner. Mother died shortly after his birth; migrated with his father to US when just four months old. Father died in mining accident in Butte, Montana, when he was six years old. 1898 joined US Army; fought in Spanish-American War and Philippine-American War; honorably discharged 1900. Joined IWW 1913 and became organizer for it 1918. Married wife, fellow IWW member Fannie Martini, in Bisbee, Arizona in 1916. February 1919 sent to in Jerome, Arizona, to organize miners, and arrested during strike. Stated his opposition to war and his support for the Bolsheviks; according to arresting police officer “he also said that it didn’t make any difference where he was deported to, whether it was Germany or China, he would continue his present agitation as organizer of the I.W.W.s.” Described as “not anxious to leave here,” and his mental and physical health suffered while detained. Deported May 1920.

Briefly stayed with fellow IWW deportee Karl Voss, then went to work as a coal miner in Westphalia. Migrated to Soviet Russia, where one of the first “Americans” to join Kuzbass Autonomous Industrial Colony in Kuznets, Siberia. No further information found.

INS file 54616/140; FBI file OG 194288

See also: Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University Library; J. P. Morray, Project Kuzbas: American Workers in Siberia (1921-1926)

Kiril Fengol ( or Kirin; Kirin Pinhol)

Fengol’s URW membership card

Born 1896, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Dishwasher. Migrated to US 1912. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Hartford, Connecticut in 1919. Arrested November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/526; see also FBI file OG 213090

Fernández to Foli

Josef Ramón Fernández (José Ramón Fernández; José Fernández; Fernande)

Members of Spanish-speaking Los Corsarios Group, including Fernandez, 1919

Born 1898, Oviedo, Spain. Laborer. Became an anarchist at age sixteen, migrated to Cuba circa 1914. Migrated from Cuba to US 1917. Member of the IWW and the Los Corsarios Group which published anarchist paper El Corsario. One of 14 members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped, but several members, including Fernandez, held for deportation as anarchists. Deported to Spain May 5, 1919. No further information found.

INS file 54616/79

Ramón Fernández (Raymond Fernandez)

Born in Cuba. Anarchist and likely IWW member. Arrested 1918 in Seattle and convicted of Criminal Syndicalism; pardoned by the governor after three months so that he could be deported. Held in Seattle immigration station until March 1920, then transferred to Ellis Island. November 1921 deported to Spain, but refused admission due to his Cuban birth. Returned to Ellis Island, and March 1922 deported to Cuba, but refused admission on the grounds that he forfeited his Cuban citizenship by avoiding military service in WWI. July 22, 1922 allowed to “voluntarily depart” at his own expense to Russia (via Rotterdam). Joined the Kuzbass Autonomous Industrial Colony in Kuznets until its dissolution in 1926, writing occasional reports for the paper Cultura Obrera.

See: Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University Library; Elizabeth Gurley Flynn Papers, University of Wisconsin, Madison

Egor Matveevich Feskov (Грегори Матвеевич Фесков; Egor Feskow; Harry Feskow; Grigory Feskov)

Born Stepok, Russia, 1885. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Joined Hartford, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. 1935, via Russian Consul in New York, employed attorney Aaron Banenson to recover bank savings lost due to deportation, totaling $2,404 ($983.50 plus compound interest); 1943 a judge ruled in Feskov’s favor.

INS files 54709/524 and 56167/137

See also: Hartford Courant, December 23, 1943

William Fields (Field)

Born 1880, London, England. Lumber worker. Migrated to US 1905. Joined IWW 1917. Arrested Seattle, May 1918. Deported February 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/416 (file missing); FBI file OG 194446

Ivan Filisofov (Иван Философов; John Philisoph)

Born 1877, Volynia, Russia (present-day Poland). Laborer. Migrated to Argentina circa 1914; from there migrated to US circa 1915. Wife and three children in Russia. Allegedly a member of the Union of Russian Workers branch in Thomaston, Connecticut; however, he claimed he only belonged to the non-partisan Union of Russian Citizens (an umbrella organization for Russian progressives). Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. A large amount of anarchist, IWW, and Communist literature was confiscated from his room, some of which he claimed belonged to a roommate. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/166; FBI file OG 355772

Olaf Finnestad (Finnstad)

Flier protesting arrests of Finnestad and fellow IWW member Adolph Errson

Born 1894, Stavanger, Norway. Laborer. Migrated to US 1910. Joined IWW in Los Angeles, 1916; 1918 secretary of Minneapolis IWW branch. Arrested Seattle, October 1918. Deported March 1919. In Norway, immediately joined the Norsk Syndikalistik Federation (Norwegian Syndicalist Federation) and the anarchist Norges Ungsocialistiske Forbund (Norwegian Youth’s Socialist League), and lectured “on conditions in the United States.” August 1920 immigrated to Canada. At some point prior to 1951 he illegally returned to the US and gained US citizenship. Died Portland, Oregon, 1974.

INS file 54517/68

See also: The Workers’ World (Kansas City), August 1, 1919; Ancestry.com

Friedrich Fischer (Fred Fischer/Fisher; aka Charles Williams and Charles William Fischer)

Born 1877, Germany. Sailor; lumber worker; laborer. Migrated to US 1896; sailed all over the world from US ports. Joined IWW 1916. Arrested December 1917 as “enemy alien” working on waterfront; released; arrested January 1918, Walla Walla, Washington for IWW membership. Interned as “enemy alien” as Fort Douglas, Utah (even though he declared, “We don’t believe in the German Kaiser ourself [sic]. I have no love for any king or kaiser; makes no difference where he is….I wish the German Kaiser went to hell a long time ago.” “Voluntary departure” June 1919 in exchange for release. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/61

Enrique Flores Magón

Enrique Flores Magón (standing center left, without a had) with family and supporters in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, March 4, 1923, following his deportation

Born Mexico, 1877. Millwright, journalist. Opponent, along with brother Ricard Flores Magón, of Mexican president Porfirio Díaz, leading to arrest in 1903. Both brothers immigrated to the US later that year, founding the anti-Díaz Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM) and its newspaper Regeneración. The Flores Magón borthers, and hence the PLM, became increasingly radical, eventually embracing anarchism and supporting the syndicalist IWW. The brothers were repeatedly arrested up until 1917, when Enrique left the PLM. 1918 Enrique began sentence for “mailing un-mailable matter”; released from Leavenworth 1920. 1923 “voluntary departure” to Mexico. Active in Mexico’s anarchist movement for many years, but became less radical over time. Died 1954.

INS file 54861/116

Ignacz Fogler

Deported May 1920 to Austria. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Virgilio Foli

Born 1886, Fanano, Italy. Miner. Migrated to US 1902. Became anarchist circa 1916. Arrested in Spring Valley, Illinois, December 1920. Deported March 1921. Briefly migrated from Italy to Belgium in 1923 looking for work. In Italy, became farmer. Italian authorities noted no radical activity, an in 19137 removed him from the list of subversives. However, after his death in 1969, his comrades wrote in the anarchist newspaper L’Internazionale that his was “a life lived intensely for the affirmation of anarchist ideas the affirmation of anarchist ideas for which he suffered persecution and exile.”

INS file 54885/19; CPC busta 2101

See also: True Republican (Syncamore, IL), March 30, 1921; Andrea Pirondini, Anarchici a Modena: Dizionario biografico.

Graves to Gusko

Thomas Graves

Born Haverigg, England. Miner. Migrated to US 1913. One of the striking miners “deported” from Bisbee, Arizona to the New Mexico desert, July 1917. Joined IWW’s Metal Mine Workers Branch 65, Local No. 800, Bisbee, January 1918; became organizer for IWW and returned to Bisbee to reestablish IWW branch. Arrested May 1918 for “vagrancy.” Arrested 1918 in Globe, Arizona, for violating the Espionage Act. Again arrested Globe in April 1919. Deported June 1919.

In a confiscated letter, Graves wrote to a friend, “I have been trying to figure our this democracy for a long time but the only answer that I can come to is if you don’t do as I tell you, you must go to the can, therefore I don’t want any more of it, and the sooner they send me back to the lands of the Kings the better.” Continued working as a miner in England, then circa 1929 migrated to colonial Rhodesia (present-day Zambia), where he “acquired a reputation as a gun-totting firebrand” and was a founding member and shop steward of a whites-only miners’ union. Migrated back to England in 1939 after “after being sacked for attempting to instigate a wildcat strike, threatening the mine manager and brutally assaulting an African miner (all in the same week).” Died 1966. 

INS file 54616/87

Additional information supplied by Duncan Money.

Pavel Grib (Paul; Gribb; Greb)

Born 1887, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Machinist, laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Wife and two children in Russia. 1919 joined the IWW and the Union of Russian Workers branch in Seattle; became URW branch financial secretary. Arrested February 7, 1920, as lumber camp near Ashford, Washington. Deported to Russia February 1921.

INS file 54860/444; FBI file OG 372555

Seodor Grigoreko or Grigorenko

Born 1895, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Migrated to US 1913. Joined Russian Branch No. 3 of Socialist Party of America in Detroit 1918, which then transferred into the Communist Party of America. Arrested Detroit during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported January 1921.

FBI file OG 385764

Nikolai Grishko (Grishco; Nicholas Hrishco)

Born 1898, Minsk, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Steel worker. Migrated to US 1914. 1918 joined Russian Branch no. 1 of the Socialist Party of America in Baltimore; transferred into Communist Party of America, of which he became recording secretary. Arrested January 1920. Deported February 1, 1921.

INS file 54809/655; FBI files OG 8000-383428 and 377436

Alfred Groener

Born Germany 1898. Laborer. Migrated to US 1914. Arrested Portland, Oregon, January 1918. Had two IWW pamphlets in his possession, but no evidence that he was a member. Interned as an “enemy alien.” “Voluntary departure” in exchange for release, June 1919.

INS file 54379/80

Adolph Gross (or Grosse)

Born 1860, Mainz, Germany. Jewish. Farmer; teamster; news vendor. Migrated to US 1882. Wife (Carrie Gross), seven children, two grandchildren in US. Anarchist; family lived at anarchist Home Colony in Washington since 1903. Opened a newsstand in Tacoma, Washington, circa 1918. Arrested late 1919; sentenced to 28 months in McNeil Island federal prison under Espionage Act for selling “seditious” literature (even though the war had already ended). Deported December 1921 (the oldest known Red Scare deportee), without being allowed to contact family or bring any money or belongings.

Settled in Hamburg. His daughter reported in 1922: “it is killing him to live in idleness over there and he says unless he has a few hundred dollars he cannot do anything.”

INS file 54861/406; FBI file OG 8000-381731

See also: Elizabeth Gurley Papers, Wisconsin Historical Society; The Nation, October 19, 1921

Janos (“John”) Grunzweig

John Grunzweig

Born 1900, Schöndorf, Austria-Hungary (present-day Frumușeni, Romania). German speaker. Cabinetmaker. Migrated with parents and siblings to US 1910 to join father already there. Joined Communist Party of America; father kicked him out of the house in Tonawanda, New York. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported May 1920.

However, when disembarked in Athens, Greece, arrested and put in jail for two weeks; Romanian consul refused him entry because his place of birth was not part of Romania at that time, and Hungary also denied he was a citizen. Released and worked odd jobs in Greece for three months, then stowed away on a Canadian-bound ship in Greece; jumped ship and traveled from Montreal to Tonawanda, where he lived with his father and was arrested May 1921. March 1922 ordered free on bail due to government’s inability to deport him. Labeled “A Man Without a Country” by the American press. By 1940 was a naturalized citizen. Died Buffalo, New York, 1984.

INS file 54811/755; FBI files OG 388225 and BS 202600-1932

See also: Buffalo Times, December 13, 1922; https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/106691432/person/200183622090/story

Ivan Gushchia (Иван Гущя; John; Gushchla)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Martin Gunderson

Argus-Leader (Sioux Falls), September 10, 1918

Born Norway c. 1890. Migrated to US 1907. IWW member in Aberdeen, South Dakota. November 1918 indicted with fellow IWW member Stanley Brown on federal charges for allegedly sending phosphorous through the US mails intended for arson; sentenced to two and a half years at Leavenworth. At trial, admitted to burning down the barn of the Aberdeen chief of police. Deported to Norway September 4, 1919.

See: Argus-Leader (Sioux Falls), November 15, 1917, September 10, 1918, and August 5, 1919; New Solidarity, September 20, 1919.

Ivan Gushchia (John; Gushchany; Gushia)

Gushchia’s URW membership card

Born 1897, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Joined Bridgeport, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers September 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/380

William Gusko (Jusko)

Born Grodno region, Russia (present-day Belarus), 1894. Migrated to US 1914. Wife in Russia. Punch press operator. Joined the Communist Party in Detroit, December 1919. Arrested January 1920. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

INS file 54859/968

Hajduk to Hicke

Alfons Hajduk (Alfonso; Alfonse; Hajdak; Haiduk; Hieduk; Hyduk)

Hajduk’s URW membership card

Born 1886, Volhynia, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Polish. Window cleaner. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and child in Russia. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Newark. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/357

Onofry Halevich

Communist Party of America member. Deported June 1920 to either Austria or Yugoslavia. No further information found.

Included on lists of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G and FBI file BS 202600-33

Vazil Haluszak (Basil; William Halussosek)

Communist Party of America member. Deported March 1920 to Galicia.

Included on lists of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G and FBI file BS 202600-33

Peter Hancharuk

“Voluntarily departed” to Russia sometime between December 20, 1919 and February 2, 1921.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Stanley Haranin (B. Haranin)

Born Vilna, Russia (present-day Lithuania), 1894. Migrated to US 1913. Tailor. Joined the Socialist Party, then Milwaukee’s Russian Branch No. 1 of the Communist Party. Arrested January 2, 1920. Deported March 18, 1921.

INS file 54809/152

Vasil Haritouchik (William Hatrinuk; Wasil Haryntoczyk; Chartonchak)

Born 1888, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. 1918 joined Socialist Party of America, and in 1919 transferred to Russian Branch no. 1 of the Communist Party of America, Detroit. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. “Voluntarily departed” October 1920.

INS file 54859/735; FBI file OG 386253

Leo Haskevich (Leonti Hackwicz; Leonte Hackewicz; Leo Haskewich; aka Sittimikoff)

Born 1896, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Not political in Russia; joined Union of Russian Workers in Akron, 1917. Involved in attempt to organize strike of Akron rubber workers; arrested December 1917. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54235/159

Ernest Emil Albert Heitmiller (E.A. Heitmiller)

Born 1887, Linden-Limmer, Germany. Sailor; lumber worker. Migrated to US 1914 (via Canada, without inspection). Joined IWW, for which he became a delegate and organizer. Arrested Seattle, February 1919. Deported January 1920.

INS file 54645/435; FBI file OG 347306

Petr Herasevich (or Gerasevich)

Born 1892, Kobryn, Russia (present-day Belarus). Pipe inspector. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and son in Russia. Joined Youngstown, Ohio branch of the Union of Russian Workers in January 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. On strike from Youngstown Sheet & Tube when arrested. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/513

José Ángel Hernández

El Heraldo de Mexico, May 13, 1919

Born 1885, Tepic, Mexico. Bricklayer; carpenter. By 1906 was living in Los Angeles and a member of the Grupo Reforma, Libertad y Justicia, which was affiliated with the Partido Liberal Mexicano. 1911 in Houston, TX and head of PLM-affiliated Grupo Regeneración Solidaridad Obrera. 1913 joined the IWW. 1914 married fellow PLM member Elisa Alemán; daughter Emancipación born later that year. 1915 became organizer for the Socialist Party’s Land League of Texas. In San Antonio, member of PLM-affiliated Grupo Germinal. 1916 daughter Susana born, but he separated from Elisa. 1917 active in Grupo Solidaridad in Houston and founded a Mixed Local of the IWW in the city, for which he was elected secretary. Arrested August 22, 1917 due to IWW organizing. August 31, 1917 illegally deported by a member of the Bureau of Investigation.

Active in IWW and Casa del Obrero Mundial in Tampico and joined Hermanos Rojos, becoming a regular contributor to its paper Germinal. January 1918 elected as General Secretary of the Casa del Obrero Mundial in Tampico. By March 1918 no longer a member of Hermanos Rojos. Cofounded and edited Fuerza y Cerebro. Arrested August 1918 for organizing activity. Began writing for anarchist paper Luz! 1919 arrested as a leader of oil worker strike in Tampico. March 1920 founded Liga Socialista in Tampico, which endorsed electoral activity. 1921 arrested for helping organize IWW strike in Tampico. 1921 accused of mismanaging funds raised for a new radical publication, and disappeared; rumored to have gone to Russia.

Files 232-84 and 232-2971, Mexican Files, FBI

See also: Steve Rossignol, “A Forgotten Wobbly: José Ángel Hernández Across Two Nations,” Anarcho-Syndicalist Review, Summer 2024

Jacob Heroch (or Horoch)

Deported to Russia December 1920.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Christopher Hetagureff

Deported to Russia January 1921.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

John Charles Hicke (John Kicke; aka Kurowsky)

Born 1882, Bukovina, Austria-Hungary (present-day Romania). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913 (via Canada). No apparent political affiliation. Arrested April 1918, in Oxford, Mississippi and interned as an “enemy alien” for nearly two years at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, then detained by immigration authorities. Declared: “I am opposed to the Government of the United States and its peoples. I do not think its peoples are intelligent enough to govern themselves…I think the government should be overthrown and to accomplish this end every action would be justified.” However, later claimed this was simply a ploy to be deported as quickly as possible, as advised by Imre Guerry (Isso Gartner). Repeatedly wrote to US and Austrian officials to expedite his case. Deported to Romania June 1920.

INS file 54861/404

Hing to Indriunas

Wong Hing (Harry Hing)

Born 1899, Guangdong, China. Student; restaurant worker. Migrated to US 1916 (via Mexico, without inspection). Attended Columbia University. Arrested January 1919 as a leader of IWW-led strike of Chinese restaurant workers. Deported March 1919 on charge of illegal entry.

INS file 54490/3 (file missing); see also file 54519/2

See also: Baltimore Sun, February 6, 1919; The Rebel Worker, May 15, 1919

Mikhail Hirney (Michael; Mike; Herney)

Born Pokrovka, Samara Oblast, Russia, 1899. Migrated to US 1912. Store clerk. Member of Socialist Party and then member and secretary of Flint, Michigan’s Russian Branch of the Communist Party. Arrested January 1920. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

INS file 54860/738

Mikhail Hladish (Hladysh)

Born c. 1885 in Galicia, Austria-Hungary. Ukrainian. Migrated to US 1913. Laborer. Wife in Russia. Joined the Socialist Party in 1919, then the Communist Party September 1919. Secretary of CP branch in East Youngstown, Ohio. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

INS file 54810/553

Alfred Hoffman (aka Edward Compe; Edward Kerlap; Edwin Hoffman)

Born 1886, Hamburg, Germany. Sailor; laborer. Migrated to US 1907 (jumped ship in San Francisco). Joined IWW around 1913; repeatedly arrested for strike-related activities. Seattle. Interned as an “enemy alien” at Fort Douglas, Utah, but declared “I am not a German, no. I am not patriotic for any country.” “Voluntary departure” June 1919.

INS file 54379/64

Fritz Arthur Holm

Born 1890, Korsberga, Sweden. Carpenter. Migrated to US 1911. Joined IWW 1912; also an anarchist and subscriber to Alexander Berkman’s The Blast. Wrote “Strictly opposed to war” on his draft card. Secretary of the Scandinavian Defense League. Arrested Seattle, February 1918; authorities discovered “a wagon load of I.W.W. and anarchist literature in his room.” Deported July 1919.

In Sweden, married Ellen Hildur Margareta Molin, 1923. May have written articles for the German anarcho-syndicalist paper Der Syndikalist in the 1920s. Died 1975.

INS file 54379/114

Paul Holovkin (Prokop Holowkin; Golowkin)

Born 1888, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Longshoreman. Migrated to US 1914. Widower; a son in Russia. Joined Branch no. 1 of the Union of Russian Workers in Baltimore, 1919. Deported on the Buford. 1921 reported to have been “shot by the Bolshevik authorities as an active counter-revolutionist.”

INS file 54709/318; FBI file BS 202600-2386-1

Andrew Hostilla (Andrey Kastialla)

Born 1895, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Machinist. Migrated to US 1914. Drafted into US Army 1918; honorably discharged December 1918. Member of Newark branch of the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/353

Pete Hydamachuk (Peter)

Born 1893, Podolsky, Russia. Polish. Immigrated to Canada 1913, then to US 1917. Autoworker. Member of Machinists’ Union (AFL) and attended Detroit night school run by Russian Branch No. 4 of the Communist Party. Signed an application to join the party, but no evidence he officially joined. Arrested January 1920. Deported March 18, 1921.

INS file 54859/774

Stepanos Indriunas (Степанос Индриунас; Steponas)

Born 1893, Kovno, Russia (present-day Kaunas, Lithuania). Lithuanian. Immigrated to US 1912. Laborer. Member of Lithuanian Branch No. 74 of the Communist Party of American in Rockford, Illinois. Arrested January 1920. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

INS file 54860/666

Katzes to Kircher

Arthur Katzes (Katses; Kestes; Ketzus; Katz)

Born 1897, Podolia, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Printer. Had been a student in Russia and apprenticing as a pressman; worked as a sailor to pay for passage to US in 1914 (entered without inspection). Worked as printer in US. Joined Union of Russian Workers circa 1917; member of the editorial board of URW newspaper Khleb i Volia. Arrested March 1919 in New York. Released on bail; collaborated on producing the illegal Anarchist Soviet Bulletin; arrested with Ethel Bernstein in September 1919 for distributing copies of that paper. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54616/115

See also: Richard Polenberg, Fighting Faiths: The Abrams Case, the Supreme Court, and Free Speech

Joe Kaunas (Kavnas; Bogdonas; Boglonas)

Born Russian Lithuania, 1885. Migrated to US 1913; entered illegally. Coal miner; student. Miner in Wilkes Barre, PA, then attended Valparaiso University when arrested. Member of Valparaiso Branch No. 20 of the Communist Party of America. Arrested January 14, 1920. Claimed Lithuanian citizenship, but deported to Russia March 18, 1921.

INS file 54860/713

Teleso Kavalianskas (Stanley; Kavalionskas, Kavalauskas; Talespor Kavalanchas)

Born 1881, Kovno, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Lithuanian. To US 1912. Secretary of Branch No. 43 of the Lithuanian Federation the Communist Party of America in Detroit. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. “Voluntary departure” October 20, 1920 via Canada.

INS file 54709/954; FBI file BS 202600-155-1

Joseph (“Joe”) Kennedy

Born 1885, Belfast, Ireland. Miner. Migrated to US 1905. Joined IWW 1917; became secretary of Metal Mine Workers’ Industrial Union No. 800 in Butte, Montana. Arrested multiple times for IWW activity. Worked with IWW organizer Frank Little before Little was lynched in Butte in 1917. Also “active…in the cause of Irish independence.” Arrested February 1919, in aftermath of miners’ strike. Deported June 1919.

Joined Merseyside IWW branch in Liverpool. Involved in robberies to help fund Irish Republican Army activities. 1924 reportedly intended to return to US illegally.

INS file 54616/74

See also: Butte Daily Bulletin, June 13, 1919; Socialist Review (London), February 1, 1959

Ilya Kerczuk (Ellis Kerchuk; Navul Kerchuk)

Born c. 1898, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1913. Deported to Russia February 1, 1921. No further information found. Laborer and longshoreman in Camden, New Jersey and New York. Arrested May 1919 in Philadelphia by company guards of Pusey and Jones Shipbuilding Company of Gloucester City, NJ, for distributing “Bolshevik circulars” on company grounds. Deported February 1, 1921.

INS file File 54616/173

Boris Keretchuk

Born 1894, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1916. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Newark. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/358

Nuval Kerget (Nabul; Нувал Кергет)

Born 1875, Minsk Governorate, Russia (present-day Belarus). 1910 migrated to US (Honolulu); 1918 moved to Seattle. Lumber worker. Member of the Union of Russian Workers in Seattle, also a member of the IWW in 1919. Arrested January 1920. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921.

INS file 54860/569; FBI file OG 389514

Ivan Kesevich

Deported to Yugoslavia, September 1, 1920.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Olan Killen

IWW member. Deported October 31, 1919.

Included on list of deported IWW members in One Big Union Monthly, March 1920

William Kircher

Born 1892, Hesse, Germany. Laborer. Migrated to US 1906. Joined IWW 1917. Arrested May 1918 in Seattle; interned as “enemy alien” at Fort Douglas, Utah. “Voluntary departure” 1919.

INS file 54408/512; FBI file OG 193587