Tag Archives: Scottish

Faces of the First Red Scare

As part of the ongoing research for my book on the global history of immigrant radicals who were deported during America’s First Red Scare, I have posted brief profiles of 761 (and counting) individual deportees I have identified. This list is a work in progress, and some entries will be updated as I obtain additional sources.

Who is included:

This list includes radicals and suspected radicals who were deported between 1918 (following America’s entrance into the First World War) and 1925, when the last of the foreign-born radicals arrested between 1917 and 1920 were expelled, some after serving prison sentences. It includes both those who were deported by government order and those who were ordered deported but “voluntarily departed” at their own expense with the government’s consent (both categories were included together in US government deportation statistics). It does not include those who fled the country to avoid arrest or deportation. It includes both individuals deported for belonging to legally-defined “anarchistic classes,” and others who were suspected of radicalism but deported on other grounds (most commonly for entering the country without inspection or being retroactively deemed “likely to become a public charge” at the time of their entry).

This is not a complete list. In the fiscal years (June-July) 1918-1926, the United States deported 979 aliens as “anarchists,” and an unknown number of additional radical immigrants under other statutes. The largest single group of deportees, composed of 242 alleged radicals (as well as seven unrelated deportees) departed on the USAT Buford on December 21, 1919. However, it appears that no complete list of Red Scare deportees was produced by either the Bureau of Immigration or the Bureau of Investigation. I have instead had to rely on partial lists and mentions of individual cases included in these organizations’ files, congressional testimony, radical publications, newspaper reports, and other sources.

How to use this site:

Profiles have been posted in small batches. They are organized in alphabetical order by last name, followed by alternate spellings and pseudonyms in parentheses. (The Cyrillic spellings of Russian names are generally my best guess; American sources from the era were wildly inconsistent in their spellings of such names. The same is true of the transliteration of Chinese names in the Roman alphabet.) You can also browse the Index of Names.

Birth years are often approximate, usually having been calculated from an individual’s age at the time of their examination by immigration authorities, and some may therefore be off by a year.

You can search by individuals’ nationalities (country of birth and, in some cases, ethnicity [i.e. Jewish, Lithuanian, etc.]) by using the tags above.

Occupations describe the individuals’ employment in the US, not necessarily the work they engaged in before arrival or after their deportation.

Political affiliations represented include the syndicalist Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), the anarcho-syndicalist Union of Russian Workers of the United States and Canada (URW); the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM); anarchists unaffiliated with larger organizations; the Communist Party of America (CP); the Communist Labor Party (CLP); the Socialist Party of America (SP); the Socialist Labor Party (SLP); and unaffiliated socialists. You can search by political affiliation by using the tags above.

You may also use the “Search” box at the top of the page to look for individual names, locations, etc.

The main sources used for compiling these profiles are case files from the Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), Record Group 85, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC; the Old German Files (OG) and Bureau Section Files (BS) of the Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Record Group 65, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD (as digitized at fold3.com); and (for Italians) the Casellario Politico Centrale (CPC), Archivio Centrale dello Stato, Rome, Italy.

A special thanks to Molly Thacker, who photographed dozens of INS files for me; Malcolm Archibald, who has translated a number of Russian-language sources; D.J. Alperovitz, who has provided photographs of several IWW members; and the dozens of other archivists, translators, activists, and colleagues who have helped me locate, acquire, and read material from across the globe while undertaking this research.

Finally, if you have additional information about any of the deportees, or spot an error, please contact me!

Fraser to Furs

Donald McPherson Fraser

Born 1888, Edinburgh, Scotland. Laborer. Migrated to Canada 1908, spent time in US and Mexico before migrated to US (via Canada, without inspection) 1915. Joined IWW 1909; became secretary of Astoria, Washington IWW local. Wrote on his 1917 draft registration card, “Don’t believe [in] militarism.” Arrested February 1919, Portland. Deported March 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/2

See also: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/6482/005243374_01000?pid=71224592

Adolfo Frattesi (Adolph Fratese)

Born 1893, Pergola, Italy. Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Anarchist. Member, Circolo Studi Sociali of Milwaukee. Brother Vincenzo Frattesi, sister Maria Nardini, and brother-in-law Pasquale Nardini also members. Arrested 1917 after Italian anarchist “riot.” Sentenced to 25 years as accessory to attempted murder of police, but sentence reversed by state supreme court. Then arrested for “teaching or advocating anarchy.” Deported July 1920. Italian authorities appear to have not placed him under surveillance. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54235/70

See also: Robert Tanzilo, The Milwaukee Police Station Bomb of 1917; Dean A. Strang, Worse than the Devil: Anarchists, Clarence Darrow, and Justice in a Time of Terror

Giuseppe Frattesi (Joe, Joseph)

Born 1894, Pergola, Italy. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Brother of Adolfo and Vincenzo Frattersi and Maria Nardini. Had a “sweetheart” in France. While living in Racine, Wisconsin, involved in defense campaign for his siblings following 1917 Milwaukee “riot”; radicalized and became anarchist as a result. Moved to Chicago, where arrested May 1919, and again August 1919. Deported December 1919. His trunk containing his possessions was lost by immigration authorities. June 1920 migrated to France, where lived with brother Teodolfo, returned to Italy after a short while. Under Italian government surveillance throughout 1930s; reported to still hold anarchist and antifascist ideas, but not to be politically active.

INS file 54616/182; FBI file OG 8000-177156; CPC busta 2172

Vincenzo Frattesi (Vincent Fratese)

Born 1886, Pergola, Italy. Laborer. Migrated to Agignon, France at unknown date, where fined for assault in 1908 and served 8 days in jail for the same in 1910. Migrated to US 1913. Anarchist. Member, Circolo Studi Sociali of Milwaukee. Brother Adolfo Frattesi, sister Maria Nardini, and brother-in-law Pasquale Nardini also members. Arrested 1917 after Italian anarchist “riot.” Sentenced to 25 years as accessory to attempted murder of police, sentence sustained by state supreme court. In prison, repeatedly cited and punished for infractions, and 1920 declared “insane” and moved to mental hospital. Pardoned 1922 on condition of deportation and deported February 1922. Upon his arrival, institutionalized in Naples as “paranoid”; discharged November 1924. Settled in Fossombrone, where continued to be under surveillance and to hold anarchist ideas. July 1928 recommitted to psychiatric hospital in Pesaro, where diagnosed with “paranoid early dementia.” Still institutionalized as of 1940.

INS file 54235/69; CPC busta 2172

See also: Robert Tanzilo, The Milwaukee Police Station Bomb of 1917; Dean A. Strang, Worse than the Devil: Anarchists, Clarence Darrow, and Justice in a Time of Terror

Giovanni Fruzzetti (Frizzetti, aka Balloni; Gianni Lupo)

Born 1865, Carrara, Italy. Granite cutter; farmer. Migrated to US 1892. Anarchist. Lived in Barre, Vermont (where friend of Luigi Galleani and helped found Cronaca Sovversiva) until 1905, then Quincy, Massachusetts until 1910; when bought a 60-acre farm in Bridgeport, Massachusetts. Wife and ten children in US; also supporting six nieces and nephews since his sister-in-law’s death. Health problems due to appendicitis operation. Arrested May 1918; stated belief “in the overthrow of any government by force.” Also told authorities, “My youngest child is feebleminded. My wife cannot leave that child, and she would not be allowed to land in Italy with that child. Therefore, unless I am permitted to return, my wife and I can never see one another again.” Deported June 1919. In Massa Carrara worked a small plot of land and “maintained good conduct,” according to Italian authorities, who also believed (incorrectly) that he was illiterate, and who in 1943 (when he was 74 years old) removed him from their list of subversives.

INS file 54379/351; CPC busta 2192

Timofey Furs (Thomas)

Furs’ URW membership book

Born 1896, Russia. Machinist. Migrated to US 1913. Member of the Union of Russian Workers branch in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/365; FBI file OG 379709

Lachowsky to Lazarevich

Hyman Lachowsky (Chaim)

Born 1894, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Jewish. Bookbinder. Migrated to US 1907. 1917 a member of New York’s militant Jewish anarchist Shturem Group, which in 1918 became the Frayhayt Group. Arrested, with Molly Steimer, while distributing radical leaflets protesting US intervention in the Russian Civil War on August 23, 1918. Beaten while interrogated and convicted, with other members of the group, for violation of the Espionage Act; sentenced to 20 years in prison and a $1,000 fine. October 1919 told immigration agents: “I am an alien and an anarchist…I am opposed to all organized government. Not only the Government of the United States but any government…I’m an anarchist and proud of it.” By 1921, however, he had become disillusioned in prison and no longer believed in anarchism. Deported November 23, 1921 after losing landmark Supreme Court free-speech case Abrams v. United States. Returned to Minsk, where he started a family and stayed out of politics. Reportedly died of natural causes.

INS file 54517/74

See also: Richard Polenberg, Fighting Faiths: The Abrams Case, the Supreme Court, and Free Speech; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America

Charles Lindsay Lambert

Born 1881, Arbroath, Scotland. Baker; oil worker. Migrated to US 1901 or 1902. Joined the IWW in 1911; secretary of Local No. 453 of the Oil Workers’ Industrial Union in Taft, California, 1913, then of IWW mixed locals in Sacramento, 1914-1917. Secretary-Treasurer of the Wheatland Defense Committee 1914-1915, in which role he advocated sabotage; elected to IWW’s General Executive Board 1916. Defendant at federal IWW trial 1917-1918; sentenced to 20 years imprisonment. 1922 sentence commuted in exchange for “voluntary departure” to Scotland; sailed March 31, 1923. Upon arrival he began “attending meetings of various trade unions…persuading them to send protests to President Harding, the Ambassador and the Consul General against the imprisonment of the I.W.W.’s in the United States.” May have traveled to Tampico, Mexico to work in the oil fields in the 1920s; appears to have illegally returned to the US undetected, then returned to Scotland via New York in 1926. 1930s employed as oil worker in the Caribbean; returned to UK 1933. Appears to have dropped out of radical politics; later a diamond prospector in British Guiana and then worked as a runner for a bookmaker in London, where he died circa 1961.

INS file 54616/59; FBI file OG 8000-160053

See also: Industrial Workers of the World Collection, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University; Richard Brazier, “The Mass I.W.W. Trial of 1918: A Retrospect,” Labor History 7, no. 2 (1966); Eric Thomas Chester, The Wobblies in Their Heyday: The Rise and Destruction of the Industrial Workers of the World during the World War I Era; Eric Thomas Chester, Yours for Industrial Freedom: The Industrial Workers of the World from the Inside; https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&dbid=1518&h=13557765&tid=&pid=&usePUB=true&_phsrc=SAX498&_phstart=successSource

Manya Lansky

Born 1898, Pieski, Russia (present-day Belarus). Jewish. Garment worker. Orthodox Jewish parents. Migrated to US 1915 for work. Became an anarchist in New York shortly thereafter. A distributor of the Union of Russian Workers’ paper Golos Truda. Arrested July 4, 1920 en route to a radical picnic in Cleveland. According to the Immigration Inspector in Charge in Cleveland, “she is the most typical of the usual conception of the anarchistic type that one may have occasion to observe.” Regarding Russia, she declared, “I am not in sympathy with the leaders of the Soviets, but am in sympathy with the Russian people.” Deported to Russia February 1, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54885/2

Ivan Laposanko (aka John Lapko)

Deported to Russia on January 22, 1921.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

James Larkin (Jim; “Big Jim”)

Born 1876, Liverpool, England. Irish. Laborer; union organizer. Grew up in poverty in Ireland. 1893 joined the Independent Labour Party; 1905 began working as a labor organizer full time for the National Union of Dock Labourers, but expelled 1908; founded Irish Transport and General Workers’ Union, influenced by the American IWW; 1912 cofounded the Irish Labour Party and elected to the Dublin city government (but removed after one month). 1913 co-led the dockers’ strike that resulted in the Dublin Lockout with James Connolly, and cofounded the paramilitary Irish Citizen Army. Migrated to US 1914. Joined the Socialist Party of America and associated closely with (but did not join) the IWW; lectured across the country and arrested repeatedly. He played a leading role in the SPA’s pro-Bolshevik Left Wing; 1919 expelled from the SPA and joined the new Communist Labor Party. Wished to return to the United Kingdom in 1919, but the British consulate denied his requests for a passport eleven times. Arrested and sentenced to five to ten years under New York’s “criminal anarchy” law; pardoned by Governor Al Smith in 1923; deported April 1923. In Ireland, he formed the Irish Worker League (a Communist Party officially recognized by the Comintern) and became head of the Communist-aligned Worker’s Union of Ireland, a breakaway from the ITGWU. In 1924 he attended Fifth Congress of the Communist International, where he was elected to its executive committee. Soon, however, Larkin and the Soviets fell out with each other. 1927 he was elected to the Irish parliament (Dáil Éireann), but unable to take his seat; 1936 again elected to the Dublin city government; 1937 elected to the Dáil Éireann, but lost reelection the following year. 1941 rejoined the Irish Labour Party; served in the Dáil Éireann 1943-1944. Died 1947.

See: Emmet O’Connor, “James Larkin in the United States, 1914-23,” Journal of Contemporary History 37, no. 2 (April 2002); Emmet O’Connor, Big Jim Larkin: Hero or Wrecker?

Ludwig Lau

Deported to Poland September 1, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Stefan Lavrichuk (Стефан Лавричук; Lawrichuk; aka Steve Liunsky)

Deported to Russia, October 20, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Mikal Lavrinuk (Микал Лавринюк; Michael Lawrinuk; Michail)

Born 1891, Russia. Hotel worker. Migrated to US 1914. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in New York circa 1918; also joined IWW 1919. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/489

Giacamo Lavrio (James; Laverio; Lavero)

Born 1884, Turin, Italy. Miner. Migrated to US 1901 (returned to Italy 1905-1907). Worked in mines throughout the country. Became anarchist in US; supported Cronaca Sovversiva and carried out extensive correspondence with several fellow Italian American anarchists. Arrested in St. Charles, Michigan, May 1919, while on strike. Married widow Maria Perocchetti while on bail; promised to give up his radicalism for her. Deported December 20, 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/206

William Lawna (Launa; Lauwa; Lauva; aka Alfred Schmidt)

Born 1886, Libau, Russia (present-day Latvia). Locksmith. Migrated to US 1906. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in 1919; allegedly became secretary of its Elizabeth, New Jersey branch and hosted Leon Trotsky in his home during Trotsky’s time in the US, but denied this. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Wife in the US. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/103

Andrey Lazarevich (Андрей Лазаревич; Andrew Lazarewich; Lazarowitz)

Born 1895, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1913. Alleged member of the Union of Russian Workers in Newark, although the only evidence against him was a membership card for the Executive Committee of the Second Russian All-Colonial Convention of the United States and Canada (a meeting of various leftwing groups held in New York in January 1919). Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Wife Mary in US. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/347

Maria Lazarevich (Мария Лазаревич; Mary Lazarewich)

Wife of fellow deportee Andrey Lazarewich. Housewife. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Milligan to Molochko

William Milligan (aka Wilson)

Born 1874, Edinburgh, Scotland. Miner. Migrated to South Africa circa 1900; then Australia and Mexico; migrated to US circa 1901. Took out a declaration of intent to naturalize, but never did so, explaining, “I traveled all over the country and saw too much.” Joined the IWW circa 1910; also an admitted anarchist. Worked in mines and acted as IWW propagandists on both sides of US-Mexico border. Arrested in Deming, New Mexico, September 1919. Deported April 3, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/648

See also: The Deming Headlight (Deming, NM), September 26, 1919.

Anton Minarich (Tony)

Born 1891, Austria-Hungary (in present-day Croatia). Laborer. Migrated to US 1909. Worked for Ford Motor Company Hospital in Detroit. Joined South Slavic Branch No. 17 of Communist Party of America in 1919. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported to Yugoslavia June 19, 1920.

FBI file OG 387463

Yakov Minich (Яков Минич; Jacob; Jakow; Minicz)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Petr Ivanovich Mironovich (Петр Иванович Миронович; Mironovich)

Mironovich’s URW membership card

Born 1900, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1915. A member of the Union of Russian Workers in New York and then Hartford, Connecticut. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/527

______ Mirolyubov (Миролюбов)

A member of the Union of Russian Workers in Akron, Ohio. Deported to Russia. No further information found.

See: Probuzhdenie, January 1932 (with thanks to Malcolm Archibald for translating this source)

Simeon Misnik (Симеон Мисник; Semeon; Minnik)

Member of the Communist Party of America in Chicago. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. “Voluntary departure” to Russia, October 16, 1920.

FBI file BS 202600-153-1

Joseph Miss

Deported to Hungary, March 21, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Nicholas Mlaveransky (Mlaverausky)

Born 1894, Russia. Machinist. Migrated to US 1914. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Bridgeport, Connecticut in 1918. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids in November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/376

Ketia Fedrovich Molkowsky (Кетя Федрович Молковский; aka L. C. Marten; Leo Martin)

Born 1884. Laborer; fisherman. Arrested Seattle, September 1919. Deported on the Buford (as a contract laborer and as “likely to become a public charge”, but radicalism was “suspected”). Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/68 (file missing)

See also: Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, House of Representatives, Communist and Anarchist Deportation Cases

Aggi Molochko (Агги молочко; aka Mike A. Molaka)

Born 1889, Starobin, Russia (present-day Belarus). Millworker. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Norwich, Connecticut, circa October 1919. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported February 1, 1921.

FBI file OG 380828

Roberts to Roy

Vasily Roberts (Wasily; Robertz; Robetz)

Member of the Communist Party of America in Philadelphia. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported to Russia February 1, 1921. No further information found.

FBI file OG 382735

Jack Robey

IWW member arrested in Sand Point, Idaho, 1918; released then rearrested; deported October 28, 1919. No further information found.

See: One Big Union Monthly, March 1920

Alfred Robinson

Born 1893, Chislehurst, England. Laborer. Migrated to US 1905. Worked throughout the US and Canada. Joined the IWW’s Metal and Machinery Workers’ Industrial Union No. 300 in July 1919. Arrested in Detroit during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported March 27, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/578; FBI file OG 8000-385119

Konstantin Romanchuk (Константин Романчук; Konstan; Konstanti)

Born 1895, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1915. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Bridgeport, Connecticut, circa July 1919; became its secretary. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/396; FBI file OG 376791

Gavril Romanovich (Гавриил Романович; Gabriel)

Born 1896, Vilna Governorate, Russia (present-day Lithuania?). Laborer. Migrated to US 1915. Joined the Russian Federation of the Socialist Party of America; 1919 transferred into of the Russian Branch of the Communist Party of America; became secretary of its branch in Waterbury, Connecticut. Arrested March, 1920 during raid on branch headquarters. Deported February 1, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/462; FBI file OG 379909

Jesus Romo

Born in Mexico. Laborer. Year of migration to US unknown. Joined the IWW in Los Angeles February 1919 and immediately became a delegate for its General Recruiting Union, but was probably previously a member in Morenci, Arizona, where his father Cleofas and brother Guadalupe were also IWW activists. Arrested June 9, 1919, after distributing IWW literature outside of an employment agency. Stated that he “was born an anarchist.” Deported August 18, 1919. After his deportation, continued his IWW membership and organizing in Guadalajara, Mexico.

FBI file OG 363737

Angel Roncal

Born 1896, Spain. Reportedly “spent some time in South America.” Migrated to US 1916. Member of the Niagara Falls, New York branch of the IWW. Arrested September 1918 for failing to register for the draft; IWW literature discovered in his possession. February 1919 released from jail after five months without trial; immediately detained by immigration authorities for deportation. Deported circa July 1, 1920. No further information found.

See: Buffalo Commercial, February 1, 1919; Buffalo Times, February 20, 1919; Cattaraucus Republican, March 27, 1919; Buffalo Express, April 30, 1919; Illustrated Buffalo Express, June 22, 1919

Maxim Rosak (Максим Росак; Max; Roosak)

Born Russia. Former member of the Russian Federation of the Socialist Party of America in Philadelphia; 1919 transferred into the Communist Party of America. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported February 1, 1921.

FBI file OG 379897

Savely Roshkov (Савелий Рошков; aka Charles Roshko)

Born 1893, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Machinist. Migrated to US 1912. Employed by Singer Manufacturing Company in Bridgeport, Connecticut; member of International Association of Machinists, Local No. 30; participated in 1919 wildcat strike. Member of the Union of Russian Workers branch in Bridgeport. Deported January 22, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/143; FBI file OG 382709

Mikail Rosnak (Микаил Роснак; Michael Rosnack; Bosnack)

Born 1897, Bukovina, Austria-Hungary (present-day Romania). Ukrainian. Blacksmith’s helper. Migrated to Canada 1913; expelled as an “enemy alien” and migrated to US 1917. 1919 joined Branch No. 6 of the Union of Russian Workers in Detroit. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Testified that the detective who arrested him said he should be sent back to Russia, called him “worse than a nigger,” and gave him “a smash in the face.” Deported to Romania, March 17, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54739/469

Janet Johnstone Roy (Jeanette; Janet Johnstone MacKay)

Born 1895, Milmathort, Scotland. Supporter of the Independent Labour Party before emigration. Laborer. Migrated to US 1916 with her sister, Margaret. Worked in Lawrence, Massachusetts, where joined the Socialist Party of America and then, in July 1917, Textile Workers Industrial Union No. 1000 of the IWW. Moved to Chicago where worked for the IWW’s bindery, then October 1918 moved to Seattle, where arrested with sister in police raid on IWW two days later. Married a Scottish-born Ian V. MacKay on January 21, 1919 to attempt to claim US citizenship and avoid deportation, but deported with her sister regardless on July 23, 1919. Migrated to British Columbia, Canada, where reunited with husband. Ian died 1941; she died in British Columbia in 1972.

INS files 54379/532 and 54379/532A

See also: Frances H. Early, A World Without War: How U.S. Feminists and Pacifists Resisted World War I; Heather Mayer, Beyond the Rebel Girl: Women and the Industrial Workers of the World in the Pacific Northwest, 1905-1924; Ancestry.com

Margaret Roy (Margaret Ray)

Born 1893, Milmathort, Scotland. Laborer. Migrated to Canada (via US) 1913; 1916 returned to Scotland to collect her sister Janet; 1916 migrated to US. Worked in Lawrence, Massachusetts, where joined the Socialist Party of America and then, in July 1917, Textile Workers Industrial Union No. 1000 of the IWW. Moved to Chicago where worked for the IWW’s bindery, then October 1918 moved to Seattle, where arrested with sister in police raid on IWW two days later. Married and US citizen named Alonzo Ray on January 21, 1919 to attempt to claim US citizenship and avoid deportation, but deported with her sister regardless on July 23, 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS files 54379/532 and 54379/532A

See also: Frances H. Early, A World Without War: How U.S. Feminists and Pacifists Resisted World War I; Heather Mayer, Beyond the Rebel Girl: Women and the Industrial Workers of the World in the Pacific Northwest, 1905-1924

Scarlett to Schnabel

Sam Scarlett (Samuel)

Born 1883, Kilmarnock, Scotland. Machinist; union organizer. Migrated Canada 1903; from there migrated to US 1904. A member of the International Association of Machinists before being radicalized and joining the IWW in 1911. Became prominent IWW speaker and organizer; reportedly arrested around 160 times for his activism, including his arrest with other IWW organizers during 1916 Mesabi Iron Range strike on specious charges of murder, but charges dropped. Defendant in federal IWW trial 1917-18; sentenced to 20 years and $20,000 fine. 1923 sentence commuted on condition of deportation; deported April 1923. August 1923 migrated to Canada, where he resumed organizing for the IWW in the Vancouver area, especially among miners. 1924 the Canadian government attempted to deport him, with the aid of evidence supplied by the US Bureau of Immigration, but eventually dropped the case. 1931 he joined the Communist Party of Canada, claiming that the “IWW underestimated the role of the proletarian dictatorship, and maintained our anarcho-syndicalist opposition to all forms of government, capitalist or proletarian…The political line of the Communist Party is correct.” Became an organizer for the CPC’s Mine Workers’ Union of Canada; arrested October 1931 in connection with violent Estevan Strike and sentenced to a year in prison, during which his health suffered. Circa 1938 became chairman of the CPC in Toronto, and of its newspaper The Clarion. When the CPC was outlawed in 1940, Scarlett lived underground to avoid arrest and clandestinely crossed border into the US, where he lived illegally until his death in 1941.

INS file 54616/49

See also: Industrial Workers of the World Collection, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University; Daily Worker, October 2, 1931; Donald H. Avery, “British-Born ‘Radicals’ in North America, 1900-1941: The Case of Sam Scarlett,” Canadian Ethnic Studies/Etudes Ethniques Au Canada 10, no. 2 (1978); Barbara Ann Roberts, Whence They Came: Deportation from Canada, 1900-1935

Boris Schatz (Борис Шац or Шатц; Shatz)

Born 1894, Russia (probably in present-day Ukraine). Photographer. Migrated to US 1911. 1917 joined Branch No. 1 of the Union of Russian Workers in New York. Brother of fellow URW member and deportee Alexander Schatz; on the editorial board of URW newspaper Khleb i Volia. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. His wife, Elsie, miscarried after his arrest. Deported on the Buford. Elsie left behind in New York. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/278; FBI file OG 378924

See also: Constantine M. Panunzio, The Deportation Cases of 1919-1920

Harry Schatz (Гарри Шац or Шатц; Alexander; Alex; Shatz)

Born 1884, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Printer. Migrated to US 1909. Circa 1917 joined Branch No. 1 of the Union of Russian Workers in New York. Brother of fellow URW member and deportee Boris Schatz; member of the editorial board of URW newspaper Khleb i Volia. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Told authorities, “I consider myself a citizen and a laborer wherever I work and wherever I live.” Deported on the Buford. Wife and step-child left in New York. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/128

John Carl Schedel (Schadel)

Born 1885, Munich, Germany. Piano polisher. Migrated to US 1903. August 1914 reportedly registered with German consulate in Cincinnati to join the German Army. However, he also joined the Socialist Party of America in Fort Wayne, Indiana, becoming its country secretary; and circa 1919 joined Communist Party of America. He was “known to be a very radical socialist and during the war caused considerable trouble at the Packard Piano Company where he his employed” Arrested 1920 for stating, “I would rather live in Russia, where all is freedom, than in the United States.” Deported May 22, 1920. Pregnant wife and four US-born children left behind in the US. Shortly after, their newborn child died and his wife was temporarily declared “insane.” In Germany, he reportedly joined the German merchant marine and then made his way to Russia here he “joined the Red Army of Russia and is basking in the inner circles of the soviet government as interpreter.” After “about a year” in Russia he made his way to Germany and “expressed his disgust with the Soviet form of government.” May 1921 he stowed away on ship from Rotterdam to New York; upon arrival ordered deported; disembarked in England, where he was arrested and sentenced to a month in prison, where he engaged in a hunger strike. Attempted to return to the US multiple times; finally did so 1924 via Mexico. Arrested 1924 in Chicago for unlawful entry; defended by the American Civil Liberties Union and undertook a number of legal appeals. Eventually his deportation warrant was dropped. Died November 1968 in Chicago.

FBI file OG 341493

See also: Fort Wayne Sentinel, September 1, 1920; Garrett Clipper (Garrett, IN), July 4, 1921; American Civil Liberties Union, Annual Report, 1924; Indianapolis Star, January 21, 1925; Chicago Tribune, November 7, 1968

Nathan Schechter (Shechter; Shacter)

Born 1884, Minsk region, Russia (present-day Belarus). Jewish. Migrated to US 1913. Wife in Russia. September 1919 joined Russian Branch No. 5 of the Communist Party of America in New York. December 1919 arrested fo r”criminal anarchy”; released on bail. Arrested again during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Told immigration inspector, “I consider the entire capitalist system to be rotten, and it ought to be abolished.” Also stated, “I wish to say that I protest against being deported as a criminal. I do not wish to obtain free passage. If I should have to go to Russia I should like to go as a free man on my own expense. I am an honest workingman, and I can earn enough money to pay my expense.” After four months of detention on Ellis Island he became a leader of protests of detained radicals and was placed in a separate cell, leading other detainees to threaten a hunger strike. Deported February 1, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54811/424

Raffaele Schiavina (aka Max Sartin; Melchior Steele; Bruno)

Born 1895, San Carlo, Ferrara, Italy. Bookkeeper. Attended school in Italy until age 19; became a socialist in Italy. Migrated to US 1913. 1914 became anarchist; 1916 became bookkeeper for Luigi Galleani’s paper Cronaca Sovversiva in Lynn, Massachusetts; close friend of Galleani and contributor to Cronaca Sovversiva. 1916 arrested for inciting to riot but acquitted. 1918 arrested for refusing to register for the draft; sentenced to one year in Middlesex County House of Correction. Detained for deportation upon his release in March 1919. He was “regarded by Judge Morton of the local U. S. District Court as being one of the most dangerous men with whom he has had to deal.” Deported June 24, 1919, along with Galleani and other close associates. Arrested in Italy in 1919 for draft evasion, but soon released. Lived in Turin where collaborated with Galleani on reviving Cronaca Sovversiva (January-October 1920), thousands of copies of which were sent to the US, until it was suppressed by the Italian government. Schiavina was also involved in an anarchist paramilitary antifascist group that coordinated with, but was separate from, the organization Arditi dle Popolo. 1921 arrested and tried alongside seven Communists accused of leading Turin’s Arditi sections; all acquitted by a sympathetic jury. March 1923 illegally migrated to France. In Paris produced the anarchist newspaper Il Monito (1925-1928) and another dedicated to publicizing the Sacco-Vanzetti case, La Difesa per Sacco e Vanzett (1923). 1928 illegally returned to US; used the pseudonyms “Max Sartin,” “Melchior Steele,” and “Bruno,” among others. In New York and New Jersey, edited the anarchist newspaper L’Adunata dei Refrattari from 1928 until 1971. Died 1987 in Salt Lake City, Utah.

INS file 54391/81; CPC busta 4690

See also: Max Sartin, “Breve autobiografia,” Bollettino Archivio G. Pinelli, no. 13 (August 1999); Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background; Maurizion Antonioli et al., Dizionario biografico degli anarchici italiani; Roberto Gremmo, “La ‘Cronaca Sovversiva’ di Galleani, le ‘bande armate’ di Raffaele Schiavina e la bomba del giovane anarchico Musso,” Storia Ribelle, no. 18 (2005)

Adolph Ivanovich Schnabel (Адольф Иванович Шнабель; Adolf; Schnabel-Delass; Sznabel; Schnabel)

Born 1882, Kharkov, Russia (present-day Ukraine), to German parents. Machinist; sailor. During the Russian Revolution of 1905-1907, involved in socialist organizations in Ukraine. Migrated to US 1907. 1913 married Helena Ring in Philadelphia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers at least as early as 1913. Edited multiple URW newspapers; national secretary of the URW before Peter Bianki. Arrested Chicago June 1917 for “circulating literature opposing the draft,” dismissed for lack of evidence. Arrested in Duquesne, Pennsylvania for holding a street meeting without a permit. Caught and recovered from influenza in 1919. Arrested February 1919 in New York for deportation. Released on bail and reported to be “wandering around over the states of New York and New Jersey organizing anarchistic clubs.” Back on s Island, took part in hunger strike to protest conditions. Deported on the Buford. Wife, Helena (Helen), petitioned to be deported to Russia as well as an anarchist; unclear if she was. In Russia, Adolph was active in anarchist organizations in Ukraine, then left the anarchist movement; 1931 joined the Communist Party. 1937 arrested in Moscow as an alleged German spy and shot in mass execution.

INS file 54616/29

See also: Freedom (New York), October-November, 1919; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America; https://anarhia.club/forum/viewtopic.php?p=363546; https://ru.openlist.wiki/%D0%A8%D0%BD%D0%B0%D0%B1%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%8C_%D0%90%D0%B4%D0%BE%D0%BB%D1%8C%D1%84_%D0%98%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87_(1882)