Tag Archives: Hungarian

Faces of the First Red Scare

As part of the ongoing research for my book on the global history of immigrant radicals who were deported during America’s First Red Scare, I have posted brief profiles of 761 (and counting) individual deportees I have identified. This list is a work in progress, and some entries will be updated as I obtain additional sources.

Who is included:

This list includes radicals and suspected radicals who were deported between 1918 (following America’s entrance into the First World War) and 1925, when the last of the foreign-born radicals arrested between 1917 and 1920 were expelled, some after serving prison sentences. It includes both those who were deported by government order and those who were ordered deported but “voluntarily departed” at their own expense with the government’s consent (both categories were included together in US government deportation statistics). It does not include those who fled the country to avoid arrest or deportation. It includes both individuals deported for belonging to legally-defined “anarchistic classes,” and others who were suspected of radicalism but deported on other grounds (most commonly for entering the country without inspection or being retroactively deemed “likely to become a public charge” at the time of their entry).

This is not a complete list. In the fiscal years (June-July) 1918-1926, the United States deported 979 aliens as “anarchists,” and an unknown number of additional radical immigrants under other statutes. The largest single group of deportees, composed of 242 alleged radicals (as well as seven unrelated deportees) departed on the USAT Buford on December 21, 1919. However, it appears that no complete list of Red Scare deportees was produced by either the Bureau of Immigration or the Bureau of Investigation. I have instead had to rely on partial lists and mentions of individual cases included in these organizations’ files, congressional testimony, radical publications, newspaper reports, and other sources.

How to use this site:

Profiles have been posted in small batches. They are organized in alphabetical order by last name, followed by alternate spellings and pseudonyms in parentheses. (The Cyrillic spellings of Russian names are generally my best guess; American sources from the era were wildly inconsistent in their spellings of such names. The same is true of the transliteration of Chinese names in the Roman alphabet.) You can also browse the Index of Names.

Birth years are often approximate, usually having been calculated from an individual’s age at the time of their examination by immigration authorities, and some may therefore be off by a year.

You can search by individuals’ nationalities (country of birth and, in some cases, ethnicity [i.e. Jewish, Lithuanian, etc.]) by using the tags above.

Occupations describe the individuals’ employment in the US, not necessarily the work they engaged in before arrival or after their deportation.

Political affiliations represented include the syndicalist Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), the anarcho-syndicalist Union of Russian Workers of the United States and Canada (URW); the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM); anarchists unaffiliated with larger organizations; the Communist Party of America (CP); the Communist Labor Party (CLP); the Socialist Party of America (SP); the Socialist Labor Party (SLP); and unaffiliated socialists. You can search by political affiliation by using the tags above.

You may also use the “Search” box at the top of the page to look for individual names, locations, etc.

The main sources used for compiling these profiles are case files from the Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), Record Group 85, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC; the Old German Files (OG) and Bureau Section Files (BS) of the Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Record Group 65, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD (as digitized at fold3.com); and (for Italians) the Casellario Politico Centrale (CPC), Archivio Centrale dello Stato, Rome, Italy.

A special thanks to Molly Thacker, who photographed dozens of INS files for me; Malcolm Archibald, who has translated a number of Russian-language sources; D.J. Alperovitz, who has provided photographs of several IWW members; and the dozens of other archivists, translators, activists, and colleagues who have helped me locate, acquire, and read material from across the globe while undertaking this research.

Finally, if you have additional information about any of the deportees, or spot an error, please contact me!

Galeotti to Gazeyog

Alba Galeotti (born Giuseppina Genisio; Galleoti)

Born 1867, Canischio, Italy. Housewife; laborer. Migrated to US circa 1902. April 1902 married coal miner Killo Gotti in Lafayette, Missouri. She adopted the common anarchist name Alba (“Dawn”), and named her children Idea (i.e. “L’Idea” of anarchism) and Ravachol (after the French anarchist of the same name). By 1908 she was contributing funds and writings fo the Italian-American anarchist newspapers Cronaca Sovversiva and La Questione Sociale. Also in contact with anarchists in Italy, including Aldino Felicani (future treasurer of the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee), and raised funs for the antimilitarist anarchist newspaper Rompete le file! (Break Ranks!) in Milan. Separated from Gotti (who died in 1913); in 1909 married anarchist coal miner Guglielmo Galeotti (“William Galleoti”). Lived in various mining towns in Kansas and Illinois. Named their children Ferrer (after martyred Spanish anarchist educator Francisco Ferrer) and Germinal (after Émile Zola’s radical novel about French coal miners, Germinal). Reportedly deported as an anarchist in 1916 but returned to illegally to the US. Arrested 1920 with Guglielmo Galeotti; she escaped custody while he was deported. 1921 she collected money for the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee. Arrested 1923 in Schulter, Oklahoma. Ill and fasting when detained, she refused to eat for 33 days and was declared “insane” and force-fed. Deported January 10, 1924. Her children were left in the care of their eldest sibling, Ida (Idea) Gotti, now age 21. Subsequent activities unknown. Died 1940 in Turin.

See also: Ancestry.com; Cronaca Sovversiva, May 31, 1913; Financial Report of the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee (1925); Jennifer Guglielmo, Living the Revolution: Italian Women’s Resistance and Radicalism in New York City, 1880-1945; Caroline Waldron Merithew, “Anarchist Motherhood: Toward the Making of a Revolutionary Proletariat in Illinois Coal Towns,” in Women, Gender, and Transnational Lives: Italian Workers of the World; Henryetta Daily Stanard (Henryetta OK), January 1 and 2, 1924; Henryetta Standard (Henryetta OK), January 3 and January 7, 1924

Guglielmo Galeotti (aka William Galleoti)

Born 1871, Santa Sofia, Italy. Miner. Anarchist by late 1880s. Considered by Italian authorities to be “extremely dangerous” and “one of the most actives subversives of S. Sofia, capable of fomenting disorder.” Arrested and imprisoned repeatedly between 1888 and 1902. 1898 fled to Switzerland, but deported in 1901 and arrested on (unfounded) suspicion of being an accomplice to the assassination of King Umberto I. Briefly emigrated to Trieste, but expelled. Migrated to US 1902. Lived in various mining towns in Pennsylvania, Kansas, and Illinois; leading figure in Kansas anarchist Gruppo 11 Novembre. 1909 married fellow anarchist and deportee Alba Genisio, with whom he had two children named Ferrer (after martyred Spanish anarchist educator Francisco Ferrer) and Germinal (after Émile Zola’s radical novel about French coal miners, Germinal). 1911 left with other members of the Gruppo 11 Novembre to join forces of the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano in the Mexican Revolution, but quickly disillusioned with the PLM and returned to US. Deported February 19, 1920. Under surveillance in Italy, but in 1935 reported to have “left politics” and “oriented himself towards the regime for which he now shows sympathy.”

CPC busta 2236

See also: Ancestry.com; Michele Presutto, La rivoluzione dietro l’angolo: Gli anarchici italiani e la Rivoluzione messicana, 1910-1914; Henryetta Daily Stanard (Henryetta OK), January 1, 1924

Luigi Galleani

Born 1861, Vercelli, Italy. Editor. Became anarchist while studying law at the University of Turin; left before finishing degree. Fled police to France in 1880; migrated to Switzerland where worked for anarchist geographer Élisée Reclus on his La Nouvelle Géographie universelle. Arrested and expelled; returned to France; deported to Italy. 1894 arrested for anarchist activities and served five years in prison and internal exile. While confined to island of Pantelleria met his wife, Maria. Escaped Pantellaria in 1900 and fled to Egypt, then England. Migrated to US in 1901 with an invitation to edit the anarchist newspaper La Questione Sociale in Paterson, New Jersey. Leader of 1902 general strike of silk workers in Paterson, where indicted for inciting riot and fled to Canada, then Barre, Vermont, where founded newspaper Cronaca Sovversiva. Moved paper to Lynn, Massachusetts; Galleani became the leading Italian anarchist proponent of violent acts of insurrection and revolt. Deported June 1919, leaving wife and six children in the US (only his daughter Cossyra would later rejoin him in Italy). Immediately arrested upon arrival in Italy, but released a day later after maritime workers’ union threatened to strike on his behalf. Relaunched Cronaca Sovversiva in Turin in 1920. Involved in armed resistance movement and evaded warrant for his arrest for two years; turned himself in 1922 and sentenced to 14 months imprisonment for sedition. Maintained contact with comrades in US and fellow deportees, but suffered increasingly from diabetes. 1926 arrested again and sentenced to two years in prison, followed by two years of internal exile. Allowed to return to mainland, but under surveillance until his death in 1931.

INS file 54235/33; CPC busta 2241

See also: Ugo Fedeli, Luigi Galleani: quarant’anni di lotte rivoluzionarie (1891 –1931); Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background; Roberto Gremmo, “La ‘Cronaca Sovversiva’ di Galleani, le ‘bande armate’ di Raffaele Schiavina e la bomba del giovane anarchico Musso,” Storia ribelle 18 (2005): 1657-67; Antonio Senta, Luigi Galleani: The Most Dangerous Anarchist in America

Alexander Gallod (Alex; Golod)

Mason. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Regelio Garcia (Roglio)

Members of Spanish-speaking Los Corsarios Group, including Garcia, 1919

Born 1894, Quibicano, Cuba. Cigar maker. Migrated to US 1903; became anarchist circa 1917. Member of Los Corsarios Group which published anarchist paper El Corsario. One of 14 members arrested in New York, February 1919, by Secret Service on baseless allegations of plotting to assassinate President Wilson. All charges dropped, but several members, including Garcia, held for deportation as anarchists. When asked why he had failed to apply for naturalization in the US, he replied, “I do not even believe in my own country.” US-born wife, Blanca Fernandez, and 9-month-old child. Deported April 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/79

Isso Gartner (aka Imre Geery or Geerry)

Born 1895, Kassa, Hungary (present-day Košice, Slovakia). Jewish. Jeweler. Migrated to US 1911. A socialist in Hungary, he joined the Socialist Party of America in Baltimore; did not align with either side in 1919 split between Left and Right. Conscientious objector and opposed WWI draft. Attempted to unionize Baltimore jewelry workers in International Jewelry Workers Union (AFL), then arrested May 1918 for allegedly “stealing a number of gold rings” from a former employer and sentenced to six months imprisonment. Subsequently Interned at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, as an “enemy alien.” Suffered from “tuberculosis of the hip and is on crutches.” Deported May 1920 upon release of internees on basis “That he believes in the overthrow by force or violence of the Government of the United States” (a patently unsubstantiated charge). Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/38

See also: Baltimore Sun, May 23, 1918; Jewelers’ Circular-Weekly, July 10, 1918

Jack Gaveel (J. G. Gaveel; aka Jackotonsky, Jacknowsky, Jakov Zukatansky)

Born 1889, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Migrated to England 1905; returned to Netherlands 1910 and migrated to Canada that same year. Joined IWW 1913 in Canada. 1914 secretary of IWW Local no. 339, Edmonton, Canada. Migrated to US 1915. 1917 included in federal indictment of IWW leaders, but dropped before case went to trial. IWW delegate in Los Angeles, where “active in organizing the Austrian and Croatian fishermen.” Arrested April 1921 and sentenced to 1-4 years under California’s criminal syndicalism law. In San Quentin, refused to work in prison jute mill, declaring: “I have never scabbed on my class outside of prison, and I won’t do it inside.” Sent to solitary confinement, sparking sympathy strike of thirteen other imprisoned IWW members. Deported to Canada 1924; subsequently deported from Canada to The Netherlands. 1925 in Hamburg, Germany, where became supporter of the Soviet Union and the Red International of Labor Unions (RILU). Living in Amsterdam in 1926. After WWII worked for Stichting Pelita, a foundation dedicated to aiding migrants from the former Dutch East Indies in The Netherlands. In 1951, receiving IWW literature from US and supporting the Dutch anarchist movement. 1960 (at age 71) wrote to the Industrial Worker and recalled he could still sing most of the songs from the union’s Little Red Song Book; also wrote: “I wish I were in America. I’d join you in the fight then.”

FBI file BS 186701-240

See also: Industrial Worker, June 11, 1921 and August 5, 1922; San Francisco Examiner, August 2, 1922; Daily Worker, February 23, 1925; Daily Worker (special magazine supplement), February 28, 1925; http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/rapportencentraleinlichtingendienst/data/IndexResultaten/IndexVensterResultaat?persoon=Gaveel%2C+J.G.; Jack Gaveel Correspondence, Industrial Workers of the World Collection, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University.

Fred Gazeyog (Gazeyek, Gazeycg)

Born 1895, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to the US 1911. Employee at B. F. Goodrich. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Akron in 1916; became secretary of that branch. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/535

Kabas-Tarasyuk to Karniski

Ivan Kabas-Tarasyuk (Иван Кабас-Тарасюк; John Tarasuk, Tarasyk, Tarasiuk; Vanaya Kabas-Tarasyuk; aka John T. Rasky, John Tarasky)

Born 1893 or 1897, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Ukrainian. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in 1916. Arrested December, 1917 in Akron, Ohio, for attempting to organize a strike of rubber workers; released on bail. Became secretary of Baltimore URW branch. Arrested again March 1919. Deported on the Buford. In Russia, became active in anarchist Nabat Federation in Kharkov; arrested and imprisoned November 1920. Arrested again October 1921 and sentenced to 2 years for anarchist activities; transferred to Ryazan labor camp. Escaped via the Black Sea (possibly to Crimea), but returned to Russia 1922. Arrested 1925 for organizing an illegal anarchist group and sent to internal exile in Arkhangelsk. 1926 exiled to Petropavlovsk for 3 years for corresponding with anarchists abroad. 1929 exiled to Tashkent for 3 years.

INS file 54235/157

See also: G. P. Maximoff, The Guillotine at Work: Twenty Years of Terror in Russia (Data and Documents); Boris Yelensky, In sotsialn shturem: zikhroynes fun der rusisher revolutsie; http://lists.memo.ru/d14/f460.htm; https://ru.openlist.wiki/%D0%9A%D0%B0%D0%B1%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%8C-%D0%A2%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%8E%D0%BA_%D0%98%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD_%D0%92%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%B8%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87_(1893)

Luka Kachanov (Лука Качанов, Katchanov, Kachanow, Katchanos)

Born 1899, Gukovo, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1917 (jumped ship). Joined Bristol, Connecticut branch of the Socialist Party of America; joined Union of Russian Workers in Hartford, Connecticut. Arrested December 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/614

Samuel Kadatsky or Kodatsky

Member of the Communist Party of America. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported to Russia December 23, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

See also: Butte Daily Bulletin, December 29, 1920

Paul Kalach

Member of the Communist Party of America in Detroit. Deported to Russia January 6, 1921. No further information found.

FBI file OG 388114; included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Josef Kalenezcicz (Kalenczicz)

Upholsterer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Ivan Kalenov (Иван Каленов, John Kaleanoff, John Chaljin)

Born 1897, Kubasovo, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. 1917 joined the Union of Russian Workers, for which he was a “volunteer organizer” and frequent chairman of, and delegate to, organizational meetings. Member of the Workers’ Defense League. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/231

George Kaltejika

Born 1890, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Wife in Russia. Member of the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919, in Youngstown, Ohio. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/199

Stepan Kaminsky (Степан Каминский, Steve Kaminsky)

Kaminsky’s URW membership card

Born 1896, Podolia, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Machinist. Migrated to US 1914. Joined the Elizabeth, New Jersey branch of the Union of Russian Workers in 1919; taught arithmetic classes for URW; also joined the IWW October 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/158

Ivan Kamisoruk (John; Komisaruk)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Samuel Kanovich or Kanonovich (Сэмюэл Канович or Канонович, Kanowich)

Born 1891, Vilna, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Migrated to US 1911. Member and secretary of the Perth Amboy, New Jersey branch of the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested New York, December 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/649

John Kanter

Deported to Hungary, May 8, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Gust Karniski (Густ Карниски)

Born 1886, Vilna, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Polish. Laborer. Migrated to US 1906. Married and had child in Chicago. Joined Socialist Party of America; likely later transferred to Communist Party (though he denied this). Arrested April 1921 by “two citizens” for distributing “anarchistic literature” (May Day circulars published by the Communist Party of America). “Voluntary departure” May 4, 1923. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 55009/73

Kirson to Konavalchuk

Beril Kirson (Boris; Barnet; Barnett; Kirzon)

Born 1872, Mogilev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Jewish. Sailor; carpenter. 1914 migrated to England; 1916 migrated to Canada then back to England. Migrated to US 1917 (jumped ship). Wife and four children in Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Buffalo in July 1919. Also a member of the Workers’ International Industrial Union. Arrested in first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/144; FBI file OG 8000-378509

Joseph Kish (Kiz; Kis; Kiss; Kism)

Born 1889, Aranyosgyéres, Hungary (present-day Câmpia Turzii, Romania). Laborer. Migrated to US 1911. Widower, three children living with his mother in Hungary. Joined Hungarian Federation of the Socialist Party of America circa 1912. Also joined IWW in 1919. Arrested in Cleveland and sentenced to thirty days in workhouse for disturbing the peace at 1919 “May Day riot.” Arrested again July 1919. Immigration Inspector in Charge in Cleveland wrote: “this alien has been confined in the County Jail at Cleveland for nearly nine months under conditions which are highly undesirable. The Cuyahoga County Jail is very old and unsanitary, and is so badly crowded that persons are lucky if they do not have to remain in their cells at least twenty-two (22) hours out of the twenty-four (24) of the day.” Deported March 21, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/236

Nikolai Kizer (Николай Кизер; Nick)

Born 1896, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1915. Alleged to be secretary of the Union of Russian Workers branch in Hartford, Connecticut. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919, as was his cousin, Peter Kizer. According to the Bureau of Immigration, “In some manner Peter Kizer was taken to Ellis Island rather than Nick Kizer, for whom a warrant of deportation had been issued. Nick was left in the city jail in Hartford.” The error was discovered at Ellis Island and Peter Kizer was apparently eventually released (although one source claims he was mistakenly deported). Nikolai was deported January 22, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS files 54709/160 and 54709/265

See also: Bruce B. Sherbert, “The Palmer Raids in Connecticut, 1919-1920,” Connecticut Review 5, no. 1 (1971)

Nikolai Klemiatov (Николай Клемятов; Nicholas Klemiatoff; Kleminatoff)

Born 1891, Vilna, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Joined the Socialist Party of America in Pittsburgh and in 1919 transferred to the Communist Party of America. Arrested October 1920. Deported February 1, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54885/48

Efim Kochovetz (aka M. Berisoff)

Born 1888, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1907. Joined Union of Russian Workers in New York in 1914; later became secretary of New London, Connecticut branch and taught arithmetic classes in its school. Arrested in Hartford, Connecticut during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/161

Efim Kolesnikov (Ефим Колесников; John Kolesnikoff; Joachim)

Kolesnikov (center, standing) with other URW members arrested in New York, November 7, 1919

Born 1880, Kursk, Russia. Ship reamer. Widower. Migrated to US 1912. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in New York in 1919. Arrested and beaten during first Palmer Raids, November 7, 1919, the Russian People’s House in New York. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/454

Jim Komar (or Jonar)

Born 1879, Chernihiv, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and two children in Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in 1919. Arrested Youngstown, Ohio during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/544; FBI file OG 378979

Pavel Konavalchuk (Paul)

Machinist. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Makliarchuk to Manninger

Lazar Makliarchuk (Matliarchok)

Deported to Russia February 1, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Ivan Malash (Иван Малаш; John)

Born 1891, Aleksandrovka, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1913. Mason; laborer. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Norwich, Connecticut, in November 1919. Arrested at his home in Yantic, Connecticut, February, 1920. Deported January 22, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/10; FBI file OG 353738

Vasily Malevsky (Василий Малевский; Wassily Maliewsky)

Born 1898, Khomsk, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Machinist. Migrated to US 1914. April 1919 joined the Union of Russian Workers in Newark (however, evidence suggested he may have been a member as early as 1917). Arrested during a raid on URW headquarters in Akron, Ohio during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/536

Karl Malmstrom

Born 1897, Ystad, Sweden. Laborer. Migrated to Argentina 1915, then to US later that year (without inspection). Joined the IWW in Portland, Oregon, December 1916. Arrested February, 1917 in San Francisco for distributing IWW literature and sentenced to 60 days; arrested in Seattle in 1918 on the same charge; arrested March, 1919 in Everett, Washington and held for deportation. When asked, “You do not desire to become a citizen of this country?” he answered: “Never…I am a citizen of the world.” Also stated: “For the workers to get industrial freedom, I would pick up arms at any time…Just like in Russia—do away with the parasites.” Deported June 29, 1919 (as “likely to become a public charge”). Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/34

Ustin Manko (Устин Манько; Austin; Justyn)

Born 1894, Kherson, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Machinist. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Bridgeport, Connecticut in May 1919. Arrested February 1920. Married Julia Chervenak while being held on Ellis Island, May 11, 1920. Deported January 22, 1921; accompanied by Julia. Son born in Ukraine. Suspected of Bolsheviks of being a “spy”; migrated with family in 1924 to Turkey, then France (where daughter born), then Mexico (where another son born). US-born Julia returned to US 1928 and regained her US citizenship 1932; brought children to US 1933, but Ustin had to remain in Mexico City. Unsuccessfully petitioned to rejoin family; deemed “insane” by US consulate in Mexico; in his letters to his family he became increasingly paranoid and incoherent. Died in Mexico City, 1976. Ustin (“Austin Voronkov”) is the subject of the semi-fictional novel The Invention of Exile (2014) by his granddaughter, Vanessa Manko.

INS file 54861/146; FBI file OG 8000-382402

See also: https://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/what-happens-to-the-deported; Vanessa Manko, The Invention of Exile: A Novel; interview with Vanessa Manko, New York City, June 13, 2018

Pavel Manko

Deported to Russia January 22, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Julius Manninger (Julian; aka Julius Pichler)

Born 1896, Ponitz, Austria-Hungary (present-day Hungary). Laborer. Migrated to US 1909. Joined the Socialist Party of America, and attended a single meeting of the Communist Party of America. Arrested January 1920 in Fort Wayne, Indiana. Deported June 22, 1920 as an alleged member of the Communist Party of America. In February 1921 Assistant Secretary of Labor Louis F. Post “concluded that such deportation had been in error and under a misapprehension of the true facts.” Returned to US December 1921 (under his family name, Pichler); declared his intention to become a US citizen.

INS file 54859/122

See also: Hancock Democrat (Greenfield IN), January 26, 1922; Garrett Clipper (Garrett IN), January 30, 1922

Milligan to Molochko

William Milligan (aka Wilson)

Born 1874, Edinburgh, Scotland. Miner. Migrated to South Africa circa 1900; then Australia and Mexico; migrated to US circa 1901. Took out a declaration of intent to naturalize, but never did so, explaining, “I traveled all over the country and saw too much.” Joined the IWW circa 1910; also an admitted anarchist. Worked in mines and acted as IWW propagandists on both sides of US-Mexico border. Arrested in Deming, New Mexico, September 1919. Deported April 3, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/648

See also: The Deming Headlight (Deming, NM), September 26, 1919.

Anton Minarich (Tony)

Born 1891, Austria-Hungary (in present-day Croatia). Laborer. Migrated to US 1909. Worked for Ford Motor Company Hospital in Detroit. Joined South Slavic Branch No. 17 of Communist Party of America in 1919. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported to Yugoslavia June 19, 1920.

FBI file OG 387463

Yakov Minich (Яков Минич; Jacob; Jakow; Minicz)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Petr Ivanovich Mironovich (Петр Иванович Миронович; Mironovich)

Mironovich’s URW membership card

Born 1900, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1915. A member of the Union of Russian Workers in New York and then Hartford, Connecticut. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/527

______ Mirolyubov (Миролюбов)

A member of the Union of Russian Workers in Akron, Ohio. Deported to Russia. No further information found.

See: Probuzhdenie, January 1932 (with thanks to Malcolm Archibald for translating this source)

Simeon Misnik (Симеон Мисник; Semeon; Minnik)

Member of the Communist Party of America in Chicago. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. “Voluntary departure” to Russia, October 16, 1920.

FBI file BS 202600-153-1

Joseph Miss

Deported to Hungary, March 21, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Nicholas Mlaveransky (Mlaverausky)

Born 1894, Russia. Machinist. Migrated to US 1914. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Bridgeport, Connecticut in 1918. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids in November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/376

Ketia Fedrovich Molkowsky (Кетя Федрович Молковский; aka L. C. Marten; Leo Martin)

Born 1884. Laborer; fisherman. Arrested Seattle, September 1919. Deported on the Buford (as a contract laborer and as “likely to become a public charge”, but radicalism was “suspected”). Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/68 (file missing)

See also: Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, House of Representatives, Communist and Anarchist Deportation Cases

Aggi Molochko (Агги молочко; aka Mike A. Molaka)

Born 1889, Starobin, Russia (present-day Belarus). Millworker. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Norwich, Connecticut, circa October 1919. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported February 1, 1921.

FBI file OG 380828

Sastre to Scali

Manuel Sastre (Sustre; aka Manuel Sastre Garcia)

Born Pozaldez, Spain. Laborer; union organizer. Migrated to Panama Canal Zone 1908; migrated to US 1910. Joined the IWW in California 1911; organized Spanish-speaking workers in Southern California; led major citrus workers’ strike in Covina, January-February 1919; arrested and sentenced to 30 days in jail for assault. Arrested February 1919 for violating Espionage Act, but never brought to trial; deported later that year. 1932 living in in Málaga and subscribing to the anarchist magazine Estudios (Valencia). No further information found.

FBI file OG 8000-96994

See also: Nelson Van Valen, “The Bolsheviki and the Orange Growers,” Pacific Historical Review 22, no. 1 (1953); David M. Struthers, The World in a City: Multiethnic Radicalism in Early Twentieth-Century Los Angeles; Estudios: Generación Consciente, October 1932

Prokofen Savach

Deported to Russia, January 22, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals included in INS file 54325/36G

Sergei Savchuk (Сергей Савчук; Savshuk)

Born 1894, Russia. Longshoreman. Migrated to US 1912. Joined Branch No. 1 of the Union of Russian Workers in Baltimore in 1918. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/583; FBI file OG 376569

Mieczyslaw Savitsky (Мечислав Савицкий; Michael; Mike; Savitzki; Savitzky; Savitskey; Sevitsky; Sawicki)

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is image-21.png
Savitsky’s URW membership card

Born 1887, Lesnoy, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Polish. Machinist. Likely involved in anarchist movement in Russia before emigrating. Migrated to US 1911. Employed by Gould & Eberhardt in Irvington, New Jersey. A member of the organizing committee of the Newark branch of the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Participated in hunger strike on Ellis Island to protest installation of wire screen separating detainees from visitors. Deported on the Buford. In Petrograd, arrested June 1923 in raids on anarchists; imprisoned for seven weeks and participated with 14 other anarchists (including several other deportees) in a hunger strike; sentenced to two years internal exile in Pyatigorsk.

INS file 54709/348; FBI file OG 378917

See also: Behind the Bars (New York), January 1924; International Committee for Political Prisoners, Letters from Russian Prisons; G.P. Maximoff, The Guillotine at Work: Twenty Years of Terror in Russia (Data and Documents)

Petr Stepanovich Savko (Петр Степанович Савко; Peter; Sawka)

Deported to Russia, January 22, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Andrey Savruk (Андрей Саврук; Andrew Sawruk)

Born 1892, Austria-Hungary (somewhere in present-day Ukraine). Ukrainian. Typesetter. Migrated to US 1910. Joined the Socialist Party of America circa 1917; transferred into the Communist Party of America in Detroit in 1919. Deported to Hungary, May 8, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G; FBI file OG 385566

Timofey Saychenko (Тимофей Сайченко)

Deported to Russia, December 12, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Giuseppe Scali

Born 1874, Pisa, Italy. Laborer. By 1900 receiving and distributing anarchist publications; 1901 briefly migrated to Corsica, France; then settled in Carrara, Italy, where was the first editor of the anarchist newspaper Combattiamo! (1902-1904). 1903 migrated to Lucerne, Switzerland to avoid arrest for “defamation.” 1906 migrated to US, where resided until 1920, although he appears to have visited Italy repeatedly in these years. 1907 moved to San Francisco, where he collaborated on the individualist anarchist newspaper Nihil (1908-9) and joined the Gruppo Iconoclasti, which later became the anti-organizational Gruppo Anarchico Volontà and was closely aligned with Luigi Galleani and his newspaper Cronaca Sovversiva, which Scali distributed. October 1916 arrested with several other Italian radicals for “disturbing the peace” and sentenced to 90 days in jail. Arrested May 1918 in connection with raids targeting Cronaca Sovversiva; released on bail. When asked, “Have you ever advocated Anarchy, Mr. Scali?” he replied, “Yes, whenever I had a chance.” Detained again when he posted bail for fellow anarchist Michele Centrone; after a month wrote to anti-radical congressman Albert Johnson to expedite his deportation; deported June 19, 1920. In Italy under government surveillance until 1929; reportedly still an anarchist but not active politically.

INS file 54379/313; CPC busta 4652

See also: Cronaca Sovversica (1903-1920), passim; Maurizio Antonioli et al., Dizionario biografico degli anarchici italiani

Tadzizieg to Targony

Yefin Tadzizieg (Tadsixieg; aka Podziziej)

Born 1892, Brest-Litovsk, Russia (present-day Brest, Belarus). Belarusian. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Circa 1918 joined Branch No. 1 of the Union of Russian Workers in Baltimore, then transferred into Branch No. 4; became the brach treasurer. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/328

Hussein Tagiev (Хусейн Тагиев; Kussin; Gusein; Tagieff; aka Alexander Carson; Hussein Caucasian)

Born 1881, Nakhichevan, Russia (present-day Nakhichevan, Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic). Persian. Laborer; carpenter. Migrated to US 1914. Wife and two children in Russia. He was once hospitalized for six weeks in Newport, Kentucky, after he “fell down in some hot water in the Andrew Steel Co.” 1916 moved to Detroit, where employed as an autoworker and briefly opened a soft drink stand at River View Park. September 1917 joined the Union of Russian Workers. Arrested October 14, 1918 for distributing radical literature at an Armenian coffeehouse. The local U.S. Attorney took a special interest in his case; he ordered all of the confiscated literature destroyed, and paroled Tagiev on the condition that he purchase $100 in Liberty Bonds and cease patronizing Detroit’s “Turkish” coffeehouses—although he was told that since he could not speak Greek, he was free to “go to the Greek coffee houses.” Despite Tagieff’s compliance (which required him to borrow $50 from a friend), he was detained again in February 1919 as an alien anarchist and a person “likely to become a public charge” (after being forced to spend $100!). He was held incommunicado for a week, and immigration agents confiscated “a book in Persian that was 500 years old that he had prized” (likely a Quran or other family heirloom). Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/82

See also: Agnes Inglis Papers, Joseph A. Labadie Collection, University of Michigan

George Talas

Deported to Hungary, May 8, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

William Tanner (Karl William Tanner)

Born 1884, Kuopio, Finland. Mechanic. Migrated to Canada 1911; from there migrated to US in 1912 (though he later mistakenly claimed 1914). Became prominent Finnish member of the IWW; wrote for and edited Finnish-language IWW newspaper. Defendant at the federal IWW trial 1917-18; sentenced to five years in prison. An enthusiastic supporter of the Bolshevik Revolution, he apparently joined the Communist Party of America while in Leavenworth Penitentiary, and by 1919 promoted what he called “Bolshevism-IWWism,” or “industrial communism.” July 1922 his sentence was commuted on the condition of deportation. Because the “Government of Finland may raise objections to receiving this man and might refuse to issue a passport,” he was deported to Russia on the grounds that Finland had been a Russian territory at the time of his birth, and because Russia was willing to issue him a passport. Deported October 31, 1922. Upon his departure Tanner declared: “Deported to Soviet Russia, I will continue fighting under the red flag of the workers’ republic for the crushing of world imperialism and for the building of the republic of work. Long live the class solidarity of the proletariat and the red Internationals.” 1923 migrated to Finland. 1925 became a speaker for the Communist-affiliated Suomen Ammattijärjestö (Finnish Trade Union Confederation) and an organizer for the Communists’ Sosialistinen työväen ja pienviljelijöiden vaalijärjestö (Socialist Electoral Organization of Workers and Smallholders ). 1927-1930 a member of the Finnish Parliament, where he “manifested communist orthodoxy.” In late 1930 he returned to the Soviet Union, where he worked for the Comintern. In 1935 he was a lecturer at the International Lenin School and director of a Moscow watch factory; that same year he was arrested as part of Stalin’s purges and sentenced to five years in the gulag at the White Sea-Baltic Canal for “counter-revolutionary activity”; 1937 transferred to the Ukhta-Izhemsk Camp. Released 1940 and died that same year.

INS file 54616/153

See also: Ancestry.com; Industrial Workers of the World Collection, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University; Auvo Kostiainen, The Forging of Finnish-American Communism, 1917-1924: A Study in Ethnic Radicalism; Tommi Kippola, “Transnationell syndikalism i ett lokalt rum: Industrial Workers of the World och finländarna i Duluth 1915–1921” https://www.doria.fi/handle/10024/169623; https://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Tanner

Vasiliy Ivanovich Tarasyuk (Василий Иванович Тарасюк; Wasily; Tarasiuk; Tarasiak)

Photo of Tarasyuk and two friends

Born 1891, Kobrinsky Uyezd, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1910. Joined the Hartford, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers circa early 1919. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/525

Alex Targony (таргони)

Born 1896, Volhynia region, Russia. Polish. Driver. Migrated to US 1913. Worked as driver for a milk delivery company in Youngstown, Ohio. Political affiliation unknown, but in 1917 he claimed exemption on his draft registration card on the grounds that he would “not fight against brother.” Arrested sometime prior to January 9, 1920. Deported to Russia, January 22, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

See also: Ancestry.com