Tag Archives: WIIU

Faces of the First Red Scare

As part of the ongoing research for my book on the global history of immigrant radicals who were deported during America’s First Red Scare, I have posted brief profiles of 761 (and counting) individual deportees I have identified. This list is a work in progress, and some entries will be updated as I obtain additional sources.

Who is included:

This list includes radicals and suspected radicals who were deported between 1918 (following America’s entrance into the First World War) and 1925, when the last of the foreign-born radicals arrested between 1917 and 1920 were expelled, some after serving prison sentences. It includes both those who were deported by government order and those who were ordered deported but “voluntarily departed” at their own expense with the government’s consent (both categories were included together in US government deportation statistics). It does not include those who fled the country to avoid arrest or deportation. It includes both individuals deported for belonging to legally-defined “anarchistic classes,” and others who were suspected of radicalism but deported on other grounds (most commonly for entering the country without inspection or being retroactively deemed “likely to become a public charge” at the time of their entry).

This is not a complete list. In the fiscal years (June-July) 1918-1926, the United States deported 979 aliens as “anarchists,” and an unknown number of additional radical immigrants under other statutes. The largest single group of deportees, composed of 242 alleged radicals (as well as seven unrelated deportees) departed on the USAT Buford on December 21, 1919. However, it appears that no complete list of Red Scare deportees was produced by either the Bureau of Immigration or the Bureau of Investigation. I have instead had to rely on partial lists and mentions of individual cases included in these organizations’ files, congressional testimony, radical publications, newspaper reports, and other sources.

How to use this site:

Profiles have been posted in small batches. They are organized in alphabetical order by last name, followed by alternate spellings and pseudonyms in parentheses. (The Cyrillic spellings of Russian names are generally my best guess; American sources from the era were wildly inconsistent in their spellings of such names. The same is true of the transliteration of Chinese names in the Roman alphabet.) You can also browse the Index of Names.

Birth years are often approximate, usually having been calculated from an individual’s age at the time of their examination by immigration authorities, and some may therefore be off by a year.

You can search by individuals’ nationalities (country of birth and, in some cases, ethnicity [i.e. Jewish, Lithuanian, etc.]) by using the tags above.

Occupations describe the individuals’ employment in the US, not necessarily the work they engaged in before arrival or after their deportation.

Political affiliations represented include the syndicalist Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), the anarcho-syndicalist Union of Russian Workers of the United States and Canada (URW); the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM); anarchists unaffiliated with larger organizations; the Communist Party of America (CP); the Communist Labor Party (CLP); the Socialist Party of America (SP); the Socialist Labor Party (SLP); and unaffiliated socialists. You can search by political affiliation by using the tags above.

You may also use the “Search” box at the top of the page to look for individual names, locations, etc.

The main sources used for compiling these profiles are case files from the Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), Record Group 85, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC; the Old German Files (OG) and Bureau Section Files (BS) of the Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Record Group 65, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD (as digitized at fold3.com); and (for Italians) the Casellario Politico Centrale (CPC), Archivio Centrale dello Stato, Rome, Italy.

A special thanks to Molly Thacker, who photographed dozens of INS files for me; Malcolm Archibald, who has translated a number of Russian-language sources; D.J. Alperovitz, who has provided photographs of several IWW members; and the dozens of other archivists, translators, activists, and colleagues who have helped me locate, acquire, and read material from across the globe while undertaking this research.

Finally, if you have additional information about any of the deportees, or spot an error, please contact me!

Kirson to Konavalchuk

Beril Kirson (Boris; Barnet; Barnett; Kirzon)

Born 1872, Mogilev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Jewish. Sailor; carpenter. 1914 migrated to England; 1916 migrated to Canada then back to England. Migrated to US 1917 (jumped ship). Wife and four children in Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Buffalo in July 1919. Also a member of the Workers’ International Industrial Union. Arrested in first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/144; FBI file OG 8000-378509

Joseph Kish (Kiz; Kis; Kiss; Kism)

Born 1889, Aranyosgyéres, Hungary (present-day Câmpia Turzii, Romania). Laborer. Migrated to US 1911. Widower, three children living with his mother in Hungary. Joined Hungarian Federation of the Socialist Party of America circa 1912. Also joined IWW in 1919. Arrested in Cleveland and sentenced to thirty days in workhouse for disturbing the peace at 1919 “May Day riot.” Arrested again July 1919. Immigration Inspector in Charge in Cleveland wrote: “this alien has been confined in the County Jail at Cleveland for nearly nine months under conditions which are highly undesirable. The Cuyahoga County Jail is very old and unsanitary, and is so badly crowded that persons are lucky if they do not have to remain in their cells at least twenty-two (22) hours out of the twenty-four (24) of the day.” Deported March 21, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/236

Nikolai Kizer (Николай Кизер; Nick)

Born 1896, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1915. Alleged to be secretary of the Union of Russian Workers branch in Hartford, Connecticut. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919, as was his cousin, Peter Kizer. According to the Bureau of Immigration, “In some manner Peter Kizer was taken to Ellis Island rather than Nick Kizer, for whom a warrant of deportation had been issued. Nick was left in the city jail in Hartford.” The error was discovered at Ellis Island and Peter Kizer was apparently eventually released (although one source claims he was mistakenly deported). Nikolai was deported January 22, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS files 54709/160 and 54709/265

See also: Bruce B. Sherbert, “The Palmer Raids in Connecticut, 1919-1920,” Connecticut Review 5, no. 1 (1971)

Nikolai Klemiatov (Николай Клемятов; Nicholas Klemiatoff; Kleminatoff)

Born 1891, Vilna, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Joined the Socialist Party of America in Pittsburgh and in 1919 transferred to the Communist Party of America. Arrested October 1920. Deported February 1, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54885/48

Efim Kochovetz (aka M. Berisoff)

Born 1888, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Migrated to US 1907. Joined Union of Russian Workers in New York in 1914; later became secretary of New London, Connecticut branch and taught arithmetic classes in its school. Arrested in Hartford, Connecticut during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/161

Efim Kolesnikov (Ефим Колесников; John Kolesnikoff; Joachim)

Kolesnikov (center, standing) with other URW members arrested in New York, November 7, 1919

Born 1880, Kursk, Russia. Ship reamer. Widower. Migrated to US 1912. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in New York in 1919. Arrested and beaten during first Palmer Raids, November 7, 1919, the Russian People’s House in New York. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/454

Jim Komar (or Jonar)

Born 1879, Chernihiv, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and two children in Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in 1919. Arrested Youngstown, Ohio during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54709/544; FBI file OG 378979

Pavel Konavalchuk (Paul)

Machinist. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Orlov to Pankov

Mikhail Orlov (Михаил Орлов; Mike; Orloff)

Born 1889, Mogilev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Miner. Migrated to US 1909. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Homestead, Pennsylvania in 1915. Also a member of the United Mine Workers. “It is suspected…that alien is one of the moving spirits of the branch of the Union of Russian Workers which is thought to exist in the Bertha mines” in Morgantown, West Virginia. Received anarchist and IWW literature from Max Maisel’s anarchist bookstore in New York. Arrested December 1, 1919 (during miners’ strike). Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/608

Samuel Orlov (Самуил Орлов; Sam; Orloff)

Born 1889, Mogliev, Russia (present-day Belarus). Miner. Migrated to US 1912. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Mosessen, Pennsylvania, circa 1915. Also a member of the United Mine Workers. Arrested December 1, 1919 (during miners’ strike). Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/609; FBI file OG 8000-248688

Albert Osborn

Born 1898, Førde, Norway. Sailor; laborer. Migrated to US 1909 with step-mother to rejoin father. 1915 went to England as a sailor; returned 1916 (without inspection). Joined the IWW in Devil’s Lake, North Dakota in 1915, but during his inspection claimed “I don’t care much about them…I had to join, because it was a matter of joining them or getting beaten up in going around the country in the harvest fields…they throw you from trains going sixty miles an hour.” 1917 arrested in Everett, Washington for no registering for the draft; served 13 days in jail. Arrested May 23, 1918 in Seattle as an IWW member. Diagnosed as “insane” June 6, 1918 due to “dementia praecox” resulting from a head injury as a child.Deported September 20, 1919 (as “likely to become a public charge,” entering without inspection, and suffering from “insanity”). According to Commissioner General of Immigration A. Caminetti, “the charge against him does not arise, even remotely, from his connection with the I.W.W.” Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54414/81

Yakov Ozols (Яков Озолс; Jacob; Ozal; Ozols)

Member of the Russian Branch of the Communist Party of America in Philadelphia. Deported February 1, 1921. No further information found.

FBI file OG 8000-276616

Peter Paich (Paick)

Born 1897, Požega, Austria-Hungary (present-day Croatia). Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Socialist Party of American in Detroit and 1915, and the Workers’ International Industrial Union in 1918 in Lorain, Ohio. Arrested August 1917 in Lorain for distributing socialist literature and spent four days in jail; arrested April, 1918, for distributing socialist and anti-conscription literature; then interned at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, as an “enemy alien”; detained for deportation upon his release in September 1919; Deported May 8, 1920 (on the charge of being “likely to become a public charge,” as SP and WIIU membership did not meet the legal definition of a deportable “anarchist”). Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/474; FBI file OG 8000-203962

Alexandr Palukevich (Александр Палукевич; Alexander; Palukovich; Pavlukoich)

Communist Party of America member in Bayonne, New Jersey; deported to Russia December 23, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Pavel Panasuk (Павел Панасук; Paul; Panosik)

Member of the Communist Party of America in Chicago. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 2, 1920. “Voluntarily departed” to Russia October 10, 1920. No further information found.

FBI file BS 202600-149-1

Joseph T. Pandack

Deported to Yugoslavia August 1, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Dimitri Panko (Дмитрий Панко; Panco)

Born 1890, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Mechanic. Migrated to US 1914. Joined Branch No. 2 of the Union of Russian Workers in Newark, for which he distributed literature. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/112

Pavel Pankov (Павел Панков; Pual Panko)

Moulder. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4