Tag Archives: English

Faces of the First Red Scare

As part of the ongoing research for my book on the global history of immigrant radicals who were deported during America’s First Red Scare, I have posted brief profiles of 761 (and counting) individual deportees I have identified. This list is a work in progress, and some entries will be updated as I obtain additional sources.

Who is included:

This list includes radicals and suspected radicals who were deported between 1918 (following America’s entrance into the First World War) and 1925, when the last of the foreign-born radicals arrested between 1917 and 1920 were expelled, some after serving prison sentences. It includes both those who were deported by government order and those who were ordered deported but “voluntarily departed” at their own expense with the government’s consent (both categories were included together in US government deportation statistics). It does not include those who fled the country to avoid arrest or deportation. It includes both individuals deported for belonging to legally-defined “anarchistic classes,” and others who were suspected of radicalism but deported on other grounds (most commonly for entering the country without inspection or being retroactively deemed “likely to become a public charge” at the time of their entry).

This is not a complete list. In the fiscal years (June-July) 1918-1926, the United States deported 979 aliens as “anarchists,” and an unknown number of additional radical immigrants under other statutes. The largest single group of deportees, composed of 242 alleged radicals (as well as seven unrelated deportees) departed on the USAT Buford on December 21, 1919. However, it appears that no complete list of Red Scare deportees was produced by either the Bureau of Immigration or the Bureau of Investigation. I have instead had to rely on partial lists and mentions of individual cases included in these organizations’ files, congressional testimony, radical publications, newspaper reports, and other sources.

How to use this site:

Profiles have been posted in small batches. They are organized in alphabetical order by last name, followed by alternate spellings and pseudonyms in parentheses. (The Cyrillic spellings of Russian names are generally my best guess; American sources from the era were wildly inconsistent in their spellings of such names. The same is true of the transliteration of Chinese names in the Roman alphabet.) You can also browse the Index of Names.

Birth years are often approximate, usually having been calculated from an individual’s age at the time of their examination by immigration authorities, and some may therefore be off by a year.

You can search by individuals’ nationalities (country of birth and, in some cases, ethnicity [i.e. Jewish, Lithuanian, etc.]) by using the tags above.

Occupations describe the individuals’ employment in the US, not necessarily the work they engaged in before arrival or after their deportation.

Political affiliations represented include the syndicalist Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), the anarcho-syndicalist Union of Russian Workers of the United States and Canada (URW); the anarchist Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM); anarchists unaffiliated with larger organizations; the Communist Party of America (CP); the Communist Labor Party (CLP); the Socialist Party of America (SP); the Socialist Labor Party (SLP); and unaffiliated socialists. You can search by political affiliation by using the tags above.

You may also use the “Search” box at the top of the page to look for individual names, locations, etc.

The main sources used for compiling these profiles are case files from the Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), Record Group 85, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC; the Old German Files (OG) and Bureau Section Files (BS) of the Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Record Group 65, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD (as digitized at fold3.com); and (for Italians) the Casellario Politico Centrale (CPC), Archivio Centrale dello Stato, Rome, Italy.

A special thanks to Molly Thacker, who photographed dozens of INS files for me; Malcolm Archibald, who has translated a number of Russian-language sources; D.J. Alperovitz, who has provided photographs of several IWW members; and the dozens of other archivists, translators, activists, and colleagues who have helped me locate, acquire, and read material from across the globe while undertaking this research.

Finally, if you have additional information about any of the deportees, or spot an error, please contact me!

Arndt to Bagatchuk

Fred Arndt

Born Germany, year unknown. Construction worker; year of migration unknown. IWW organizer and delegate for Local No. 573 of Construction Workers’ Industrial Union, Seattle. Refused to register for the draft. Arrested during raid on Seattle IWW in February 1919; charged with “criminal anarchy.” Refused to answer questions. Interned at Fort Douglas, Utah as “enemy alien”; released on condition of “voluntary repatriation” and departed June 1919.

INS file 54616/32, FBI file OG 347754

Charles Ashleigh

Born 1888 or 1889, London, England. Clerk, laborer, union organizer, journalist. Middle-class upbringing; joined Independent Labour Party age 15, then Fabian Society and Social Democratic Federation; became a secretary for the Fabian Society 1908 and active in socialist Clarion Scouts movement. 1908-9 sent by ILP to agitate among coal miners in South Wales. 1909 migrated Buenos Aires for clerk position with Central Argentine Railroad; established Socialist Club and wrote for Buenos Aires Herald. Hiked from Argentina to Chile and Peru, then 1912 sailed as crew member from Peru to Portland where jumped ship (with collusion of captain) and regularized his status by crossing into Canada and back. Immediately employed as a paid speaker for Socialist Party of America, but soon left it for IWW, for which became a paid organizer. Traveled as migrant laborer, or “hobo,” throughout US and wrote poetry on behalf of IWW; involved in Rangel-Cline and Everett defense campaigns. Openly queer, he had a romantic relationship with African American radical poet Claude McKay. Arrested 1917 and defendant at federal IWW trial; sentenced to 10 years and $30,000 fine. Joined Communist Party in prison; 1921 sentence commuted on condition of “voluntary departure” in early 1922. In London transferred to Communist Party of Great Britain and on staff of Sunday Worker and Daily Worker, as well as TASS. September 1922 traveled to India to deliver invitations to Fourth Congress of the Comintern; detained and expelled by British authorities but managed to complete his mission. November 1922 in Moscow (with McKay) where worked as translator for Fourth Comintern Congress, then asked to start an “American information section in the RILU,” which transferred to Berlin 1923. Soon arrested in Berlin and expelled. 1930 published semi-autobiographical novel about IWW, The Rambling Kid. 1931 sent to Moscow to write for The Moscow News/Moscow Daily News; 1934 denounced by roommate as homosexual and expelled from USSR. Remained member of CPGB until his death in 1974, but on the margins of local party activity.

INS file 54235/39-A

See also: Steve Kellerman, “Introduction,” Charles Ashleigh, The Rambling Kid (2004); Kevin Morgan, Gidon Cohen, and Andrew Flinn, Communists and British Society, 1920-1991 (2007); Lisa A. Kirschenbaum, International Communism and the Spanish Civil War: Solidarity and Suspicion (2015)

Joseph Aukstuolis

Cook. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Aurelio Vincente Azuara (Vicente Azuara)

Born Spain, 1884. Laborer, miner, editor. Migrated to Mexico 1907, then to US 1912. Joined IWW 1913, became unofficial organizer for it. In Los Angeles, edited unofficial Spanish-language IWW paper El Rebelde (1916-17). Arrested Los Angeles September 1917; defendant at federal IWW trial; sentenced to 20 years and $10,000 fine. Sentence commuted on condition of deportation to Spain 1923. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/48

See also David Struthers, The World in a City: Multiethnic Radicalism in Early Twentieth-Century Los Angeles (2019)

Alfredo Bagaglino

Born 1868, Turin, Italy. Orphaned. Miner. Anarchist. 1904 expelled from France (reason unclear). Migrated to US 1907; miner in Spring Valley, Illinois, where lived with wife Domenica Cariglio and their adopted son. Supporter of Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva, Umanità Nova (Milan), and Alleanza Libertaria (Rome), and active in mining strikes. According to Chicago Immigration Inspector George E. Schubert, Bagaglino “is the actual leader and the most outspoken” of the Spring Valley anarchists, and “a forcible speaker and has command of the language and the high sounding phrases used by the present radical demagogues.” Deported March 1921; wife planned to sell home and join him in Italy. Maintained correspondence with Italian anarchists in US; 1926 arrested by fascist authorities and sentenced to several years “mandato al Confino” (confinement to a prison colony). Died Turin 1936.

INS file 54885/18; CPC busta 239

See also: Un trentennio di attività anarchica (1915-1945) (1953)

Simon Bagatchuk (aka Sam Bush)

Born 1888, Russia. Laborer; migrated to US 1913 (via Canada). Member of Seattle branch of Union of Russian Workers. Arrested Seattle, November 1919. Deported February 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 388850

Balick to Baritz

Vasiliy Balik (Василий Балик, Wasily Balick or Bilicki)

Born 1896, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Laborer; migrated to US 1913. Employee of Remington Arms Union Metallic Cartridge Company, Bridgeport, CT. Joined of Union of Russian Workers August 1919; arrested September 1919, Hartford, CT. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/389

Ugo Balzano

Born 1882, Castel di Sangro, Aquila, Italy. Typographer; migrated to US 1903; employed by mainstream Italian-American Cleveland newspaper, La Voce del Popolo Italiano. Anarchist; member Circolo Studi Sociali di Cleveland; distributor of Cronaca Sovversiva; publisher of anarchist paper L’Appello (1916-1917). Deported 1919. Arrested immediately upon return to Italy for avoiding the draft. Died Castel di Sangro, 1926.

INS file 54616/348; CPC busta 298

See also: http://bibliotecaborghi.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Cicolani-La-presenza-anarchica.pdf

Walter Banaczyk

Born 1901, Russia (likely in present-day Poland). Auto worker. Migrated to US with parents 1909; employee at Fischer Body. December 1919 joined Branch 37, Polish Section of the Communist Party of America. Arrested Detroit January 1920. Claimed Polish citizenship, but “voluntarily departed” to Russia 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI files OG 382042 and BS 202600-768-1

Peter P. Banaitis

Born 1899, Lithuania. Miner, laborer, toolmaker. Migrated to US 1911. Member International Union of Tool, Die, and Mold Makers; member Branch 37, Lithuanian Section of the Communist Party of America. Arrested January 1920, Chicago. Deported 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 382041

Daniel Bardaio

Born Russia, year unknown. Member Communist Party of America. Deported February, 1921. No further information.

Included in list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Moses Baritz

Moses Baritz, center

Born 1884, Manchester, England. Musician, journalist. Member Socialist Party of Great Britain; renowned (and feared) agitator and debater, able to quote Marx extemporaneously. He “made more than one journey to America,” and in Canada in 1911 helped found the tiny, “impossibilist” Socialist Party of North America. Migrated to US 1915 to avoid conscription; joined Socialist Party of America, then in 1916 in Detroit cofounded the small and more radical breakaway “Socialist Party of the United States” (which later became the Socialist Educational Society, the Workers’ Socialist Party, and finally the World Socialist Party of the United States). Arrested for anti-war speeches Seattle, 1918. “Voluntary departure” September 1918 to Australia, where debated IWW members, then expelled. Went to New Zealand, from which he was the first person expelled under the Undesirable Immigrants Exclusion Act. From there went to South Africa, then returned to England 1920, where resumed SPGB membership and became music critic for the Manchester Guardian; in 1924 also became “Britain’s first radio disc jockey.” Died 1938.

See: http://socialiststandardmyspace.blogspot.com/2014/09/death-of-moses-baritz.html; https://www.solidarityforeverbook.com/book/solidarityforever.pdf; Ian Angus, Canadian Bolsheviks: The Early Years of the Communist Party of Canada (2004); Karla Doris Rab, Role-Modeling Socialist Behavior: The Life and Letters of Isaac Rab (2010)

Canle to Chernyavsky

Juan Canle (John Canle; Canel)

Born 1895, Coruña, Spain. Laborer. Migrated to US 1911. Former member of IWW’s Marine Oilers, Firemen and Watertenders Union. Member of Spanish anarchist group El Ariete in Niagara Falls, New York. Arrested May 1919 with two other members for “alleged conspiracy to overthrow by force the Government of the United States” based on a manifesto they were distributing that called for revolution, but case thrown out by the judge. Deported as anarchist August 1920. Subsequent activities unknown, but may have later been active in anarchist movement in Argentina and/or Uruguay.

INS file 54709/16; FBI files OG 389193 and OG 8000-357909

Arthur Stanley Cattell (aka Kotel)

Born 1886, London, England. Plumber. Migrated to US 1911. Former member of the Socialist Party of America; member and treasurer of West Philadelphia branch of the Communist Party of America. Deported September 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54811/490; FBI file OG 380747

Michele Centrone

Born 1879, Puglia, Italy. Carpenter. Joined Socialist Party of Italy, 1897; gravitated to anarchists 1900. Migrated to US 1903. In San Francisco, collaborated on anarchist papers La Protesta Umana and Nihil; distributor of Cronaca Sovversiva. Member anarchist Volontá Group; secretary of Latin Branch of Local 95 of United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners (AFL). Arrested May 1918; deported March 1920. After Mussolini took power in 1922, Centrone returned to US via Mexico, but apprehended and deported again. 1924 fled to France; arrested and expelled 1928. Spent time in Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg; illegally returned to France 1931. Involved in antifascist exile organizations, including Giustizia e Libertà; implicated in plots to assassinate Mussolini; correspondent for US anarchist papers, including L’Adunata dei Refrattari. 1936, at age 57, volunteered to fight in Spanish Civil War as part of anarchist Ascaso Column. Killed in action August 28, 1936.

INS file 54379/330; FBI file OG 321621; CPC busta 1243

See also: Mario Gianfrate and Kenyon Zimmer, Michele Centrone, tra vecchio e nuovo mondo: Anarchici pugliesi in difesa della libertà spagnola

Antonio Cesco (Chesco)

Born 1884, northern Italy. Miner. Migrated to US 1908. Former Socialist Party member; anarchist; distributor of Cronaca Sovversiva. Member, United Mine Workers. Arrested Yorkville, Ohio, while in hospital with injured leg from mining injury. Deported February 1920. Not placed under surveillance by Italian authorities. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/401

Yakov Cewook (Yakow; Gewook; Tsiwuh)

Born 1886, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1911. Wife and two children in Russia. Joined Union of Russian Workers in Youngstown, Ohio, 1918. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/540

Alexandr “Sasha” Chernov (Александр Чернов, Alexander Chernoff; aka Vasiley Vasilitt; aka Lightner)

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Chernoff.jpg

Born 1896, Samara, Russia. Machinist. Migrated to US 1913. Member of both Union of Russian Workers and IWW; lecturer for URW. Arrested March 1919 in Waterbury, Connecticut, and sentenced to six months in prison for violation of the Espionage Act; after release “actively engaged in pernicious propaganda.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/117; FBI file OG 8000-363703

See also: Lazar Lipotkin, The Russian Anarchist Movement in North America

George Chernov (Chernoff; Chernove; Chernova; Obernoff)

Born 1893, Kherson, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Mechanic. Migrated to US 1913. Joined Branch no. 2 of the Union of Russian Workers in Detroit, 1917. Employee of Ford Motor Company, where arrested November 1919. Deported November 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/285

Ivan Chernyavsky (Иван Чернявский; John Cherniawsky; Chermiansky)

Chernyavsky’s URW membership card (which he attempted to rip up during arrest)

Born 1894, Vilnius, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Machinist. Migrated to US 1912. Member of Union of Russian Workers, in Jackson, Michigan. Arrested Detroit October 1918. Deported January 1921. Subsequent activities unknown; possibly anarchist Chernyavsky arrested in Petrograd 1923.

INS file 54709/465; FBI file OG 375427

Dixon to Dyachuk

Samuel H. Dixon

Born 1877, Sunderland, England. Sailor; baker. Migrated to US 1897. Joined IWW circa 1909; IWW delegate and organizer; secretary of Seattle IWW branch. Arrested “at least five or six times in connection with his I.W.W. activities.” As sailor, shipped to India, China, Japan, Singapore, Samoa, and the Philippines. Arrested Seattle, July 1918. Deported June 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/503

Wincenty Dmowski

Member of the Communist Party of America. “Voluntary departure” to Russia, 1920 or 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Peter Dolgay (Dolgag; Dowhay)

Born 1880, Vilnius, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Metal worker. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and three children in Russia. Member of the Union of Russian Workers in Youngstown, Ohio. Arrested August 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/543

Victor Dombrowski (Dombrivski; aka Douglas Dombrowski)

Born 1871, Telsha, Russia (present-day Lithuania). Laborer. Not radical in Russia. Migrated to US 1900. Arrested in Chicago circa 1914 and served 3 years in prison. Joined Socialist Party of America and IWW; left IWW 1918; then joined Communist Party of America in 1919. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920, in Chicago. Deported to Lithuania May 14, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI files OG 385518 and OG 388575

Harry Dorosh (aka Mike Dorash, Mike Smith)

Deported to Russia January 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS folder 54325/36G

Konstantin Demyanovich Draco (Константин Демьянович Драко)

Born 1888, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and son in Russia. Joined New London, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers, 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/373; FBI file OG 388601

Dionisy Drichetz (Dennis Drichitz)

Member of the Communist Party of America in Bayonne, New Jersey. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported to Russia, December 23, 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS folder 54325/36G

See also: The Morning Post (Camden, New Jersey), December 23, 1920

Sergey Drigov (сергей дригов; Drigoff)

Financial secretary of the Seattle branch of the Union of Russian Workers. Deported February 1921. No further information found.

FBI file OG 388594

Alexandr Dubarev (Александр Дубарев, Alexander Dubareff)

Deported to Russia February, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS folder 54325/36G

Ivan Dubov (Иван Дубов, John Duboff)

Born 1885, Feodorovka, Russia. Migrated to US 1912. First joined Union of Russian Workers in McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania, circa 1914; then active in branches in New York and then Detroit. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Told immigration agents, “Of course, I am an anarchist…I do not acknowledge any government.” Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/97; FBI file OG 381656

Petr Dubovik (Петр Дубовик)

Deported to Russia January 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS folder 54325/36G

Ivan Dudinsky (John Dudinsky)

Born 1889, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Date of migration to US unknown. Former member of the Russian branch of the Socialist Party of America, then joined the Communist Party of America. Arrested Newark, New Jersey. Detained for 101 days, while suffering from tuberculosis. Deported December 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54810/346

See also: Investigation of Administration of Louis F. Post, Assistant Secretary of Labor: In the Matter of Deportation of Aliens, Hearings, Sixty-sixth Congress, Second Session; Constantine Maria Panunzio, The Deportation Cases of 1919-1920; Beverly Gage, The Day Wall Street Exploded: A Story of America in Its First Age of Terror

Anton Dudka (Антон Дудка; Antonio; Tony)

Blacksmith. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Serge Dukhane

Deported to Russia, February 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS folder 54325/36G

Paul Dyachuk (aka Pavel Deonesieff)

Deported to Russia, February 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS folder 54325/36G

Graves to Gusko

Thomas Graves

Born Haverigg, England. Miner. Migrated to US 1913. One of the striking miners “deported” from Bisbee, Arizona to the New Mexico desert, July 1917. Joined IWW’s Metal Mine Workers Branch 65, Local No. 800, Bisbee, January 1918; became organizer for IWW and returned to Bisbee to reestablish IWW branch. Arrested May 1918 for “vagrancy.” Arrested 1918 in Globe, Arizona, for violating the Espionage Act. Again arrested Globe in April 1919. Deported June 1919. In a confiscated letter, Graves wrote to a friend, “I have been trying to figure our this democracy for a long time but the only answer that I can come to is if you don’t do as I tell you, you must go to the can, therefore I don’t want any more of it, and the sooner they send me back to the lands of the Kings the better.” Continued working as a miner in England, then circa 1929 migrated to colonial Rhodesia (present-day Zambia), where he “acquired a reputation as a gun-totting firebrand” and was a founding member and shop steward of a whites-only miners’ union. Migrated back to England in 1939 after “after being sacked for attempting to instigate a wildcat strike, threatening the mine manager and brutally assaulting an African miner (all in the same week).” Died 1966. 

INS file 54616/87

Additional information supplied by Duncan Money.

Pavel Grib (Paul; Gribb; Greb)

Born 1887, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Machinist, laborer. Migrated to US 1912. Wife and two children in Russia. Active member of the Union of Russian Workers branch in Seattle. Arrested February 7, 1920, as lumber camp near Ashford, Washington. Deported to Russia February 1921. No further information found.

FBI file OG 372555

Seodor Grigoreko or Grigorenko

Born 1895, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Migrated to US 1913. Joined Russian Branch No. 3 of Socialist Party of America in Detroit 1918, which then transferred into the Communist Party of America. Arrested Detroit during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported January 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 385764

Nikolai Grishko (Grishco; Nicholas Hrishco)

Born 1898, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Longshoreman. Migrated to US 1914. 1919 joined Russian Branch no. 1 of the Socialist Party of America in Baltimore; transferred into Communist Party of America, of which he became secretary. Arrested January 1920. Deported February 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI files OG 8000-383428 and 377436

Alfred Groener

Born Germany 1898. Laborer. Migrated to US 1914. Arrested Portland, Oregon, January 1918. Had two IWW pamphlets in his possession, but no evidence that he was a member. Interned as an “enemy alien.” “Voluntary departure” in exchange for release, June 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54379/80

Adolph Gross

Born 1860, Mainz, Germany. Jewish. Farmer; teamster; news vendor. Migrated to US 1882. Wife (Carrie Gross), seven children, two grandchildren in US. Anarchist; family lived at anarchist Home Colony in Washington since 1903. Opened a newsstand in Tacoma, Washington, circa 1918. Arrested late 1919; sentenced to 28 months in McNeil Island federal prison under Espionage Act for selling “seditious” literature (even though the war had already ended). Deported December 1921 (the oldest known Red Scare deportee), without being allowed to contact family or bring any money or belongings. Settled in Hamburg. His daughter reported in 1922: “it is killing him to live in idleness over there and he says unless he has a few hundred dollars he cannot do anything.” Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/406; FBI file OG 8000-381731

See also: Elizabeth Gurley Papers, Wisconsin Historical Society; The Nation, October 19, 1921

John Grunzweig

John Grunzweig

Born 1901, Schöndorf, Austria-Hungary (present-day Frumușeni, Romania). Laborer. Migrated with parents and siblings to US 1920. Joined Communist Party of America; father kicked him out of the house in Tonawanda, New York. Arrested during second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported May 1920, but when disembarked in Athens, Greece, arrested and put in jail for two weeks; Romanian consul refused him entry because his place of birth was not part of Romania at that time, and Hungary also denied he was a citizen. Released and worked odd jobs in Greece for three months, then stowed away on a Canadian-bound ship in Greece; jumped ship and traveled from Montreal to Tonawanda, where he lived with his father and was arrested May 1921. March 1922 ordered free on bail due to government’s inability to deport him. Labeled “A Man Without a Country” by the American press. By 1940 was a naturalized citizen. Died Buffalo, New York, 1984.

FBI files OG 388225 and BS 202600-1932

See also: Buffalo Times, December 13, 1922; https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/106691432/person/200183622090/story

Ivan Gushchia (Иван Гущя; John; Gushchla)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Ivan Gushchia (John; Gushchany; Gushia)

Gushchia’s URW membership card

Born 1897, Grodno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Joined Bridgeport, Connecticut branch of the Union of Russian Workers September 1919. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/380

William Gusko (Jusko)

Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Isaacson to Jackson

Gussie Isaacson (Gussie Itzickson; née Denenberg)

Born 1895, Pinsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Housewife. Jewish. Migrated to US 1906. Became anarchist in New York; involved in Francisco Ferrer Center. Common-law marriage to fellow anarchist Jacob Isaacson. After Jacob was ordered deported in 1920, she swore an affidavit that “I am an anarchist, and a believer and advocate of anarchism,” in order to be deported along with him. “Voluntary departure” to England, June 1922, with Jacob. Returned to US circa 1924 under maiden name, Denenberg. Naturalized between 1930 and 1940. When interviewed in 1970s, stated: “Anarchism is a way of life, no matter what your view is of human nature. No authority over you, no slaved under you–that’s the anarchist life.” Died 1983.

INS file 54616/202

See also: Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America

Jacob (“Jack”) Isaacson (Jacob Itzickson; aka Jacob Denenberg)

Born 1896, Libau, Russia (present-day Latvia). Laborer; locksmith; editor. Laborer, locksmith, editor. Jewish. Migrated to US 1908 with mother and sister. Became anarchist in New York; active in Francisco Ferrer Center, where he became known as “the Rabbi.” Helped publish Revolt (1916) and Freedom (1919). Common-law marriage to fellow anarchist Gussie Denenberg. Arrested May 1919 for antiwar article in Freedom, for which he took responsibility (although he was not the author). Indicted for violation of the Espionage Act (even though the war had ended); 1920 case dropped in exchange for a warrant of deportation. While on bail, he edited The Hotel Worker, organ of the syndicalist International Federation of Workers in the Hotel, Restaurant, Lunchroom, Club, and Catering Industry. “Voluntary departure” to England, June 1922, with Gussie. Returned to US 1924 via Canada, under wife’s maiden name, Denenberg. Opened grocery store in Washington DC. Naturalized between 1930 and 1940, but this brought his true identity to the attention of immigration authorities, who hounded him and threatened him with deportation, driving him to commit suicide in 1946.

INS file 54616/202; FBI file OG 281175

See also: Harry Weinberger Papers, Yale University; Paul Avrich, Anarchist Voices: An Oral History of Anarchism in America

Andrew Iswashko

Deported to Austria, September 1920. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

George Ivanov (Evenov)

Born 1889, Russia. Laborer. Member of the Communist Party in Bayonne, New Jersey. Deported December 1920. No further information found.

FBI file BS 202600-601

See also: Butte Daily Bulletin, December 29, 1920

Dmitry Ivanyuk (Дмитрий Иванюк, Dimitri Iwaniuk; aka James Nouvak)

One of the circulars Ivanyuk was distributing when arrested

Born 1882, Brodna, Russia (present-day Poland). Migrated to US 1912. Wife and child in Russia. Arrested April 1919 in Camden, New Jersey, for distributing radical circulars calling for a general strike on May First to free all political prisoners. His exact political affiliation is unclear. Arrested again November 1919 in Philadelphia. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54616/173

Jacob Jackotonsky (Jacknowsky; Jakov Zukatansky)

Born 1891, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Shoemaker. Migrated to US 1912. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Youngstown, Ohio in 1919. Literate and widely read. Arrested during first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/201

Herbert Harold Jackson

Born 1900, Hull, England. Sailor; laborer. Migrated to US 1917 (jumped ship). Joined IWW soon after arrival, in August 1917; arrested several times for IWW activities. “My reason for joining the I.W.W. was because I realized that I was not master of my own economic living and that I was opposed to being enslaved in the machine of production. I believe the worker is entitled to all he produces.” Arrested in Seattle, December 1918, for distributing IWW’s Defense Bulletin. Deported February 1919. Upon arrival to England, all IWW literature confiscated, placed under surveillance, and told not to speak in public. May 1921 migrated to Canada “intending in some way to reach the United States from there.” Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54547/15; FBI file OG 347558

See also: Rebel Worker, April 15, 1919

Martzin to McPherson

Mary Martzin

Wife of fellow deportee Vincent Martzin. Housewife. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Vincent Martzin

Born 1893, Russia. Migrated to US 1914. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in 1916. New York. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Pregnant common-law wife and infant child left behind in US. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/276; FBI file OG 378318

See also: Constantine M. Panunzio, The Deportation Cases of 1919-1920

Pietro Marucco (Peter; Marrucho)

Born Maggiora, Italy, circa 1885. Miner. Migrated to US circa 1900. Joined the anarchist “Demolizione” Group in Latrobe, Pennsylvania; a supporter of Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva. Arrested May 20, 1918. Deported February 22, 1919. Although reported to be in perfect health at the time of his deportation, he died at sea March 8, 1919. Officially the cause of death was “pneumonia following influenza” and he was buried at sea, but his comrades suspected that he was thrown overboard.

INS file 54379/378

See also: Paul Avrich, Sacco and Vanzetti: The Anarchist Background

Kazis Maskalunas (Казис Маскалунас; Kasimir Maskaljunas; Kaziz Maskilunas; Maskalunae)

Born 1894, Kovno, Russia (present-day Kaunas, Lithuania). Lithuanian. Lumber worker. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the Union of Russian Workers 1916; joined IWW 1917. Arrested January 1918 in Seattle when inquiring at US Immigration office after a friend who had been detained; held without hearing for three months and then transferred to jail in Ellensburg, Washington, where finally examined. Deported on the Buford.

INS file 54379/101

Bartolomeo Massullo (Massulo)

Born 1881, Bagnoli, Italy. Laborer. Already an anarchist in Italy. Migrated to US 1913. Wife and three children in Italy. Member of Seattle’s Circolo di Studi Sociali; distributed Luigi Galleani’s Cronaca Sovversiva and corresponded extensively with its leading figures. Arrested November 1917. Under interrogation, provided names and addresses of members of the Circolo. Deported July 10, 1919. Italian government surveillance reported no radical activities. 1923 emigrated to Canada, from there illegally reentered the US. 1932 he was living in San Francisco, but still not active in politics; removed from Italian list of “subversives” 1934.

INS file 54616/19

See also: Gianfranco Cresciani, “Exploitation, Emigration and Anarchism: the Case of Isidoro Alessandro Bertazzon,” Altreitalie no. 46 (January-June 2013)

William Matera

Deported to Russia February 2, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Pavel Matesky (Павел Матеский; Paul)

Weaver. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

James Maundeloe

Born 1895, Russia. Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. 1919 joined the Greensburg, Pennsylvania branch of the Union of Russian Workers, but claimed he was expelled when he briefly became owner of a butcher shop. Participated in 1919 strike at American Sheet and Tinplate Company. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/431

Donald McPherson (aka Edgar Dunn)

Born 1898, Leeds, England. Scottish. Sailor. Migrated to US 1913. Joined the IWW circa 1915. Arrested September 9, 1918 in Seattle. When asked about his thoughts on the Soviet government, replied: “It is all right.” At his second immigration hearing, he refused to answer any questions. Deported July 12, 1919. Subsequent activities unknown. (Note: Not to be confused with the Donald McPherson of the Sydney Twelve trial of IWW members in Australia.)

INS file 54517/54

Metcalfe to Miller

Sidney Metcalfe (Sydney)

Born 1893, Leeds, England. Laborer. Migrated to US 1906 (age 13) with family. Became a “hobo” laborer; “I had a thousand different jobs” in the US and Canada. Joined the IWW in 1916 in Salina, Kansas. Served one year in Pierce County (Washington) Jail for refusing to register for the draft–“In my estimation it was just an employers’ edict to go and fight for them.” Arrested in Tacoma, Washington, February 1919 while posting IWW stickers along waterfront. Deported June 21, 1919. Upon arrival asked if he intended “to carry on I.W.W. propaganda in England;” replied: “Yes, if conditions are no better than they were in America,” but later noted, “the real wobblies I have been deported with, seem to find no outlet for I.W.W. activities [in England].” Became admirer of socialist George Lansbury, and worked as a docker in Liverpool.

INS file 54517/88; FBI file OG 8000-382412

Nicholas Michels

Member of the Communist Labor Party. Deported to Hungary 1921. No further information found.

FBI file OG 381688

Frederik Michkov (Фредерик Мичков; Fred Mechcoff; Michcov; Mihaitch)

Deported to Russia January 22, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Kalenik Migura (Kalymnyk)

Born 1885, Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Northampton Heights (present-day Bethlehem), Pennsylvania, and became its secretary. Arrested February 1920. Deported January 22, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

FBI file OG 381865

Anton Mikelaychuk

Deported to Russia February 1, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 54325/36G

Nikolai Mikhaelov (Николай Михайлов; Nicholas Mihaeloff; Mikeloff; Michaelov; aka Peter Lund; Fritiak)

Born 1893, Petrograd, Russia. Sailor; machinist. 1914 enlisted in British Army; fought in France, where injured and discharged; returned to Russia 1915 and drafted into Russian Army; deserted 1916 and migrated to England, the US, Cuba, and then, in 1917, the US again. (According to another source, however, leader of an anarchist gang that took part in “expropriations” in Petrograd in 1916 and fled to US after two members killed and he was injured in the hand.) Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Newark; 1919 also joined the IWW. Arrested March 1919; released on bail; expelled from the URW after his common-law wife, Celia Fisher, “had made overtures to the Police of Newark to furnish information.” Nevertheless, he remained “anxious to return to Russia to take part in the over-throw of Lenine [sic] and putting in effect pure anarchy.” Deported on the Buford. Wife and seven-week-old child remained in US and requested to be allowed to leave for Russia.

INS file 54616/106

Grigory Mikhalevich (Григорий Михалевич; Gregory Michaelevitcz; Nicholavitch; Michailevich; Michalkovich)

Born 1886, Russia. Migrated to US 1910. Joined Russian Branch No. 6 of the Communist Party of America in New York. Deported December 23, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54859/199

Gavril Mikhnevich (Гаврил Михневич; Hawril Michnewitz; Michniewich; Gavrilo)

Mikhnevich’s URW membership card

Born 1886, Kremno, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1913. Wife in Russia. Joined the Union of Russian Workers in Hartford, Connecticut in August 1919. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/421

Julius Miller (Юлиус Миллер)

Laborer. Deported to Russia, February 26, 1921. No further information found.

Included on list of deported radicals in INS file 55110/4

Samuel Miller (Sholem Melamed; Schulim)

Born 1897, Kiev, Russia (present-day Ukraine). Jewish. Laborer. Migrated to US 1914. IWW; anarchist. Employee of Sears, Roebuck and Company. in Chicago. Arrested July 1917. When asked his nationality, replied: “Well, I am international. I don’t belong in any nationality. I am born of Jewish parentage in Russia.” Clarence Darrow acted as his attorney, and unsuccessfully argued that a “philosophical anarchist” and pacifist like Miller did not properly fall under anarchist exclusion laws. Deported December 23, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54235/36-A

Roberts to Roy

Vasily Roberts (Wasily; Robertz; Robetz)

Member of the Communist Party of America in Philadelphia. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported to Russia February 1, 1921. No further information found.

FBI file OG 382735

Jack Robey

IWW member arrested in Sand Point, Idaho, 1918; released then rearrested; deported October 28, 1919. No further information found.

See: One Big Union Monthly, March 1920

Alfred Robinson

Born 1893, Chislehurst, England. Laborer. Migrated to US 1905. Worked throughout the US and Canada. Joined the IWW’s Metal and Machinery Workers’ Industrial Union No. 300 in July 1919. Arrested in Detroit during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Deported March 27, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/578; FBI file OG 8000-385119

Konstantin Romanchuk (Константин Романчук; Konstan; Konstanti)

Born 1895, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Laborer. Migrated to US 1915. Joined the Union of Russian Workers branch in Bridgeport, Connecticut, circa July 1919; became its secretary. Deported on the Buford. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/396; FBI file OG 376791

Gavril Romanovich (Гавриил Романович; Gabriel)

Born 1896, Vilna Governorate, Russia (present-day Lithuania?). Laborer. Migrated to US 1915. Joined the Russian Federation of the Socialist Party of America; 1919 transferred into of the Russian Branch of the Communist Party of America; became secretary of its branch in Waterbury, Connecticut. Arrested March, 1920 during raid on branch headquarters. Deported February 1, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54709/462; FBI file OG 379909

Jesus Romo

Born in Mexico. Laborer. Year of migration to US unknown. Joined the IWW in Los Angeles February 1919 and immediately became a delegate for its General Recruiting Union, but was probably previously a member in Morenci, Arizona, where his father Cleofas and brother Guadalupe were also IWW activists. Arrested June 9, 1919, after distributing IWW literature outside of an employment agency. Stated that he “was born an anarchist.” Deported August 18, 1919. After his deportation, continued his IWW membership and organizing in Guadalajara, Mexico.

FBI file OG 363737

Angel Roncal

Born 1896, Spain. Reportedly “spent some time in South America.” Migrated to US 1916. Member of the Niagara Falls, New York branch of the IWW. Arrested September 1918 for failing to register for the draft; IWW literature discovered in his possession. February 1919 released from jail after five months without trial; immediately detained by immigration authorities for deportation. Deported circa July 1, 1920. No further information found.

See: Buffalo Commercial, February 1, 1919; Buffalo Times, February 20, 1919; Cattaraucus Republican, March 27, 1919; Buffalo Express, April 30, 1919; Illustrated Buffalo Express, June 22, 1919

Maxim Rosak (Максим Росак; Max; Roosak)

Born Russia. Former member of the Russian Federation of the Socialist Party of America in Philadelphia; 1919 transferred into the Communist Party of America. Arrested during the second Palmer Raids, January 1920. Deported February 1, 1921.

FBI file OG 379897

Savely Roshkov (Савелий Рошков; aka Charles Roshko)

Born 1893, Minsk, Russia (present-day Belarus). Machinist. Migrated to US 1912. Employed by Singer Manufacturing Company in Bridgeport, Connecticut; member of International Association of Machinists, Local No. 30; participated in 1919 wildcat strike. Member of the Union of Russian Workers branch in Bridgeport. Deported January 22, 1921. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54861/143; FBI file OG 382709

Mikail Rosnak (Микаил Роснак; Michael Rosnack; Bosnack)

Born 1897, Bukovina, Austria-Hungary (present-day Romania). Ukrainian. Blacksmith’s helper. Migrated to Canada 1913; expelled as an “enemy alien” and migrated to US 1917. 1919 joined Branch No. 6 of the Union of Russian Workers in Detroit. Arrested during the first Palmer Raids, November 1919. Testified that the detective who arrested him said he should be sent back to Russia, called him “worse than a nigger,” and gave him “a smash in the face.” Deported to Romania, March 17, 1920. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS file 54739/469

Janet Johnstone Roy (Jeanette; Janet Johnstone MacKay)

Born 1895, Milmathort, Scotland. Supporter of the Independent Labour Party before emigration. Laborer. Migrated to US 1916 with her sister, Margaret. Worked in Lawrence, Massachusetts, where joined the Socialist Party of America and then, in July 1917, Textile Workers Industrial Union No. 1000 of the IWW. Moved to Chicago where worked for the IWW’s bindery, then October 1918 moved to Seattle, where arrested with sister in police raid on IWW two days later. Married a Scottish-born Ian V. MacKay on January 21, 1919 to attempt to claim US citizenship and avoid deportation, but deported with her sister regardless on July 23, 1919. Migrated to British Columbia, Canada, where reunited with husband. Ian died 1941; she died in British Columbia in 1972.

INS files 54379/532 and 54379/532A

See also: Frances H. Early, A World Without War: How U.S. Feminists and Pacifists Resisted World War I; Heather Mayer, Beyond the Rebel Girl: Women and the Industrial Workers of the World in the Pacific Northwest, 1905-1924; Ancestry.com

Margaret Roy (Margaret Ray)

Born 1893, Milmathort, Scotland. Laborer. Migrated to Canada (via US) 1913; 1916 returned to Scotland to collect her sister Janet; 1916 migrated to US. Worked in Lawrence, Massachusetts, where joined the Socialist Party of America and then, in July 1917, Textile Workers Industrial Union No. 1000 of the IWW. Moved to Chicago where worked for the IWW’s bindery, then October 1918 moved to Seattle, where arrested with sister in police raid on IWW two days later. Married and US citizen named Alonzo Ray on January 21, 1919 to attempt to claim US citizenship and avoid deportation, but deported with her sister regardless on July 23, 1919. Subsequent activities unknown.

INS files 54379/532 and 54379/532A

See also: Frances H. Early, A World Without War: How U.S. Feminists and Pacifists Resisted World War I; Heather Mayer, Beyond the Rebel Girl: Women and the Industrial Workers of the World in the Pacific Northwest, 1905-1924